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Digital Minimalism as a Leading Limitation of Media Communications in the Heyday of Digital Culture

Digital Minimalism as a Leading Limitation of Media Communications
in the Heyday of Digital Culture
Maria Skivko*
Samara National Research University
Moskovskoye shosse 34, 443086 Samara
Russian Federation
Elena Korneeva
Togliatti State University
Belorusskaya str. 14, 445020 Togliatti
Russian Federation
Marina Kolmykova
Orenburg State University
Prospect Pobedy 13, 460018 Orenburg
Russian Federation
Abstract Digitalization today affects almost all spheres of human activity, including business and personal
communications. At the same time, individuals increasingly use restrictions on the media presence of their and others
in the space online. Such restrictions can be expressed in the form of a “digital dietas a partial restriction on online
communications and media consumption; in the form of “digital detox” as a temporary rejection of digital life, as well
as in the form of “media asceticism” as a conscious withdrawal into an offline environment.
Our paper defines digital minimalism in business and personal communications as the dissemination of digital
etiquette, certain behavioural practices in the media environment, as well as new digital terminology, which generally
sets the prospects for regulating media consumption and the further development of digital culture. The results highlight
the value of live communication as social capital that opposes the development and spread of digital relationships.
Keywords: digitalisation, digital minimalism, media communication, digital culture
1 Introduction
Nowadays, digitalization embraces many areas of human life and transforms many offline processes into online format.
Digital culture influences human interactions at the levels of business and personal communication. New digital media,
with its interactive character and hyper textuality, provides anyone access to information; moreover, the communication
obtains the global character and sets no limitations and no borders for media consumption (Sokolova 2012).
On the one hand, it becomes easier to connect with other people, exchange information, share ideas, to receive
the feedback. The media audience is proactive, with the opportunities to choose the content and the amount of media
information to consume. On the other hand, deep involvement and expanding dependence on digital devices provide
some problems in communication as online as well as offline; besides, the information overload leads to the feeling of
being overwhelmed by digital technology, to distraction increase and some emotional problems. The addiction to
gadgets is continuously increasing.
The idea of digital minimalism explores the possibilities to control and filter the information flows from the
online communication. The trend for digital minimalism is gaining popularity in business and private life; certain forms
of restrictions for media presence and media consumption create new terminology for the digital culture. Furthermore,
such a digital disconnectedness establishes specific digital behavioural practices and digital norms related to private
and business interactions online.
This paper explains the ways how digital minimalism can be presented in media communication with a focus
on business and personal communications. Mainly, the research within the time perspective on digital minimalism
Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research, volume 441
6th International Conference on Social, economic, and academic leadership (ICSEAL-6-2019)
Copyright © 2020 The Authors. Published by Atlantis Press SARL.
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investigates the practices to disconnect or to limit the media presence in the days of digital culture. In particular, the
research describes three opportunities to regulate media consumption within digital devices: i) the way to shortly reduce
it; ii) the way to temporarily filter the amount and the content; iii) the way to avoid using digital devices for a long
period. The paper highlights the value of live communication and promotes a controlled, conscious approach to media
consumption and digital limitation by establishing and supporting private and business relationships.
2.Literature review
Many studies about digital culture and digitalization explore the relations between culture and digital technologies. As
postmodernists (Baudrillard 2000; Jameson 2009), as well as the scholars from critical theory (Kroker and Weinstein
1994), ask questions regarding the character of relations between technological achievements and cultural values within
the digital space (de Beer et al. 2015). Moreover, the researchers from different disciplines conduct studies about virtual
spaces, relations of gender and power, the popularization of cybercommunities, subcultural identities, the domination
of technologies on the individualities, etc.
As Sergeeva (2016) denotes, at the time of digitalization, mass culture transforms into the digital mass culture
consisting of specific practices, values, and elements that are spread within the media presence and social networks.
Digital culture accelerates the diffusion and popularization of various cultural objects, values, and attitudes. Digital
culture sets new borders for interpersonal communication, on the other, by simplifying interactions in the virtual space,
on the other side, by involving different types of media content (text, audio, video, etc.) in the mass communication
Moreover, digital mass culture creates new cultural codes that can be transmitted from online to offline
communication as well as vice versa. The scholar argues that digital culture provides not only messages but contexts
of them; it improves the quality and the significance of messages and facilitates its further proliferation among different
social groups. However, the author mentions that in some cases, digital culture cannot wholly replace the offline mass
culture: for instance, in the case of emotions and impressions from the cultural consumption, the effect of the real
presence is much more valuable (Cabelkova et al. 2015).
Galkin (2012) argues that within digital culture gadgets are getting transformed from the auxiliary tool to the
digital influencer that regulates and coordinates human life. Such a technological imperative understood as inevitable
and essential technologies in human life overloads the natural capacities of human beings “to consume” the
information. That leads to the automatization and robotization of many processes of manufacturing and production.
The author proposes to consider the digital culture at the levels of material (digital devices), functional (social
institutions), symbolic (language), mental (mentality), and spiritual (social and cultural values) objects. Furthermore,
the core principle of digital culture, according to Galkin (2012), is a computing machine that adapts various cultural
codes in digital communication.
The process of digitalization also influences business communication and corporate culture. For instance,
Mamina and Tcareva (2018) claim that etiquette in the business sector takes place as in offline as well as in online
interactions. Digital etiquette incorporates social and cultural norms and values of interpersonal communication and,
at the same time, the technical and technological potential of the media sphere. Etiquette defines the social roles in
communication at the interpersonal and intergroup levels and regulates the interactions.
Within the development of digital communication at work, etiquette influences the digital space and digital
interactions and receives its new type, digital etiquette, for business communication. Digital etiquette includes the rules
of business correspondence, the behavioural (ethical) norms in web-communication as well as principles of user
interactions with gadgets. The scholars mention that, while in Russia, digital etiquette is still forming its significance
in the business sphere, in the USA, for example, there are already confirmed rules of digital culture regarding the use
of gadgets at work.
Digital culture provides new opportunities for social and vocational mobility, particularly for the new
generations (Nagornova and Chikin 2014). New forms of professional occupation (freelance, downshifting, work in
remote modus, individual mobility, etc.) appear due to the opportunities of digital communication. Furthermore, it
causes changes in the job market regarding the employer and employee expectations (working conditions, motivation,
Digitalization of mass communication and the development of digital culture reflect the interactions inside
organizations. For example, employees from different generations prefer different ways for business communication,
inside and outside the organization (phone, emails, messages, etc.). Those preferences influence the work hierarchy
due to the awareness and access to the digital technologies that may reflect the differences in the education system of
different generations (Chernykh and Parshikov 2016). Digital culture asks for some qualitative transformations in
Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research, volume 441
Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research, volume 441
personnel training, in the education system, at the job market, at the working places for additional motivation to deal
with digital culture (Gnatyshina and Salamatov 2017).
3.Types of digital minimalism: time-related perspective
Among the variety of names for the digital disconnection as well as of types for non-digital practices, three main ideas
in this research paper that distinguish digital minimalism regarding the time frame and the focus of communication.
The time perspective defines here not only the period but the intensity of involvement and the particular goal of digital-
free activities. The main focus of communication relates to personal and business interactions that lead to the creation
and establishment of behavioural rules and cultural norms in the communication process.
3. 1 Digital diet
The first type of digital disconnection is digital dieting: it means a reduction of media consumption for a specific
reason, for a limited period to achieve better, more qualitative results in certain activities. For example, to go for a
digital diet may be useful or even necessary while studying for creating better quality and results; it may also be relevant
during holidays and free time, in general, to switch off mobile devices. Furthermore, the digital diet may concern
business: personal (offline) meetings with clients can bring more profits as emailing, work meetings with switched-off
mobile devices can be more productive due to more concentration on work goals.
Daniel Sieberg, in his famous book “The Digital Diet: A four-step plan to break your tech addiction and regain
balance in your life” (2011), denotes that in the time of digitalization, individuals have less choice to become digital-
free and escape digital addiction. However, the author proposes some popular ways to deal with such an addiction in
modern times.
Brabazon (2012) describes the information excess due to the digitalization process with the language of food.
On the one hand, information availability leads to information literacy; on the other hand, to the information and media
gluttony, too. Moreover, such an information overload influences the quality of information consumed. The scholar
argues that the quality of information that is easy and quick to access and consume in the digital space can be compared
with the quality of fast food it is easy to order and fast to get anywhere, the nutrition effect can be completed but the
quality of such food compared to the home-made or good restaurant food makes a significant difference.
The most harmful effect of the information availability in the digital space, according to Brabazon, is the
decrease of consumer expertise. It is easier and faster to read an article from Wikipedia (generalized and collective
source) as from a scientific journal (approved results of a research); it is easier and faster (and cheaper) to order a
hamburger at the next corner as to go to the top-level (and expensive) restaurant or to cook at home.
The information consumption today can be compared with snacking: tasty, nutritious, and unhealthy. The
scholar claims that such a type of information consumption influences the quality of modern education while students
instead prefer easy and fast educational strategies as slow and more conscious learning models. Furthermore, Brabazon
(2012) proposes some ways to switch from information obesity to digital dieting as, for instance, using fewer media
sources in learning, increase thinking and interpreting instead as cutting and pasting main ideas, make sources choices,
and ensure the quality of media sources.
The experience with a technology-free entertainment program provides more fulfilling results for the
consumers. On the one hand, tourists actively use digital technologies and mobile connectivity for a better experience;
on the other side, temporary disconnection from the digital presence is much desired from tourists due to the differences
in the quality of tourism experience offline and online (Dickinson et al. 2016). Moreover, the overload of information
forces consumers to search for mobile-free holidays as a temporary disconnection from digital communication. It even
influences the tourism market by creating “digital dieting” tourism offers (restricted wi-fi areas or no wi-fi areas).
Last but not least, as an example of a digital diet can be considered the National Day of Unplugging (2020) as
a worldwide movement aiming to promote 24hours disconnection from digital devices with a perspective to become a
regular global practice. The organizers Reboot, the arts and cultural non-profit organization - share free toolkit for
those who want to organize such a digital diet action.
3. 2 Digital detox
The second type of digital minimalism is a digital detox practice. As detoxification of the body means removal of toxic
substances, in the same way, detoxification from digital consumption and media presence concerns some practices that
take much more time as a digital diet and aims “to reboot the system”, meaning temporary escape from information
overload from the digital devices.
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Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research, volume 441
In the private sphere, individuals use mobile devices for direct communication as well as for education,
information search, hobbies, and entertainment. At work, individuals also use (if it is not prohibited) digital devices as
for private reasons as well as for working tasks (to plan a meeting, to send an email, to contact a client or a colleague,
etc.). On the one hand, today, at the time of digitalization, it is essential to provide internet access and modern
technologies used for productive work and fruitful interactions. On the other hand, such a constant media presence
(even outside the working hours, at the weekends and holidays) harms the employers that is expressed in information
overload, nervousness, stress, burnouts, etc. Such an influence asks from employers and employees for a regulation
system that can facilitate conscious filtration of information flows, efficient time management.
One of the understandings of digital detox can be defined as a periodical disconnectedness from digital media
or even a reduction of digital media involvement (Syvertsen and Enli 2019). It relates media resistance but not the total
offline format of life; balancing between media presence and real life can bring awareness and consciousness to the
media consumers. Like an addiction, permanent online- presence and availability, even 24/7 connectivity, can bring
individuals to experiencing specific mental, physical, and psychological difficulties. Loss of context with real life and
real problems, different disturbances, anxiety, fear, nervousness – for such problems, there are already self-help and
scientific literature, training groups, psychologists, etc.
Moreover, phubbing as gadget and internet addiction can be expressed in the ignorance of other people in favor
of gadgets (Mamina and Tcareva 2018). Mobile devices and distribution of (mostly free) wi-fi connection strengthen
such an addiction and, as some scholars mention, threaten the education system and the social and cultural competences
worldwide. Due to this situation, digital detox aims to lower stress from online communication and teach to focus on
real (offline) communication as at work as well as in the free time. It is essential to mention that digital detox promotes
not the denial of modern technologies but the ability to filter the information and to control media consumption.
Shaev (2018) claims that in the era of digital culture, the visual content presented online increases the
information excess; the popularization of Instagram as the photo-based social network becomes the reaction of society
on the textual information glut. In the same way, video-bloggers threaten by its popularity and increasingly influential
role traditional blogs with texts as well as traditional video advertising.
Andreeva (2017) defines specific problems due to digital addiction and proposes some approaches for its
research. Firstly, digital addiction can be considered within medical studies; it leads to a low level of self-control and
aggression. Additionally, the emotional conditions of individuals can be directly affected by media presence and media
Secondly, from the psychological perspective, increased anxiety in society can also be considered as an effect
of digitalization. Thirdly, from the socio-economic point of view, mobile devices improve the educational level of users
and simplify interconnections; however, media presence can destroy the abilities to communicate offline.
Finally, as a reaction to the digitalization and as an answer for the digital minimalism practices, there is an
entrepreneurial solution, mobile apps that help to control media consumption, to manage everyday tasks, to track media
presence. That embraces mainly the start-up business sector: as in Russia as well as in the western world, many start-
ups work with internet technologies and mobile devices. It attracts investments and develops amazingly fast.
Additionally, the start-up ideas about digital detox incorporated in mobile apps increase popularity among conscious
Sutton (2017) provides an analysis of digital detox retreats and camps where people consciously disconnect
themselves from the mobile devices in order to come back for real communication, to feel less stress and anxiety, and
to “recharge” body and mind without digital culture. The scholar offers a “food/technology metaphor” as a framework
for interpreting the idea of detoxification applied to food and digital consumption.
3. 3 Media asceticism
The most radical way in digital disconnection is the complete denial of digital devices use. It supposes the critical
approach to the media use and critical position to the consumer society in general. A trend for media asceticism is
gaining attention from different social groups, even not yet become mainstream. It may be incorporated in the complex
of certain behavioural practices, mainly included in the practices of a healthy lifestyle. Some people disconnect
themselves from the wi-fi at work or home; others delete or deactivate personal accounts in social networks.
Some scholars mention that practices of digital diet and digital detox in western countries are effectively
developing (Solovyev and Belous 2014). Moreover, they are even incorporated as in the school/university education
in the form of art workshops, digital-free trainings, and events, as well as in the corporate culture in the form of
mindfulness practices, digital-free events, and mobile apps to control the media use. In Russian reality, such practices
are not yet institutionalized but obtain the potential to become a modern trend in the following years. Furthermore,
there is a significant difference in media use and media consumption in the megapolises and at the periphery. In the
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Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research, volume 441
Russian province, there is still a need for negotiation of the digital divide rather than already dealing with digital
Solovyev and Belous (2014) define freedom from internet dependency as a new way of luxury good: many
people today not only communicate but work online and earn money online. Thence, in order to get disconnected from
the online information flows and media presence means not only to communicate in real life but probably lose some
profits and clients. The scholar calls this practice as media snobbism and characterizes the elite class as that practicing
media asceticism as a symbol of higher class and stable income.
In the same way, the New York Times reporter Nellie Bowles (2019) defines personal interactions as a new
luxury good. The total expansion of digital devices transforms the price of real things and makes them costs less. So,
rich people try to avoid online-addiction as much as possible and aim to pay more, to invest in real (offline) objects,
emotions, experiences. It is a significant switch from possessing certain consumer goods as a symbol of high status
and wealth to denying the digitalization for the experiencing real life.
For personal communication, media asceticism means the different status of availability (only meeting in
person), privacy status (no information shared online), and restricted access to interactions (only in offline format). It
may positively affect interpersonal relations, improve the understanding level, but, at the same time, limit personal
connections due to the geographical distinctions. For business communication, media asceticism limits interactions
with clients and colleagues, too. However, it may improve the focus on business tasks and stimulate findings for digital-
free solutions in business communication that can bring extra profits and reputation for a company in the time of digital
The digitalization process obviously influences the character of online and offline communications. Digital culture
creates new cultural codes and norms of interactions due to the media presence and media consumption of individuals.
Some such codes and norms are commonly accepted worldwide, and others receive attention only in small groups of
media consumers. However, the digital minimalism trend is spreading the influence as in western culture as well in
Russian reality.
In the paper, there were three main types of digital minimalism presented. The first type, called a digital diet,
explains the short-term perspective of digital disconnection due to the everyday routine tasks and work or study
efficiency. It is often practiced in personal and business communications due to its simple principle and short but fast
The second type, digital detox, seeks long-term time investment as with an analogy with the body detoxification
process. It concerns the practices to control and filter media presence and media consumption and asks individuals a
conscious approach to the use of digital devices. As in private life as well as in the business, individuals can practice
digital detox in order to lower stress and burnouts feelings, for better bodily and mental health.
Finally, the third and the most complicated type, media asceticism, provides an idea to disconnect from digital
culture and digital lifestyle as a complex global trend. It asks for a strong attitude, conscious choice, and long-term
attendance and creates some limitations in communication in the time of digitalization.
Many scholars claim that any practice of digital disconnection needs some regulations from an individual and
from society. In some countries, there are already existing, institutionally provided methods and ways to regulate media
presence and media consumption. Individuals need to learn how to control themselves, how to deal with stress and
negative feelings while practicing digital disconnection. There are certain practices, specific literature, and working
groups, training that help people to deal with digital addiction today.
In Russia, those ideas are not yet mainstream but slowly and effectively developing according to the global
trend for digital minimalism. The institutional practices for digital disconnection in Russia would help individuals to
control and filter the information flows, improve communication skills, and improve work or study results. The
limitations of the use of digital devices in school, at university, at work would strengthen the value of real interactions,
emphasize the ability to communicate in real life as a component of social capital. Moreover, digital minimalism in
any environment would positively change human relationships and construct digital etiquette with a focus on specifics
of real communication.
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Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research, volume 441
All in all, this paper explains the idea of how to implement the practices of digital minimalism in personal and business
communication. Those practices have a big potential to become a global trend. However, there are certain limitations
and research questions that might be further developed in other studies.
For instance, digital addiction today has a mass character; people are much dependent on digital devices,
particularly young generations. Young people cannot imagine living in the world without an internet connection and a
mobile phone nearby. Thence, it seems to be difficult enough to popularize an idea of digital disconnection among the
young generation.
Furthermore, in the business sphere digital technologies play a significant role not only as a working tool to deal
with work tasks and manage ideas; digitalization embraces the areas of the financial sector and provide investments
for different kind of business structures. So, to provide an idea of digital minimalism (especially of media asceticism)
needs a fulfilled complex of arguments and alternative methods to work without digital dependence. Additionally, for
people working mostly via the internet, it might be almost impossible to get disconnected, which would mean to lose
income, clients, and even reputation.
Regarding the Russian reality, it is difficult to predict when and on which way the trend of digital minimalism
would attract the attention and interest of individuals. But it is already possible to denote that this trend will be
developing in the next years at the level of international companies presented in Russia as well as in the communities
practicing mindfulness ideas, healthy lifestyle, and conscious consumption.
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... Generally, digital minimalism can be described as restructuring the digital habits based on minimalism philosophy (Newport, 2019). This idea deals with both controlling the information provided by online communication (Skivko et al., 2020) and reducing the amount of time spent on digital devices. There are different ways for following digital minimalism strategy and it was tried to give a general framework in this study. ...
... Firstly, people can start to apply digital minimalism by reducing their media consumption (Skivko et al., 2020). In other words, information flow from different channels can be reduced gradually in this step. ...
... Some scholars compared this information with fast food and said that both of them are easy to consume but do not have sufficient nutrition effect (Skivko et al., 2020). As was mentioned in digital detox strategy, people can turn off notifications of applications that do not make a meaningful contribution to their lives; in other words, applications such as trivia games, social media platforms that distract people and waste time. ...
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... A positive digital footprint can be created using the results of this study, and here we are already talking about a conscious online identity: emphasizing dignity, carefully monitoring what is published, etc. When studying the formation of a positive digital footprint, it is necessary to remember about the digital culture, which is only just appearing among users of the Internet space (Skivko, Korneeva, & Kolmykova, 2019). ...
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This research explores the opportunities of tourism practices to answer fashion ideas and trends by reconsidering urban spaces and creating fashionable content. Moreover, it denotes the fashion input in tourism spaces and redefines spaces that were transformed due to the fashionable scenarios. Special attention will be given to the changes, possibilities and limitations, in both industries due to the pandemic of COVID-19. The case study methodology will be based on the reflection on the Russian tourism industry. By investigating the changes in tourism offers due to fashion trends influence, it will become possible to define key factors of fashion and tourism collaboration and space redefinition. Three ideas unify trends in the fashion and tourism industries today: i) Space redefinition-the ways to explore new tourism destinations and migration flows of tourists and fashion consumers who redefine spaces for fashionable practices; ii) collaborative instruments-new content for tourism practices complement the fashion industry to receive profits, benefits, followers, and inputs; for tourism industry , the fashionable scenarios bring city and place marketing and establish new touristic highlights and fashion capitals; iii) time perspective-the shift from mass tourism and overtourism to slow tourism practices and new experiences.
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Z Dijitalleşmenin, iletişim teknolojileri ile entegre olmasının ardından günlük yaşam dijital araçların egemenliği altında devam etmektedir. Bireyler, yoğun bir teknoloji sarmalında hayatlarını sürdürmekte ve günlük rutinlerinde yapmaları gereken işlerde bu teknolojileri kullanmaktadırlar. Geçmişten günümüze kadar gelen süreçte, her yeni çıkan teknolojiye karşı çekimser ve kötümser bir bakış sergilenmekle beraber, internet ile hayatımıza giren dijital araçlar kadar hiçbiri, insan yaşamında bu kadar etkili ve bağlantılı olmamıştır. Dijital araçlara karşı da başlangıçta olan önyargı zaman içerisinde kendisini bir alışkanlığa bırakmış ve bu araçlar, bireylerin hayatlarının ayrılmaz bir parçası haline gelmiştir. Dijital teknolojilerin sunmuş olduğu kolaylık, her an her yerde erişim sağlaması ve pahalı olmaması gibi avantajlı kullanım alanlarının dışında sürekli bağlantıda kalma ve kontrol etme dürtüsü bazı bireylerde dezavantaja dönüşerek bağımlılığa yol açmaktadır. Günümüzde bireylerin teknolojilerle olan sıkı ilişkisi, onları dijital bağımlıya dönüştürmeye başlamış ve bireyler, bu araçları amaçlı kullanmak yerine sürekli etkileşimde bulundukları bir araç haline getirmişlerdir. Son zamanlarda dijital bağımlıklardan kurtulma ya da önleme yollarından biri olarak dijital detoks, dijital diyet ve dijital minimalizm sıklıkla başvurulan yöntemlerdendir. Bu çalışmada, dijital bağımlılıklardan kurtulma ya da bağımlı olmayı önlemek adına dijital minimalizm bağlamında; bireylerin dijital araçları kullanırken minimalize ettikleri kullanım alışkanlıklarının olup olmadığının ortaya konulması amaçlanmıştır. Bu kapsamda, iletişim fakültesinde lisansüstü eğitim gören dört kadın ve dört erkek olmak üzere sekiz katılımcı ile yarı yapılandırılmış görüşmeler gerçekleştirilmiştir. Görüşmelerde, katılımcıların dijital araç kullanım sürelerinin bağımlılık derecesinde olduğu ve dijital araçları kullanırken teknolojik fayda ve zarar noktasında bir ayrım yapmadıklarına ulaşılmıştır. Aynı zamanda katılımcıların, boş zamanlarını bu teknolojileri kullanarak geçirdikleri ve teknoloji kullanımında bir önem sıralamasında bulunmayıp, dijital araçları kullanırken minimalize ettikleri bir kullanım alışkanlıklarının olmadığı görülmüştür. Çalışma sonucunda katılımcıların aslında birer dijital bağımlı oldukları ve bunu önlemek adına da hiçbir girişimde bulunmadıkları sonucuna ulaşılmıştır. ABSTRACT After digitalization is integrated with communication technologies, daily life continues under the dominance of digital tools. Individuals continue their lives in an intense technology spiral and use these technologies in the work they need to do in their daily routines. In the process from the past to the
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The aim of the study was to determine the significance of media technologies for early adults living in large urban Polish agglomerations and actively studying, working or operating in both areas at the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic. The exploratory and qualitative research was conducted during the first weeks of the first lockdown. Internet surveys with mainly open questions were conducted with people aged 18–40, living in the biggest Polish agglomerations. The study shows that media technologies played a key role in the lives of early adults at the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, but were valued very ambivalently. The support functions and burdensome influence of media technologies were determined. Support functions were mainly related to home duties and interpersonal communication. Remote working and education, as well as searches for and the sharing of information were ambivalent. In the area of self-care, media technologies were burdening users. The results indicate that the adaptation of users to the new situation led to consequences of a different nature (ranging from physical, mental, to social). It was observed that there was a sudden digital intoxication and maximization of opportunities and profits from task-oriented use of technologies, which were gained at a loss to individual well-being.
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A fascination for the authentic is pervasive in contemporary culture. This article discusses texts recommending digital detox and how these accentuate dilemmas of what it means to be authentically human in the age of constant connectivity. Digital detox can be defined as a periodic disconnection from social or online media, or strategies to reduce digital media involvement. Digital detox stands in a long tradition of media resistance and resistance to new communication technologies, and non-use of media, but advocates balance and awareness more than permanent disconnection. Drawing on the analysis of 20 texts promoting digital detox: self-help literature, memoirs and corporate websites, the article discusses how problems with digital media are defined and recommended strategies to handle them. The analysis is structured around three dominant themes emerging in the material: descriptions of temporal overload and 24/7 connectivity, experiences of spatial intrusion and loss of contact with ‘real life’ and descriptions of damage to body and mind. A second research topic concerns how arguments for digital detox can be understood within a wider cultural and political context. Here, we argue that digital detox texts illuminate the rise of a self-regulation society, where individuals are expected to take personal responsibility for balancing risks and pressures, as well as representing a form of commodification of authenticity and nostalgia.
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This paper tackles the issue of business influence on the mass media either via various forms of corruption or via the use of force and persuasion. In most capitalist countries, business communities attempt to exert their direct or indirect influence over journalists either directly or by purchasing the news and media companies. The authors of this article examine the role of factors that relate to the perceived influence of owners on journalists practices using the data from the Worlds of Journalism survey conducted in 21 countries in 2007-2011 and comprising over 2100 journalists from over 400 news organizations. The authors of this article found that in most of the countries from the sample, business organizations attempt to seize the control over the mass media with a purpose of ameliorating their positive role in the society and creating a favourable image of themselves. Moreover, the business influence on the mass media in some countries (e.g. Israel or Germany) is less ubiquitous than in the case of other countries (e.g. Chile, the Russian Federation, Pakistan, or Turkey). The journalists who work longer hours perceive more subjective influences from the owners; the more hours journalists spend on investigative reporting, the less influence from the owners they perceive; journalists, who typically work on specific stories as opposed to those covering different types of stories, perceive more influence from the owners; the more likely journalists accept money or presents from the people or institutions they cover, the larger is the subjective influence of the mass media business owners. © Vilnius University, 2002-2015 © Brno University of Technology, 2002-2015
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How do journalists in two formally authoritarian countries, the Czech Republic and South Africa, perceive the potential of media owners and other business people to infl uence their work? Multinomial ordinal regression analysis was applied to data collected in the Czech Republic and South Africa for the present 50 country-wide Worlds of Journalism (WoJ) Project. A total of 291 journalists in the Czech Republic and 371 journalists in South Africa were interviewed according to the WoJ protocol. Th ree aspects of media freedom, as perceived by the respondents, a r e discussed, namely the freedom journalists have to select news stories; to emphasize certain news aspects; and to participate in editorial discussion and decision making (news coordination). Th e results suggest that media owners as well as business people curb, but also support, journalists’ freedom in dealing with the news. In the Czech Republic, a country in the global North and a former member of the Soviet bloc, the results show the infl uence of media owners and business owners supports the freedom of journalists in selecting their own stories. More infl uence of business people is associated with more freedom of journalists in aspects emphasized in the stories and in the frequency the journalists participate in newsroom coordination. In South Africa, a former white minority-ruled country in the global South, the results suggest that the infl uence of media owners seems to lessen journalists’ freedom to select news and to emphasize certain news aspects, and coordination. Moreover, the perceived level of infl uence of business people in South Africa did not statistically signifi cantly relate to all three aspects of journalists’ freedom.
The idea of “going on a digital detox” arrives as a response to a proliferation of digital technology and a concern that this addictive form of sociality erodes meaningful or authentic connection. This paper explores concerns about our relationship with digital technology through a short ethnography of Camp Grounded: a Californian digital detox retreat and summer camp for adults. At Camp Grounded, digital detoxers conceptualise consumption of technology using a food parallel. While the brief connection or “snack” of a text message might temporarily satisfy, detoxers feel that waiting for a more nutritious face-to-face encounter will ultimately be more emotionally nourishing. This paper interrogates the food/technology metaphor to unpack its analytical limitations and the questions it prompts about the future of our relationship with digital technology.
Podhodi k issledovaniu tsifrovoy zavisimosti
  • L Andreeva
Andreeva L (2017) Podhodi k issledovaniu tsifrovoy zavisimosti [Approaches to research digital dependence].
The Vital Illusion, 1 st edn
  • J Baudrillard
Baudrillard J, The Vital Illusion, 1 st edn. (New York: Columbia University Press, 2000), 96 p.
Human contact is now a luxury good
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Bowles N (2019) Human contact is now a luxury good. New York Times. 23 of March 2019. Accessed 25 Mar 2020
Tsifrovaya kultura kak gumanitarniy fenomen
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  • V I Parshikov
Chernykh SI, Parshikov VI (2016) Tsifrovaya kultura kak gumanitarniy fenomen [Digital culture as a humane phenomenon].
Professionalnoe obrazovanie v sovremennom mire
Professionalnoe obrazovanie v sovremennom mire [Professional education in the modern world] 6(4): 601-607. doi: 10.15372/PEMW20160405