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Using video clubs to develop teachers’ thinking and practice in oral feedback and dialogic teaching

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Abstract

The authors report outcomes of an evaluation of a ‘video club’ intervention to improve the feedback and dialogic teaching practice of 91 teachers from 11 primary schools in England. Participating teachers worked collaboratively in a sequence of six video clubs over a six-month period. To understand teacher engagement they examine videos of video club meetings; online platform use metrics; surveys; selected videos of classroom practice; focus groups; and interviews. They evaluate change in teachers’ thinking and practice using survey results for participants compared to a comparison group of non-participating teachers at the intervention schools. The survey includes a new instrument for gathering evidence of teachers’ thinking and practice in feedback. The results suggested changes in thinking and practice for teachers who self-reported as engaging highly with the intervention. They conclude by discussing the potential of video technology within professional development and the challenges of researching changes in thinking and practice.

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... The literature on the use of classroom video for professional learning is summarized and discussed in Perry et al. (2020) [35]; a short summary of selected points from this is provided below, along with an example. Perry et al. provide an overview of potential affordances of video observations for enabling and enhancing CPD, based on reviews in the literature (e.g., Brouwer • It is efficient, in that the most instructive videos can be viewed repeatedly by a wider audience. ...
... This can be seen in relation to online professional learning communities in Lantz-Andersson et al. (2018, p. 310) [59] where communities with a 'friendly, participatory culture' are supportive of experimentation, risk taking and searching discussion and feedback. This culture can take time to develop (as discussed in relation to video sharing and discussion in Perry et al., 2020) [35]. It is a relatively widespread view that community building and functioning benefits from [30,55,64,68]. ...
... (Lantz-Andersson et al., 2018, p. 308) [59] Picking up themes noted in our earlier sections, Surrette and Johnson (2015) [63] found studies noting the benefits of being able to 'rewind and review the video and record more complete and accurate comments than is possible during real-time observations' (West et al., 2009, p. 384, quoted in Surrette and Johnson, 2015, p. 263) [63,75]. Using video, there is also a greater opportunity to conduct the reflections and discussions collaboratively, drawing on a greater number of examples (Perry et al., 2020) [35]. Other authors such as Keengwe and Kang (2013) [64] conclude that technological tools are important for integrating online and face-to-face learning and supporting learning to be put into practice, and also-as above-discuss the value of using technology to allow teachers to 'actively participate, communicate, and create their own materials' (p. ...
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Initial and continuing teacher education are increasingly making use of remote and blended modes of education. Conducted in the summer of 2020 during the COVID-19 pandemic, this rapid review brings together literature and evidence to inform planning for remote and blended teacher education during restrictions in face-to-face teaching activity. The review consists of three main parts: first, a descriptive framework of modes of remote and blended teacher education; second, an exploratory review of the affordances and limitations of remote and blended approaches connecting the literature on effective teacher education with reviews of remote and blended approaches; third, a rapid review of evidence on the efficacy of remote and blended approaches, including of a small number of studies comparing these to face-to-face equivalents. We conclude that remote and blended teacher education is likely to become an increasingly important part of the teacher education landscape and there are plausible theoretical reasons suggesting that it can be effective with suitable design. However, we find too few studies presenting robust evidence to enable firm conclusions to be drawn on the relative effectiveness of modes and approaches. The review provides a foundation for further research and practice in this area.
... Their perspective and gaze influence how the members of reflective sessions analyse and discuss situations. There are three types of perspective holders: teacher facilitators, who purport to have group discussions and make planning decisions (Chen et al., 2020;Gröschner et al., 2018;Perry et al., 2020;Simpson & Vondrová, 2019); faculty members who aim to help student teachers learn from practice (Endacott, 2016;Gibbons & Farley, 2021; ...
... Teachers can narrate their reflections based not on other people's perspectives but on their own recordings and evidence. This has implications for similar studies: Due to the recent availability of advanced technologies, beyond the views recorded by teacher facilitators (Chen et al., 2020;Gröschner et al., 2018;Perry et al., 2020;Simpson & Vondrová, 2019), faculty members for student teachers (Endacott, 2016;Gibbons & Farley, 2021;Hawkins & Rogers, 2017;McCoy & Lynam, 2020;Salajan & Duffield, 2019), or researchers (Heikonen et al., 2017;Jackson & Cho, 2018), teachers can edit videos based on their own gazes to narrate their reflections, which would further enrich heteroglossia (Bakhtin, 1981;Choi & Nunan, 2014;Hallman, 2011). ...
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Professional development is increasingly considered key to school reform in many countries. This study was based on the experience of the author in Vietnam, where along with other teachers, the author has been engaged in the attempt to reform schools since 2006. The critical element of this work is for teachers to regularly observe and reflect on classroom practices with one another by focusing on students and their learning. While the author tended to use video recordings for reflection and analysis since the beginning of the collaboration, the teachers in those schools recently started to use their own video recordings on their mobile phones and tablets to share their reflections. This study aimed to discuss the meaning of this evolution from the actor-network theoretical perspective. It will be argued that (1) the right to edit visual evidence to support their narratives was decentralised from the international consultant to the local teachers and that (2) the potential emerged for observed lessons, and possibly joint reflection sessions, to become sites of ‘heteroglossia’ (multiple voices) and ‘heteroopia’ (multiple gazes), which allowed the teachers to diversify their understanding of the situation and of student learning and needs.
... Verbal feedback is frequently placed within the context of dialogue. From this perspective, feedback is seen as a 'move' within a dialogic teaching and learning approach (Hennessy et al., 2016;Perry et al., 2020). Feedback, for example, can range from a simple judgement of correctness, identification of a part of an answer that could be developed or improved, referring back to prior contributions, and inviting opinions or ideas. ...
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Attention in recent years has turned to the key role talk plays in mediating students’ learning when they work cooperatively together. There is no doubt that talk, albeit by the teacher or peers, has the capacity to stimulate and extend students’ thinking and advance their learning. Teachers do this when they encourage students to engage in reciprocal dialogues where they exchange information, explore issues, interrogate ideas, and tackle problems in a cooperative environment that is supportive of these discussions. In turn, students learn to listen to what others have to say, consider alternative perspectives, and engage critically and constructively with each other's ideas by learning how to reason and justify their assertions as they cooperate together. This study involved three Year 7 teachers and 17 groups of students (3–5 students per group) from their classes. The teachers had agreed to teach two units of cooperative, inquiry-based science across two school terms. All three teachers had been trained to use a dialogic approach to teaching designed to challenge children's thinking and learning. This paper presents examples of both teachers’ and students’ dialogic interactions and discusses the complementarity of these discourses even though the teachers used slightly different dialogic approaches in interacting with their students.
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The close study of classroom talk has been an active field of research since the 1970s, when John Furlong made his significant contribution. Focusing particularly on research into teacher–student interactions, we will review the development of this field from the 1970s until the present, considering what has been learned and the educational implications of the results. We also discuss the impact of the findings of this research on teacher education, educational policy and classroom practice.
Book
This book describes the importance of classroom talk and how talk binds learning together. It illustrates how explicit teaching is not the same as direct, prescriptive instruction, and through classroom examples, balances the theoretical and practical aspects of 'classroom talk' to show how the role of dialogic pedagogies enable 'on task' teaching and learning.
Article
Feedback is one of the most powerful influences on learning and achievement, but this impact can be either positive or negative. Its power is frequently mentioned in articles about learning and teaching, but surprisingly few recent studies have systematically investigated its meaning. This article provides a conceptual analysis of feedback and reviews the evidence related to its impact on learning and achievement. This evidence shows that although feedback is among the major influences, the type of feedback and the way it is given can be differentially effective. A model of feedback is then proposed that identifies the particular properties and circumstances that make it effective, and some typically thorny issues are discussed, including the timing of feedback and the effects of positive and negative feedback. Finally, this analysis is used to suggest ways in which feedback can be used to enhance its effectiveness in classrooms.
Article
Survey questions asking about taboo topics such as sexual activities, illegal behaviour such as social fraud, or unsocial attitudes such as racism, often generate inaccurate survey estimates which are distorted by social desirability bias. Due to self-presentation concerns, survey respondents underreport socially undesirable activities and overreport socially desirable ones. This article reviews theoretical explanations of socially motivated misreporting in sensitive surveys and provides an overview of the empirical evidence on the effectiveness of specific survey methods designed to encourage the respondents to answer more honestly. Besides psychological aspects, like a stable need for social approval and the preference for not getting involved into embarrassing social interactions, aspects of the survey design, the interviewer’s characteristics and the survey situation determine the occurrence and the degree of social desirability bias. The review shows that survey designers could generate more valid data by selecting appropriate data collection strategies that reduce respondents’ discomfort when answering to a sensitive question.
Article
If the purpose of reflection is to improve teaching, it is essential to understand how video-aided reflection influences teacher change. Yet, there is limited research addressing how video analysis influences the change process. The purpose of this study was to gain an in depth understanding of how video influences the process of teacher change. Teachers in three different teaching environments engaged in semester-long video-reflection groups. Through a descriptive analysis of these meetings, participants’ own video-analyses, and individual interviews, six over-arching themes emerged across the different environments that describe the change process. Teachers reported that video encouraged change because it helped them: (a) focus their analysis, (b) see their teaching from a new perspective, (c) trust the feedback they received, (d) feel accountable to change their practice, (e) remember to implement changes, and (f) see their progress. We discuss how these results may help researchers and educators understand how video can be used to encourage teacher improvement.
Article
Learning communities have become a widespread model for teacher development. However, simply bringing teachers together does not ensure community development. This study offers a framework for the development of a teacher learning community in a video club. Qualitative coding of video data resulted in characterizing the evolution of the video club group as they collaboratively explored issues of teaching and learning that arose in each other’s classrooms. The relationship between dimensions of the framework and how development on one feature interacts with development on another is discussed. The results inform the design of video-based learning environments for examining teaching practice.
Article
The idea that assessment is intrinsic to effective instruction is traced from early experiments in the individualization of learning through the work of Benjamin Bloom to reviews of the impact of feedback on learners in classrooms. While many of these reviews detailed the adverse impact of assessment on learning, they also indicated that under certain conditions assessment had considerable potential to enhance learning. It is shown that understanding the impact that assessment has on learning requires a broader focus than the feedback intervention itself, particularly the learner's responses to the feedback, and the learning milieu in which the feedback operates. Different definitions of the terms “formative assessment” and “assessment for learning” are discussed, and subsumed within a broad definition that focuses on the extent to which instructional decisions are supported by evidence. The paper concludes by exploring some of the consequences of this definition for classroom practice.
Article
This paper is about work in progress on an 'emerging pedagogy' of the spoken word. It is a pedagogy which exploits the power of talk to shape children's thinking and to secure their engagement, learning and understanding during the developmentally critical years when they are in primary or elementary schools. The topic itself is familiar enough, but I hope you will find the angle less so. I shall draw mainly on three areas of my research over the past two decades: first, a long- term comparative study of the relationship between culture and pedagogy in five countries - England, France, India, Russia and the United States (Alexander 2001); second, subsequent development work on classroom talk and specifically the idea of 'dialogic teaching' (Alexander 2005a); third, observational research in UK classrooms which preceded both of these and which ignited my desire to discover whether the identified features and problems of British pedagogy were universal or whether radical alternatives were available.
Data
Recognizing that empirical research into classroom dialogue has been conducted for about 40 years, a review is reported of 225 studies published between 1972 and 2011. The studies were identified through systematic search of electronic databases and scrutiny of publication reference lists. They focus on classroom dialogue in primary and secondary classrooms, covering the full age range of compulsory schooling. The methods of data collection and analysis used in the studies are described and discussed, with changes and continuities over time highlighted. Study results are then summarized and integrated to present a succinct picture of what is currently known and where future research might profitably be directed. One key message is that much more is known about how classroom dialogue is organized than about whether certain modes of organization are more beneficial than others. Moreover, epistemological and methodological change may be required if the situation is to be remedied.
Article
This paper describes research on dialogue between teachers and pupils during primary school science lessons, using talk from two classrooms to provide our examples. We consider whether teachers use dialogue to make education a cumulative, continuing process for guiding the development of children's understanding. Case studies of two teachers, using observational data taken from a larger data set, are used to illustrate their use of talk as a pedagogic tool. We also consider the differing extent to which the two teachers highlight for pupils the educational value of talk, and the extent to which they attempt to guide pupils' own effective use of talk for learning. Implications are drawn for evaluating the ways teachers use dialogue, and for professional development. An example is provided of an activity which has been found to help teachers implement dialogic teaching, and which illustrates how such an approach involves organising the structural variety of talk.
Article
Efforts to encourage ‘interactive practice’ in the National Literacy (NLS) and Numeracy (NNS) Strategies in the UK, have led to an emphasis on teacher questions. Recent research into classroom interactions, however, indicate that the pattern of interaction remains largely unchanged since the introduction of these strategies in terms of the type and amount of questions teachers are asking, and the opportunities for extended pupil participation. This article uses evidence gathered from a large‐scale research project examining classroom interactions during literacy and numeracy lessons, and the researchers' critical reflections upon this process, to examine conceptions of interactive pedagogy. It is argued that in order to ‘open’ classroom interaction, emphasis should be less on the questions teachers ask, and more on the manner with which teachers react to pupils' responses to questions. Episodes of classroom interaction from video recorded literacy and numeracy lessons taken as part of the study are used to support this argument. They present evidence of teacher behaviours in reaction to pupils' responses which succeed in facilitating a more interactive learning environment. The implication that such behaviour will contribute towards a model of effective interactive practice is also discussed.
Equipping teachers visually. Eindhoven: Eindhoven School of Education
  • C Brouwer
Brouwer, C. (2011). Equipping teachers visually. Eindhoven: Eindhoven School of Education.
Developing great teaching: lessons from the international reviews into effective professional development
  • P Cordingley
  • S Higgins
  • T Greany
  • N Buckler
  • D Coles-Jordan
  • B Crisp
  • L Saunders
  • R Coe
Cordingley, P., Higgins, S., Greany, T., Buckler, N., Coles-Jordan, D., Crisp, B., Saunders, L. and Coe, R. (2015). Developing great teaching: lessons from the international reviews into effective professional development. London: Teacher Development Trust.
Effective Teacher Professional Development
  • L Darling-Hammond
  • E Maria
  • Hyler
  • M Gardner
  • D Espinoza
Darling-Hammond, L., Maria E. Hyler, Gardner, M. and Espinoza, D. (2017). Effective Teacher Professional Development. Palo Alto, CA: Learning Policy Institute.