Article
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract and Figures

Satisfaction is one of the most studied constructs in many fields, including tourism. As an important marketing metric, satisfaction is typically measured with self-reported retrospective evaluations of travel experience. However, the memory-based approaches have numerous limitations related to social desirability, availability heuristics, previous knowledge, mood at the time of answering questions and do not reflect the moment-by-moment nature of visitor experience. The shortcomings and limitations of self-reported retrospective evaluations could be eliminated by introducing pre-visit, on-site, and post-visit instant components of experienced utility as measures of visitor experience. The experienced utility allows eliminating the majority of self-report biases, capturing the affective components of visitor experience, analysing relationships between anticipation, experienced, and remembered utilities, and applying emerging moment-based research techniques. Therefore, this manuscript proposes a measurable definition of experienced utility and appropriate measures to assess visitor experience.
Content may be subject to copyright.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... Fourth, the satisfaction construct that is used as a measure of experience does not reflect the negative customer perceptions of the service, as well as unable to evaluate the highest degree of customer satisfaction. Introducing new concepts in event research, such as experienced utility (Godovykh & Tasci, 2020), as well as an objective methodology of measuring affective components of attendees' perceptions, such as electrodermal activity, electrocardiography, pupillometry, event-related potentials, etc. (Stern et al., 2001;Wilhelm & Grossman, 2010) might 25 help to overcome some of the described limitations and capture the affective and dynamic nature of attendees' experience and perceptions. ...
Article
The recent situation with COVID-19 led to significant changes in the event industry and forced event planners to organize virtual events. However, virtual events are lacking social interactions and are characterized by lower levels of engagement. This study aims at exploring relationships between event types and attendees’ behavioral intentions using experimental design. The measurement model fit and constructs’ validity were assessed with Confirmatory Factor Analysis, while the study hypotheses were tested with the Structural Equation Modelling. The results demonstrate that event types have significant effects on attendees’ risk perceptions that influence attendees’ visit intentions. The study also revealed significant moderating effects of attendees’ age on the relationship between event type and visit intentions. The study provides important theoretical and managerial implications by introducing new factors affecting attendees’ behavioral intentions amid the COVID-19 pandemic, describing the relationship between risk perceptions and attendees’ behavioral intentions, and providing practical recommendations for event planners.
... The COVID-19 pandemic creates opportunities for developing new tourism systems. The current period of time is ideal to invite people to visit virtual destinations, which combine advantages of realism and immersion with opportunities to design new travel scenarios and apply different subjective and objective measures of the visitor experience [85]. One more promising direction of future interdisciplinary research in using virtual tourism experience is the exploration of important health [86], transformation [87,88], and wellbeing outcomes [89,90] of tourism activities. ...
Article
Full-text available
Virtual reality has become a more common phenomenon in both destination marketing and on-site experience. The recent challenges such as overtourism and the COVID-19 pandemic have created a pressing need to examine virtual tourism as an alternative to traditional travel. This conceptual article aims at clarifying virtual experience in tourism, discussing the main antecedents and outcomes of virtual experience, and proposing a conceptual model of virtual tourism experience. The review of the literature revealed that virtual experience in tourism is influenced by factors related to information, quality, technology acceptance, and affective involvement and has significant effects on tourists’ attitudes and behavioral intentions. This paper contributes to knowledge and practice by classifying the main groups of factors influencing virtual tourism experience, introducing the conceptual model, discussing opportunities for future research, and providing recommendations for tourism practitioners.
... Jenkins and Romanos (2014) described local artists' wellbeing through eudemonic components such as meaningfulness and purpose in life. In contrast, Godovykh and Tasci (2020b) introduced the experienced utility construct to measure hedonic pleasure or displeasure for the tourist experience. Several studies utilized the secondary data from the Human Development Index statistic as a proxy of residents' well-being and quality of life (e.g., Croes et al., 2018;Fu et al., 2020;. ...
Article
Well-being is considered one of the highest values in human life. Although previous studies have discussed the tourists’ well-being outcomes, the impact of tourism on residents’ happiness has received less empirical attention in tourism research. This study aims to explore the effects of tourism development on residents’ happiness in a group of countries by using panel data analysis. The results demonstrate that tourism arrivals negatively influence residents’ happiness in the short term and have positive effects on residents’ happiness in the long term. These findings contribute to describing the well-being impacts of tourism, differentiating between long- and short-term outcomes, and providing recommendations for destination management and tourism authorities.
... According to Godovykh, and Tasci (2020), there is a range of attitudes by which tourist behavior and end satisfaction can be impacted and determined in the general marketing literature review. According to Wu, (2016), emotional assessments of a product or destination are considered attitudes toward a product or destination since they are linked in the consumer's mind to affective connections such as positive, neutral, or negative sentiments. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study aims to proposed a framework of guest focused among resorts in Cagayan Valley Region, how does the new operation most likely be change or upgrade for new normal operations in the region, amidst the abrupt change of economy, to analyze the operating procedure for a new normal in the hospitality industry. The nature of the tourism industry such as resort, allows business to operate in to remote areas. Economically, tourism provides employment and wages that help to decrease unemployment and increase the circulation of money through the community. Thus, tourism specifically investing a resort means money for capital investment and local tax revenues. Tourist for example take with them their own peculiar tastes and standard of living, to which the investor must cater if expects, repeated business. In developing countries, the need to accommodate these special requirements often results the need for imported capital, imported technology or even imported management skills. Thus, some investors, as an opportunity, seek for incentives in local projects such as team building facilities designed to serve inbound visitor. Once built, the facilities become indispensable as economic asset. Quantitative method is the type of research in the study, participants of the data gathered was the customer, the owner and the LGU of Region. The quality of the service serves within the region on how to cope up in the new normal comparison of services before during and new normal due to pandemic. Sudden changes in hospitality decline the economic grow worldwide, thus in whatever circumstances a future plan was ahead of time, a lesson to learned that nobody knows it will happen, the researcher would like to recommend the region in partnership with LGU to work together to start fresh to encourage customers the safes way in general.
... This combination of technology, sustainability and community-development or risk-management enhances the overall visitor experience, boosting the satisfaction and safety perception from the travelers, motivating them to travel to that concrete destination, since combined methodologies have been applied, and they are perceived by tourists, capturing the affective components of visitor experience (Godovykh, & Tasci, 2020). But this way to engage with tourists through implementing mixed destination management strategies needs a real commitment from destinations to face their own current governance and resilience issues (Dredge, 2018), in order to anticipate potential major global challenges which could undermine the reputation of tourism destinations. ...
Article
Full-text available
We are facing the most unexpected situation in the travel & tourism industry: An industry that has shut down due to closed borders and confinements of entire cities, etc. (Qiu et al., 2020). In this paper, we want to share a suitable (feasible) way to empower destinations after the crisis caused by covid-19. To be able to leave this stage of health safety and security crisis behind, an involved collaboration between all the stakeholders is imperative. This includes actors from the public sector to the smallest private tourism companies, and it involves local citizens as well as the different social collectives. This collaboration must be based on an atmosphere of common trust that creates the foundations for paradigm of global recovery thinking but acting at a local level. This, in turn must take inspiration and action from the application of the sdGs, not leaving anyone behind, neither tourism industry professionals nor the social movements born as a result of this pandemic. It is time for using this 'glocal' vision to strengthen destinations.
Article
Understanding patient experience is crucial as it influences patient satisfaction, perceived quality of healthcare services, loyalty to physicians and providers, as well as patient health and well-being. However, the multidimensional, long-lasting, affective, and dynamic nature of patient experience demands using new metrics and emerging methodology for measurement. This research note aims to review the potential approaches to measuring patient experience in healthcare, provide a typology of patient experience metrics, and call for further research on evaluating patient experience and analyzing its effects on health outcomes.
Chapter
Full-text available
The most commonly described components of customer experience include cognitive and affective aspects. However, the subjective self-reported methods traditionally applied in tourism research cannot fully represent the instant, dynamic, and affective nature of customer experience. Therefore, there is a need for moment-based approaches and longitudinal methods in tourism research. The chapter provides a selective review of measures that can be used to assess the affective aspects of customer experience. Taking into account the advantages and limitations of each method, the integration of self-reported scales, moment-based psychophysiological techniques, and longitudinal methods should be considered the best approach to measuring affective components of customer experience in tourism. This holistic interdisciplinary approach will help researchers and tourism practitioners understand the relationship between affective and cognitive components of tourists' pre-visit, onsite, and post-visit experience, as well as evaluate the effectiveness of marketing campaigns, identify weak points of tourists' customer journey, and maximize total travel experience.
Article
Purpose The paper aims to identify the success factors that guide the sustainable development of rural tourism destinations in Cyprus. Design/methodology/approach For the purpose of this study, two rural villages in the Larnaca and Limassol districts of Cyprus were selected as a sample. Interviews, field visits, interactions with practitioners, the local community and leaders in these villages then followed. Thematic analysis was applied to identify the factors guiding the sustainable development of these villages. Findings Nine success factors were identified: finding the theme and engaging with it, allowing locals to guide the development, training and education, economic benefits, developing new products and services, community involvement, the role of younger people, strong leadership and island-wide efforts to rebrand Cyprus as a destination. These factors seem to be critical to the success of sustainable rural destinations and to rebranding Cyprus as a destination that offers authentic experiences. Originality/value The nine success factors identified by studying two villages in Cyprus can guide other rural destinations in finding their path to sustainable development through themes and authentic experiences.
Article
Full-text available
Background: This study examined the criterion validity of the online Active Australia Survey, using accelerometry as the criterion, and whether self-report bias was related to level of activity, age, sex, education, body mass index and health-related quality of life. Methods: The online Active Australia Survey was validated against the GENEActiv accelerometer as a direct measure of activity. Participants (n = 344) wore an accelerometer for 7 days, completed the Active Australia Survey, and reported their health and demographic characteristics. A Spearman's rank coefficient examined the association between minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity recorded on the Active Australia Survey and GENEActiv accelerometer. A Bland-Altman plot illustrated self-report bias (the difference between methods). Linear mixed effects modelling was used to examine whether participant factors predicted self-report bias. Results: The association between moderate-to-vigorous physical activity reported on the online Active Australia Survey and accelerometer was significant (rs = .27, p < .001). Participants reported 4 fewer minutes per day on the Active Australia Survey than was recorded by accelerometry (95% limits of agreement -104 - 96 min) but the difference was not significant (t(343) = -1.40, p = .16). Self-report bias was negatively associated with minutes of accelerometer-recorded moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and positively associated with mental health-related quality of life. Conclusions: The online Active Australia Survey showed limited criterion validity against accelerometry. Self-report bias was related to activity level and mental health-related quality of life. Caution is recommended when interpreting studies using the online Active Australia Survey.
Article
Full-text available
A considerable amount of literature describes concepts that predict theme park visitor behavior. Although previous studies made an effort to measure the impact of several variables on theme park visitors’ loyalty, there is a lack of empirical attention on the impact of some consumption variables such as previous experience, perceived queuing quality, waiting time, using of virtual queuing, and the role of anticipating and remembering the visit. The current study introduces several new experience concepts that were not previously discussed in the literature: the amount of pleasure from anticipation, visiting, and remembering the experience, and time allocation for waiting in lines, amusement activities, and food consumption. Factors that explain these variables, as well as factors that explain perceived value, queuing quality, satisfaction, and loyalty were investigated through survey data from a cross-sectional study. The results demonstrate that the previous theme park experience has a significant influence on customer loyalty and explains the amount of pleasure visitors receive from anticipation, remembering, and the actual visiting experience. Another important finding is related to the role of virtual queuing, which has relationships with perceived value, perceived waiting time, perceived queuing quality, satisfaction, loyalty, as well as the amount of pleasure from anticipation, visiting, and remembering the theme park visit. Theoretical and managerial implications and future research directions are discussed.
Article
Full-text available
This research investigates principles of judgmental heuristics and dual processing systems in the online purchasing environment. It examines the effects of availability cues in restaurant reviews on dining intentions and menu item choice. Two experiments are reported in which consumers make dining out and food choice decisions using simulated online review sites. The first experiment evaluates primacy–recency effects of positive and negative reviews along with different review types. The findings indicate that text plus ratings produce higher visit intentions and expectations compared with either cue by itself. The second experiment examines the effects of rating format, visual cues, and review valence on menu item choice. Pictures increase likelihood to choose a positively reviewed menu item but do not influence likelihood to choose a negatively reviewed item. This finding supports the negativity bias, whereby consumers place more weight on negative versus positive information. Consumers are more likely to choose a menu item with pictures when ratings are in numerical versus star rating format. The findings can be interpreted in terms of System 1 (heuristic) and System 2 (systematic) processing.
Article
Full-text available
Emotion is emerging as a central concept in tourism research, critical for the delivery of memorable tourism experiences. However, existing approaches in tourism do not adequately explain the process by which emotions are elicited. Recent advances in cognitive and neuropsychology demonstrate that emotions are elicited through an appraisal process, which occurs in the cortex of the brain. These processes produce chemical monoamine neurotransmitters that lead to bodily feelings, which in turn enable our brain to recognise emotions. This research note draws on Lövheim’s Cube, a self-report scale that provides a proxy indicator of the likely presence of monoamine neurotransmitters of serotonin, dopamine and noradrenaline. Six images of the Great Barrier Reef were used as a stimuli in an online panel survey (n = 1249). Results demonstrate that images used by tourism stakeholders are likely to produce stronger neurological reactions than images from an environmental non-governmental organisation. Combining recent advances in self-report methods with a neurocognitive approach has the propensity to offers additional insight into emotional reactions to visual stimuli. Further research should focus on the efficacy of utilising self-report measures with cutting edge psychophysiological techniques, such as ambulatory electroencephalography (EEG) to open the door to the next frontier in tourism emotion research.
Article
Full-text available
Uncertainty terms (e.g., possible) are words that are not fixed and hence open to interpretation. This research examined the role of social desirability in how these words are interpreted in self-report questions. Participants in Experiments 1 (N = 96; MTurk workers) and 2 (N = 96; college students) judged trait (N = 48) and behavior (N = 36) items endorsed by a hypothetical individual to be more likely if they were lower in social desirability. In Experiments 3 (N = 97) and 4 (N = 97) college student participants interpreted four different uncertainty terms (likely, possible, unlikely, and pretty sure) as indicating greater certainty when they referred to socially undesirable (relative to socially desirable) traits (N = 36) and behaviors (N = 24). These results suggest that participants may interpret self-report items differently, depending on the social desirability of the content.
Article
Full-text available
Purpose This review discusses concepts and theories from cognitive psychology, identifies tourism studies applying them, and discusses key areas for future research. The paper aims to demonstrate the usefulness of cognitive psychology for understanding why tourists and particularly pleasure travellers demonstrate the behaviour they exhibit Design/methodology/approach The paper reviews 165 papers from the cognitive psychology and literature regarding pleasure travel related to consciousness, mindfulness, flow, retrospection, prospection, attention, schema and memory, feelings and emotions. The papers are chosen to demonstrate the state of the art of the literature and provide guidance on how these concepts are vital for further research. Findings The paper demonstrates that research has favoured a behaviourist rather than cognitive approach to the study of hedonic travel. Cognitive psychology can help to understand the mental processes connecting perception of stimuli with behaviour. Numerous examples are provided: top down and bottom up attention processes help to understand advertising effectiveness; theories of consciousness and memory processes help to distinguish between lived and recalled experience; cognitive appraisal theory predicts the emotion elicited based on a small number of appraisal dimensions such as surprise and goals; knowledge of the mental organization of autobiographical memory and schema support understanding of destination image formation and change and the effect of storytelling on decision-making; reconstructive bias in prospection or retrospection about a holiday inform the study of pleasurable experience. These findings indicate need for further cognitive psychology research in tourism generally and studies of holiday travel experiences. Research limitations/implications This review is limited to cognitive psychology and excludes psychoanalytic studies. Practical implications Cognitive psychology provides insight into key areas of practical importance. In general, the use of a cognitive approach allows further understanding of leisure tourists’ behaviour. The concept of attention is vital to understand destination advertising effectiveness; biases in memory process help to understand visitor satisfaction and experience design; and so on. Use of cognitive psychology theory will lead to better practical outcomes for tourists seeking pleasurable experiences and destination managers. Originality/value This is the first review that examines the application of concepts from cognitive psychology to the study of leisure tourism in particular. The concepts studied are also applicable to study of travellers generally.
Article
Full-text available
Positive health behaviours such as physical activity can prevent or reverse many chronic conditions, yet a majority of people fall short of leading a healthy lifestyle. Recent discoveries in affective science point to promising approaches to circumvent barriers to lifestyle change. Here, we present a new theoretical framework that integrates scientific knowledge about positive affect with that on implicit processes. The upward spiral theory of lifestyle change explains how positive affect can facilitate long-term adherence to positive health behaviours. The inner loop of this spiral model identifies nonconscious motives as a central mechanism of behavioural maintenance. Positive affect experienced during health behaviours increases incentive salience for cues associated with those behaviours, which in turn, implicitly guides attention and the everyday decisions to repeat those behaviours. The outer loop represents the evidence-backed claim, based on Fredrickson's broaden-and-build theory, that positive affect builds a suite of endogenous resources, which may in turn amplify the positive affect experienced during positive health behaviours and strengthen the nonconscious motives. We offer published and preliminary evidence in favour of the theory, contrast it to other dominant theories of health behaviour change, and highlight attendant implications for interventions that merit testing.
Article
Full-text available
First, this paper introduces and axiomatizes range-dependent utility as a new conceptual framework for decision making under risk. It is a simple and well-defined generalization of expected utility theory in which utility depends on the range of lottery outcomes. Second, a special case of this framework is proposed for prediction. It is based on applying a single utility function (decision utility) to every normalized lottery range. The resultant decision utility model predicts well-known expected utility paradoxes without recourse to probability weighting. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the model to satisfy monotonicity with respect to first-order stochastic dominance are identified. The typical decision utility function, which is confirmed by both experimental data and normative considerations, is S shaped. This paper was accepted by Manel Baucells, decision analysis.
Article
Full-text available
This paper reviews various different questionnaires designed to measure customer response to a particular service. They differ on various criteria including the dimensions that they are trying to evaluate their established psychometric qualities and their usage. Recommendations for their use are made.
Article
Full-text available
This review provides an introduction to two eyetracking measures that can be used to study cognitive development and plasticity: pupil dilation and spontaneous blink rate. We begin by outlining the rich history of gaze analysis, which can reveal the current focus of attention as well as cognitive strategies. We then turn to the two lesser-utilized ocular measures. Pupil dilation is modulated by the brain’s locus coeruleus-norepinephrine system, which controls physiological arousal and attention, and has been used as a measure of subjective task difficulty, mental effort, and neural gain. Spontaneous eyeblink rate correlates with levels of dopamine in the central nervous system, and can reveal processes underlying learning and goal-directed behavior. Taken together, gaze, pupil dilation, and blink rate are three non-invasive and complementary measures of cognition with high temporal resolution and well-understood neural foundations. Here we review the neural foundations of pupil dilation and blink rate, provide examples of their usage, describe analytic methods and methodological considerations, and discuss their potential for research on learning, cognitive development, and plasticity.
Article
Full-text available
Although an objective and increasingly common technique in marketing, media and psychology, psycho-physiological measures are rarely used in tourism research to detect tourism consumers’ spontaneous emotional responses. This study examines the use of psycho-physiological measures in tourism and in particular explores the usefulness of skin conductance and facial electromyography methods in tracking emotional responses to destination advertisements. Thirty-three participants were exposed to three destination advertisements while their self-report ratings, real-time skin conductance and facial electromyography data as well as post hoc interview data were obtained. The results demonstrate that, compared with self-report measures, psychophysiological measures are able to better distinguish between different destination advertisements, and between different dimensions of emotion. Participants’ affective experience reported in post hoc interviews was found to be consistent with emotional peaks identified from continuous facial electromyography and skin conductance monitoring. These results validate the ability of psychophysiological techniques to capture moment-to-moment emotional responses and it is concluded that psycho-physiological methods are useful in measuring emotional responses to tourism advertising. Methodological insights regarding the constraints associated with the use and application of psychophysiological methods are discussed.
Article
Full-text available
Tourism is an experience-intensive sector in which customers seek and pay for experiences above everything else. Remembering past tourism experiences is also crucial for an understanding of the present, including the predicted behaviours of visitors to tourist destinations. We adopt a longitudinal approach to memory data collection from psychological science, which has the potential to contribute to our understanding of tourist behaviour. In this study, we examine the impact of remembered tourist experiences in a safari park. In particular, using matched survey data collected longitudinally and PLS path modelling, we examine the impact of positive affect tourist experiences on the development of revisit intentions. We find that longer-term remembered experiences have the strongest impact on revisit intentions, more so than predicted or immediate memory after an event. We also find that remembered positive affect is temporally unstable and declines over time.
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents a virtual electronic system for measuring the EEG signals. The system consists of electrodes, an instrumentation amplifier, filters and a DAQ card with LabVIEW application on a personal computer. The system is developed for displaying, measuring, analyzing and recording the EEG signals. The system is practically implemented with success where the experimental results are verified with simulation results.
Article
Full-text available
There is a paucity of methods for improving the affective experience of exercise. We tested a novel method based on discoveries about the relation between exercise intensity and pleasure, and lessons from behavioral economics. We examined the effect of reversing the slope of pleasure during exercise from negative to positive on pleasure and enjoyment, remembered pleasure, and forecasted pleasure. Forty-six adults were randomly assigned to a 15-min bout of recumbent cycling of either increasing intensity (0%-120% of Watts corresponding to the ventilatory threshold) or decreasing intensity (120%-0%). Ramping intensity down, thereby eliciting a positive slope of pleasure during exercise, improved postexercise pleasure and enjoyment, remembered pleasure, and forecasted pleasure. The slope of pleasure accounted for 35%-46% of the variance in remembered and forecasted pleasure from 15 min to 7 days postexercise. Ramping intensity down makes it possible to combine exposure to vigorous and moderate intensities with a pleasant affective experience.
Article
Full-text available
Though a valid and widely used approach in leisure, recreation, and psychology, the experience sampling method (ESM) is rarely used in tourism studies as a way to collect data on immediate conscious experiences during tourist events. This paper examines the use of ESM as it relates to tourist experience research. We begin by introducing ESM before exploring the application of this method to emerging smartphone technology. We then introduce a research approach, which incorporates the use of a digital ESM modified to act as a predominantly qualitative procedure, using voice recording software, to study the experience of educational tourists in Peru. The data gathered using this approach are analysed to examine the application and operational aspects of ESM. We consider the methodological implications of this research method by presenting findings on the length of qualitative discussions, reported mood, qualitative content related to ESM procedures, and post-trip recollection of ESM. The discussion that follows focuses on evidence of participant burden, reactivity, and anthropomorphism related to the use of smartphones as data collection tools. This paper concludes by outlining future research areas, with specific reference to spatial aspects, affect, and smartphone use, which expand the potential of ESM in tourist experience studies.
Article
Full-text available
The authors conducted a meta-analysis aggregating empirical findings on satisfaction in the tourism and hospitality literature. This article features this meta-analysis (k of conditions = 125; o of conditions = 292, and N = 82,913) of empirical studies and aims to identify the related dimensions of satisfaction in tourism and hospitality by evaluating its primary antecedents and consequences. The findings indicated that satisfaction correlated with both antecedents (quality, destination image, environment, perceived value, hedonic value, utility value and monetary value) and consequences (purchase intention, loyalty, trust and word-of-mouth). In addition, possible moderators of the relationship between the constructs of antecedents and consequences of satisfaction (sample type, application of research and sample size) have also been examined. After discussing these findings, the authors concluded with a discussion of the implications for practice and further research.
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study is to empirically test an integrative model linking tourists’ emotional experiences, perceived overall image, satisfaction, and intention to recommend. The model was tested using data collected from domestic tourists visiting Sardinia, Italy. Results show that tourists’ emotional experiences act as antecedents of perceived overall image and satisfaction evaluations. In addition, overall image has a positive influence on tourist satisfaction and intention to recommend. The study expands current theorizations by examining the merits of emotions in tourist behavior models. From a practical perspective, the study offers important implications for destination marketers.
Article
Full-text available
Although consumer behaviour (CB) is one of the most researched areas in the field of tourism, few extensive reviews of the body of knowledge in this area exist. This review article examines what we argue are the key concepts, external influences and opportune research contexts in contemporary tourism CB research. Using a narrative review, we examine the CB literature published in three major tourism journals from 2000 to 2012. Of 519 articles identified and reviewed, 191 are included in this article. We examine the development of and scope for future research on nine key concepts, including decision-making, values, motivations, self-concept and personality, expectations, attitudes, perceptions, satisfaction, trust and loyalty. We then examine three important external influences on tourism behaviour, technology, Generation Y and the rise in concern over ethical consumption. Finally, we identify and discuss five research contexts that represent major areas for future scholarship: group and joint decision-making, under-researched segments, cross-cultural issues in emerging markets, emotions and consumer misbehaviour. Our examination of key research gaps is concluded by arguing that the hedonic and affective aspects of CB research in tourism must be brought to bear on the wider CB and marketing literature.
Article
Full-text available
The objectives of this study are to test the relationship between tourism motivations and tourist satisfaction, and to test how ‘Religion’ moderates the relationship. The variable ‘Religion’ is represented by the availability of Islamic norms and practices relevant to tourism at the destination. The results of the partial least square indicate that tourism motivations are significantly and positively related to tourist satisfaction. The results also showed that Religion significantly moderates the relationship between pull motivation and tourist satisfaction. However, the moderating effect of Religion on the relationship between push motivation and tourist satisfaction was not supported.
Article
Full-text available
This study provides an assessment of methods used in existing tourism research to measure emotion and discusses the potential for use of psychophysiological methods such as electro-dermal analysis, facial muscle activity, heart rate response, eye-tracking system and vascular measures. Psychophysiological measurement techniques have been reported in the marketing, advertising and media literature; however, to the best knowledge of the authors, no studies are reported in the tourism literature. Instead, studies of emotion in the tourism literature invariably employ self-report questionnaire methods which capture only tourists' high-order emotions and are subject to a variety of forms of bias. Unconscious emotional responses that can provide unbiased portrayal of individuals' initial emotional reactions when exposed to a stimulus have been largely ignored. The paper concludes that studies combining both self-report and psychophysiological measures are needed and areas for future research are discussed.
Book
Serves as a single reference for customer satisfaction measurement technology. This book describes and teaches the five critical skills that should be part of your measurement process: sampling and customer selection, questionnaire design, interviewing and survey administration, data analysis, and quality function action plans.
Article
Accumulating evidence indicates weak correlations between self-report and behavioral measures of the same construct. We suggest that these weak correlations result from the poor reliability of many behavioral measures and the distinct response processes involved in the two measurement types. We also describe how researchers can benefit from appropriate use of these measures.
Article
Four psychological theories are considered in determining the effects of disconfirmed expectations on perceived product performance and consumer satisfaction. Results reveal that too great a gap between high consumer expectations and actual product performance may cause a less favorable evaluation of a product than a somewhat lower level of disparity.
Article
A model is proposed which expresses consumer satisfaction as a function of expectation and expectancy disconfirmation. Satisfaction, in turn, is believed to influence attitude change and purchase intention. Results from a two-stage field study support the scheme for consumers and nonconsumers of a flu inoculation.
Article
Do customer online reviews truly reflect the determinants of customer overall satisfaction with hotels? Using a text mining approach: latent semantic analysis and a text regression approach, this study compared the product and service attributes contributing to customer perception on editor-recommended and -nonrecommended hotels at various star levels. This study found that positive and negative attributes contributing to customer perception differ; even for the same attribute, its importance level for customer perception differs between different types of hotels. This study found an asymmetric effect of the focus of online reviews and determinants of customer satisfaction: not all positive/negative textual factors mined from online customer reviews significantly influence their overall satisfaction, and the emphasis level of a certain attribute in customer reviews differs from the relative importance level of the influence of the attribute on customer overall satisfaction. This shows the different psychological mechanisms of customers writing online reviews and their overall satisfaction generation.
Article
Understanding which variables predict behavioral intentions to revisit/repurchase tourist facilities is an important issue in the tourism industry, but not many studies have investigated relationships among service quality, transaction-specific satisfactions, and overall satisfactions in predicting repurchase intention. This study examined the relationship between independent variables (service quality, transaction-specific, and overall satisfaction) and the dependent variable (repurchase intention). Further, this study examined specification of how well transaction-specific and overall satisfactions predict golfer's intention to repurchase the same golf club. Research findings reveal that perceived service quality, rather than transaction- specific satisfaction or overall satisfaction, is the most important indicator. Specific theoretical and managerial implications are discussed.
Article
We applied theories of behavioral economics and conducted a field research on 881 tourists from China visiting Seoul through guided tour programs. We randomly assigned participants to study conditions based on theories of expectation, reciprocity, and peak-end rule. At the end of the tour, participants evaluated various aspects related to tour satisfaction and general impression of the city. A confirmatory factor analysis supported that these variables can be explained by two correlated factors, identified as the Current Satisfaction Factor (CSF) and the Future Behavior Factor (FBF). The multiple indicator multiple causes (MIMIC) model showed that CSF was impacted by expectation and tour season, and FBF by expectation, tour season, and first visit. Our results suggest that providing additional information before each activity can improve tourism satisfaction and non-manipulated variables such as tour season and first visit can be incorporated to further enhance tourism satisfaction.
Article
In the experience economy, distinct from the service economy, industry revenue increases according to the extent to which consumers enjoy their experience. This study explores the experience economy from various viewpoints, but particularly by examining whether consumers perceive differences in the monetary values between experience and service, as well as perceive gain and loss values differently in the same experiential component. The online survey was conducted with 550 adult participants. Data were analyzed using descriptive analysis, paired t-test, and multivariate analysis (MANOVA). The findings show that consumers still tend to perceive the service industry more important than the experience industry. However, as the loss values of experience are found to be larger than its gain values, it is very important to convince consumers to not lose an opportunity to experience future experiential consumption.
Article
This paper develops an integrative model that includes the dimensions of destination brand equity (i.e. awareness, image, quality and loyalty), as well as a key behavioural variable that is tourist satisfaction. In particular, our paper aims to contribute to the literature: (1) by examining the relationships between the dimensions of destination brand equity, which is not a deeply investigated issue so far; and (2) by adding tourist satisfaction, a key concept in loyalty formation, to the variables usually considered in destination brand equity models. The model was tested in two samples, national and international tourists visiting a destination in Spain, in order to also explore the role of the geographical and cultural distance between tourist and destination. Our results from a multi-group analysis indicate: (1) a robust link between “quality-satisfaction-loyalty” in both samples of tourists; (2) a chain of effects among awareness, image (separately considering the cognitive and affective dimensions) and perceived quality, although with the presence of some significant difference between both samples of tourists; and (3) a positive influence of cognitive image on affective image in both cases.
Chapter
Modern conceptions of utility are rooted in the system that Jeremy Bentham proposed to determine which actions and laws mostly benefit people. This chapter reviews the history of the concept from Bentham to the present, distinctions between different kinds of utility and judgments, how utility is measured, and the contextual factors that influence the utility associated with experiences. It also talks about how experienced utility is evaluated prospectively and retrospectively, and why people make decisions that do not maximize utility. The attempt to define, measure, and quantify experienced utility has afforded considerable insight into the ability to maximize utility, the comparative value of experiences, the psychological processes by which utility and value are evaluated, and the reasons for maximization failures. Most researchers examining predicted utility or affective forecasting, for example, compare the predicted and reported instant utility at specific moments rather than predicted total utility and reported total utility.
Article
This study explored associations between socially desirable responding and self-reported values in tourism surveys. Measures of egoistic values, altruistic values, and biospheric values were significantly associated with self-deception/assertion of positives, but neither with self-deception/denial of negatives nor with impression management. Researchers and marketers may take into account that self-reports of personal values could be distorted by tendencies for self-deception to some extent.
Article
A critical element in the evolution of a fundamental body of knowledge in marketing, as well as for improved marketing practice, is the development of better measures of the variables with which marketers work. In this article an approach is outlined by which this goal can be achieved and portions of the approach are illustrated in terms of a job satisfaction measure.
Article
This research first develops a conceptual model to link relevant concepts in psychology and tourism research to each stage of the long-term memory (LTM) system. It combines insights from mindfulness, positive affect, and quality of conscious experience to understand how tourists encode information; research in short-term memory and working memory as well as social identity to address the consolidation of information; and concepts of remembering, false memory, and storytelling to highlight information retrieval. Next, focus groups were conducted to examine how practitioners are helping tourists encode, consolidate, and retrieve their memories in the context of this model (Study 1). Finally, in-depth interviews were conducted to complement the practitioner’s perspective by reflecting the tourist’s voice that is relevant in each stage of the LTM system (Study 2). Overall, this research connects findings from the practitioner’s viewpoint with the tourist’s voice to present a framework of memory management and tourism experiences.
Article
The most salient or peak aspect of a service experience often defines customer perceptions of the service. Across two studies, using the same novel form of a scenario-based experiment, we investigate the design of peak events in a service sequence by testing how anticipated and surprised peaks influence customer perceptions. Study 1 captures the immediate reactions of participants and Study 2 surveys participants a week later. In both studies we find a main effect for the temporal peak placement, confirming the positive influence of a strong peak ending. When assessing the peak design strategies of surprise and anticipation, we find in Study 1 that surprise and anticipation moderates the temporal peak placement (e.g., early peak versus late peak) on overall customer perceptions, with the surprise peak at the end of an experience yielding the strongest effect. In Study 2 we see that the remembered experience of a surprise peak positively affects customer perceptions compared to an anticipated peak regardless of the temporal placement of the peak. We also find that the infusion of a surprise peak ending has a lasting effect that amplifies the peak-end effect of remembered experiences. Drawing on these findings, we discuss the role of surprise, anticipation, and sequence effects in experience design strategy. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Article
This study examines the moderating role of severity of service failure between emotions and dissatisfaction, as well as between dissatisfaction and behavioral intention. Results showed that when customers’ regret and disappointment are low, service failure severity has an amplifying impact on their dissatisfaction. It also demonstrates that when customers’ dissatisfaction levels are low, service failure severity plays an important role in their negative word of mouth and switching intention. Therefore, if a restaurant can reduce its number and frequency of critical service failures, then restaurant operators can dramatically enhance customers’ word of mouth testimonials and customer retention.
Article
We propose the anticipation-event-recall (AER) model. Set in a continuous time frame, the AER model formally links the three components of total utility (i.e., utility from anticipation, event utility, and utility from recall). The AER model predicts the temporal profiles of instant utility experienced before, during, and after a given event. Total utility is calculated as the integral of instant utility. The model builds on the psychological elements of conceptual consumption, adaptation, and time distance. By virtue of its rich formulation, the AER model produces a wide set of insights and testable predictions, including the U shape of instant utility during anticipation and the optimal duration of anticipation for a given event. Using both real and hypothetical events, we provide empirical evidence in support of the main implications of the AER model. Data, as supplemental material, are available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1287/mnsc.2015.2362 . This paper was accepted by James Smith, decision analysis.
Article
Customers' online reviews play an important role in generating electronic word of mouth; these reviews serve as an online communication tool that highly influences consumers' demand for hotels. Using latent semantic analysis, which is a text mining approach, we analyze online customer reviews of hotels. We find that the determinants that create either customer satisfaction or dissatisfaction toward hotels are different and are specific to particular types of hotels, including full-service hotels, limited-service hotels, suite hotels with food and beverage, and suite hotels without food and beverage. Our study provides a clue for hoteliers to enhance customer satisfaction and alleviate customer dissatisfaction by improving service and satisfying the customers' needs for the different types of hotels the hoteliers own.
Book
Transformational Tourism deals with the important issue of how travel and tourism can change human behaviour and have a positive impact on the world. The book focuses on human development in a world dominated by post-9/11 security and political challenges, economic and financial collapses, and environmental threats. It identifies various types of tourism that can transform human beings, such as educational, volunteer, survival, community-based, eco, farm, extreme, religious, spiritual, wellness, and mission tourism.
Article
The current study explores the central elements comprising memorable tourism experiences. It does so by adopting a sequential data collection process along three main successive travel stages: (a) pre-, (b) during, and (c) posttravel. Findings suggest that while participants vividly recalled the process of collecting and negotiating information for travel planning as well as interactions with others, what they most recalled posttravel (i.e., once their travels were over) were unique and unexpected personal experiences that differentiated their experiences from others’ experiences. The implications of such findings for the understanding of memorable tourism experiences are discussed.
Purpose This paper aims to review and discuss customer satisfaction and its application to the hospitality and tourism industries. This paper defines the concept and analyzes its importance to services in general and to hospitality/tourism services in particular. This paper is a revision and update of an article previously published by Pizam and Ellis (1999) on customer satisfaction measurements. Design/methodology/approach The most recent research on customer satisfaction measurements and scales is summarized and presented in the paper. Findings Following a discussion on the dimensions and attributes of satisfaction, the main methods of measuring satisfaction are listed, and cross-cultural issues that affect satisfaction are reviewed. Finally, the paper concludes with a comprehensive review of the current online tools and techniques available for measuring customer satisfaction. Research limitations/implications This summary gives a good overview to researchers who require a comprehensive review of the available research measurements and scales for customer satisfaction. Originality/value For the past decade, a considerable amount of research has been conducted in customer satisfaction. Finding the appropriate measurements and scales for customer satisfaction can be time-consuming and confusing. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of the best-known measurements and scales in customer satisfaction research. The paper also provides innovative online tools and techniques available for research.
Article
What was noted by E. J. Langer (1978) remains true today; that much of contemporary psychological research is based on the assumption that people are consciously and systematically processing incoming information in order to construe and interpret their world and to plan and engage in courses of action. As did E. J. Langer, the authors question this assumption. First, they review evidence that the ability to exercise such conscious, intentional control is actually quite limited, so that most of moment-to-moment psychological life must occur through nonconscious means if it is to occur at all. The authors then describe the different possible mechanisms that produce automatic, environmental control over these various phenomena and review evidence establishing both the existence of these mechanisms as well as their consequences for judgments, emotions, and behavior. Three major forms of automatic self-regulation are identified: an automatic effect of perception on action, automatic goal pursuit, and a continual automatic evaluation of one's experience. From the accumulating evidence, the authors conclude that these various nonconscious mental systems perform the lion's share of the self-regulatory burden, beneficently keeping the individual grounded in his or her current environment.
Article
Events that originate through internal mental operations such as reasoning, imagination, and thought may be more colored by or connected to one's current mood than are those that emanate from external sources. If so, then a shift in mood state, between the occasions of event encoding and event retrieval, should have a greater adverse impact on one's memory for internal than for external events. To investigate this inference, a series of studies was conducted that relied on a continuous music technique to modify mood, and on the generate/read procedures devised by Slamecka and Graf (1978) to distinguish internal from external events. Considered collectively, the results suggest that internal events are less likely than external events to be recalled after a shift in mood state. Discussion centers on both the empirical limitations and theoretical implications of the present results, as well as on prospects for future research.