ArticleLiterature Review

Emerging issues and questions on peripartum depression prevention, diagnosis and treatment: A consensus report from the COST Action RISEUP-PPD

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Abstract

Background : Peripartum depression [PPD] is a public health problem which has been widely studied. Nonetheless, study findings and clinical guidelines for PPD treatment differ among countries and the condition is still underdiagnosed and undertreated, suggesting the importance of a global understanding of PPD. The Riseup-PPD Cost Action aims to establish a Pan-European and multidisciplinary network of researchers dedicated to the global understanding of PPD. Methods : A literature search was performed in different databases (e.g., Medline, PsychInfo) including a combination of terms related with PPD diagnosis, prevention, treatment and cost-effectiveness of its management. A narrative synthesis of the literature, together with a critical overview of the current issues/questions to be addressed within the topic of PPD were performed. Results : Emerging issues include challenges regarding definition and timing of PPD; heterogeneity in severity, timing of onset and assessment tools; comparative effectiveness of preventive and treatment interventions; help seeking for PPD; improving health professional's awareness of PPD; and cost-effectiveness of PPD management. Limitations: The main limitation is the non-systematic nature of the literature search. Conclusions : The Riseup-PPD network will deal with these challenges through four lines of action: (1)provide an updated and comprehensive synthesis of existing knowledge that can contribute to inform clinical recommendations and guidelines for PPD management; (2) clarify inconsistent findings concerning diagnosis, prevention and treatment of PPD; (3) develop new lines of research in the field of PPD; and (4) develop international recommendations for PPD diagnosis, prevention and treatment, ultimately influencing maternal mental health policymaking at global and local levels.

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... 12 There is still inequality in perinatal depression management across countries, and evidence- psychotherapy for moderate to severe symptoms, with cognitive-behavior therapy achieving the best outcomes. 13 However, there are disparities in the availability of the treatment across countries. ...
... The personal distress and associated health care costs are high and strategies for prevention, early detection and treatment of such difficulties are called for. 4,5,13 According to the findings of Sultan et al 2 based on their systematic review, the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale should be used to screen for and assess postpartum depression symptoms in mothers. Future research needs to focus on validating self-report measures for (expectant) fathers/ coparents. ...
... Despite the negative consequences associated with perinatal depression, most women do not receive screening or treatment for perinatal depression although screening tools and evidence-based treatments are available [4]. Over 50% of women with antenatal or postpartum depression are unrecognized and undiagnosed, and few women (less than 20%) receive treatment [18]. ...
... Depression is the most common psychological disorder during the perinatal period [1] and is a major public health problem that requires special attention [2,3]. Despite being a globally recognized and studied mental health condition, depression remains an underscreened and undertreated condition; much remains to be done for individuals with depression [4]. ...
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Depression is the most common psychological disorder during the perinatal period, and its negative effects extend to mothers, babies, their family and society. Scientific evidence points to the urgency of designing preventive interventions and concludes that the gestational period is the most appropriate time to implement these interventions. However, many pregnant women do not seek professional help due to a lack of knowledge about the importance of mental health, its impact, and the available intervention options, as well as a lack of time and financial resources. E-health interventions can be an efficient, cost-effective, and accessible resource for preventing postpartum depression that can circumvent the barriers that pregnant women face. This randomized clinical trial will examine the efficacy of Healthy Moms and Babies, an app aimed at preventing postpartum depressive symptomatology. The second objective of this study is to analyze the effectiveness of the tool in preventing anxious symptomatology. The primary outcome measure is the difference in the mean score between the intervention and control groups on the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) at the end of the intervention and at 3 and 6 months postpartum. The secondary outcome will be determined by using the Generalized Anxiety Disorder Screener (GAD-7) at the same time points. The research findings can be used to determine pregnant women’s use of the e-health application for the prevention of postpartum depression, whether the Healthy Moms and Babies intervention app is an effective and useful resource, and what modifications will need to be made to the tool in future updates.
... The Task force is titled 'PMH and COVID-19 pandemic' and was established with the aim to investigate the best practices, policies and guidelines to help alleviate the negative consequences of COVID-19 on women's mental health. 30 A recent review pointed out emerging issues in the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of peripartum depression, 31 which are highlighted even more with the ongoing pandemic. The Task Force has already addressed the deleterious impact of COVID-19 on PMH, the risk factors for mental health vulnerability during the current pandemic and highlighted good psychological practices in PMH during the COVID-19 pandemic. ...
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Introduction Significant changes in routine maternity care have been introduced globally in response to the COVID-19 pandemic to reduce infection risk, but also due to lack of medical facilities, staff shortages and the unpredictable nature of the disease. However, it is yet to be established if specialised perinatal mental health (PMH) services have been similarly affected. As a Task Force in PMH and COVID-19 pandemic within Riseup-PPD COST Action, this study aims to identify changes in PMH practices, policies and protocols during the COVID-19 pandemic in Europe. Methods and analysis An online survey of experts in the PMH who are members of the COST Action ‘Riseup-PPD’ and the COST Action ‘’DEVOTION” across 36 European countries will be conducted. A questionnaire on changes in PMH care practices during the COVID-19 Pandemic will be administered. It consists of open-ended questions, checklists and ratings on a 7-point scale addressing seven domains of interest in terms of PMH: (1) policies, guidelines and protocols; (2) PMH care practices at a national level; (3) evidence of best practice; (4) barriers to usual care; (5) resources invested; (6) benefits of investment in the policies and (7) short-term and long-term expectations of the policies. Data will be collected using Qualtrics. Descriptive statistics will be reported and differences between countries will be examined using the χ ² statistic or Student’s t-test. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval was obtained from The Ethics Committee for Research in Life and Health Sciences of the University of Minho (Portugal) to undertake an anonymous online survey. The findings will be disseminated to professional audience through peer-review publication and presentations and shared widely with stakeholders, policy-makers and service user groups. A position paper will be developed to influence policy-making at a European level to alleviate the adversities caused by COVID-19. Trial registration number NCT04779775 .
... Therefore, we cannot exclude that lower breastfeeding adherence and postpartum depression in our study group may be related. Future studies are required to analyze this aspect and to evaluate the need to implement counselling programs for adolescent women through multidisciplinary teams, as previously suggested [45]. ...
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Adolescent pregnancy remains a health issue worldwide also in developed countries, since it has been associated with adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes. Some data suggest that very young adolescents have higher risk, likely due to immaturity. Therefore, we aimed to assess the influence of maternal age on complications during gestation and labor in pregnant women between 13 and 19 years of age. In particular, we evaluated the possible association between maternal age and obstetric, fetal and labor complications. This is a retrospective, observational and exploratory study conducted at Hospital Universitario La Paz (HULP, Madrid, Spain). The clinical history of 279 women who delivered between 2013 and 2018 was analyzed. Maternal age and the presence of maternal, fetal and labor complications, as well as risk of postpartum depression and breastfeeding intention, were recorded. General regression models were used to analyze the contribution of maternal age on each complication. The percentage of adolescent pregnancies at HULP between 2013 and 2018 was 0.9%. The risk of all the maternal complications analyzed decreased significantly with every year of age of the mother (hyperemesis, lower back pain, anemia, gestational diabetes mellitus, and threat of premature labor and premature rupture of membranes). Every year of maternal age decreased 0.8-fold [0.8; 0.9] the prevalence of fetal complications and also reduced the risk of C-section, postpartum hemorrhage and obstetrical hysterectomy. Furthermore, higher maternal age increased 1.1-fold [1.0; 1.2] the breastfeeding intention. In conclusion, young adolescents are at higher risk of complications during pregnancy and labor.
... Decision-making about PPD treatment must be defined on a case-bycase basis, according to individual characteristics (e.g., severity of symptoms, willingness to use medication, and previous antidepressant response), the best clinical evidence, the available treatments, and respecting women's preferences (Charlton et al., 2014;Fonseca et al., 2020). Pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy are first-and second-line treatments in PPD (Bledsoe and Grote, 2006) and both present limitations. ...
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Background Non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) techniques have been suggested as alternative treatments to decrease depression symptoms during the perinatal period. These include brain stimulation techniques that do not require surgery and that are nonpharmacological and non-psychotherapeutic. NIBS that have showed antidepressant effect so far include repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), transcranial electric stimulation (TES) and electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). Objectives This systematic review aims to summarize evidence on NIBS efficacy, safety and acceptability in treating peripartum depression (PPD). Methods We included randomized, non-randomized and case reports, that used NIBS during pregnancy and the postpartum. The reduction of depressive symptoms was the primary outcome and neonatal safety was the co-primary outcome. Results: rTMS shows promising results for the treatment of PPD, with clinically significant decreases in depressive symptoms between baseline and end of treatment and overall good acceptability. Although the safety profile for rTMS is adequate in the postpartum, caution is warranted during pregnancy. In TES, evidence on efficacy derives mostly from single-arm studies, compromising the encouraging findings. Further investigation is necessary concerning ECT, as clinical practice relies on clinical experience and is only described in low-quality case-reports. Limitations The reduced number of controlled studies, the lack of complete datasets and the serious/high risk of bias of the reports warrants cautious interpretations. Conclusions and implications Existing evidence is limited across NIBS techniques; comparative studies are lacking, and standard stimulation parameters are yet to be established. Although rTMS benefits from the most robust research, future multicenter randomized clinical trials are needed to determine the position of each NIBS strategy within the pathways of care.
... In order to investigate and recommend best practices that may mitigate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on women's mental health [11,23], members of the "Research Innovation and Sustainable Pan-European Network in Peripartum Depression Disorder -Riseup-PPD" (Cost Action 18138), funded by the Horizon 2020 Framework Programme of the European Union, established the "Perinatal Mental Health and COVID-19 Pandemic" Task Force. Currently, the research team is conducting an international prospective cohort study aimed at filling the gaps in research on the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on perinatal mental health (Riseup-PPD-COVID- 19), and this article presents the study protocol. ...
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Background Corona Virus Disease 19 (COVID-19) is a new pandemic, declared a public health emergency by the World Health Organization, which could have negative consequences for pregnant and postpartum women. The scarce evidence published to date suggests that perinatal mental health has deteriorated since the COVID-19 outbreak. However, the few studies published so far have some limitations, such as a cross-sectional design and the omission of important factors for the understanding of perinatal mental health, including governmental restriction measures and healthcare practices implemented at the maternity hospitals. Within the Riseup-PPD COST Action, a study is underway to assess the impact of COVID-19 in perinatal mental health. The primary objectives are to (1) evaluate changes in perinatal mental health outcomes; and (2) determine the risk and protective factors for perinatal mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic. Additionally, we will compare the results between the countries participating in the study. Methods This is an international prospective cohort study, with a baseline and three follow-up assessments over a six-month period. It is being carried out in 11 European countries (Albania, Bulgaria, Cyprus, France, Greece, Israel, Malta, Portugal, Spain, Turkey, and the United Kingdom), Argentina, Brazil and Chile. The sample consists of adult pregnant and postpartum women (with infants up to 6 months of age). The assessment includes measures on COVID-19 epidemiology and public health measures (Oxford COVID-19 Government Response Tracker dataset), Coronavirus Perinatal Experiences (COPE questionnaires), psychological distress (BSI-18), depression (EPDS), anxiety (GAD-7) and post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSD checklist for DSM-V). Discussion This study will provide important information for understanding the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on perinatal mental health and well-being, including the identification of potential risk and protective factors by implementing predictive models using machine learning techniques. The findings will help policymakers develop suitable guidelines and prevention strategies for perinatal mental health and contribute to designing tailored mental health interventions. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04595123.
... In 2019, the Australian Government committed a further $43.9 million for a perinatal mental health and wellbeing program that continues a focus on perinatal depression screening using the EPDS. The EPDS is commonly used for routine depression screening in the perinatal period (Fonseca, Ganho-Avila, Lambregtse-van den Berg, Lupatelli, et al., 2020). Use of the EPDS for routine perinatal depression screening is controversial because the available evidence does not permit conclusions about the balance of benefits and harms (Myers et al., 2013;Thombs et al., 2015;Thombs, Arthurs, et al., 2014;Thombs, Ziegelstein, Roseman, Kloda, & Ioannidis, 2014). ...
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Perinatal depression can have enduring adverse effects on women and their children and families, incurring substantial ongoing economic and personal costs. A significant proportion of the cost of perinatal depression relates to adverse impacts on the child, most likely mediated through impairment to the mother-infant relationship. In recognition of this problem, Australia has invested in routine perinatal depression screening. Our previous research produced convergent findings suggesting that expected benefits for children have not yet been realised through perinatal depression screening. We question the potential of including a measure of personality in current perinatal depression screening for identifying maternal mental health problems and suboptimal mother-infant relationships. This paper reviews our previous research findings within the broader context of perinatal depression screening. We propose a position, that perinatal depression screening in Australia should be redesigned to more precisely detect vulnerable mother-infant relationships, parenting, maternal mental health, and infant psychosocial and psychological development. Practice change to appropriately target antenatal interventions may more efficiently improve both maternal and child outcomes, thereby contributing to greater efficiency and cost savings for the health system.
... Perinatal mental health professionals are more necessary than ever. Indeed, a recent review synthesised the main challenges and questions to be approached in the field of perinatal depression and the main lines of action that should be taken within the Riseup-PPD cost action (Fonseca et al., 2020). These gaps become more evident in the presence of a social and health crisis that poses tremendous psychological demands in women already experiencing a very vulnerable and critical period, as is the case of pregnancy and postpartum. ...
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Today, Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is cited as a significant cause of stress and anxiety for pregnant and postpartum women (PPW) around the world. Riseup-PPD COST Action has created the “Perinatal Mental Health and COVID-19 epidemic” Task Force to promote the best practices in maternal mental health care that may mitigate the impact of COVID-19 on women's mental health. Within this framework, we provide a brief review on (a) the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and confinement in the mental health of PPW, and (b) the characteristics of the most vulnerable women to the psychological impact of COVID-19. Based on this review, we recommend good psychological practices and points to consider in conducting research that could be implemented to mitigate the negative consequences of such a pandemic. It is essential to support the transition of women to motherhood in a positive and healthy way, enabling them access to adequate perinatal mental health services
Article
Background Perinatal depression is a highly prevalent mental health problem with severe consequences, which is still underdiagnosed and undertreated. Frontline health professionals directly assisting and providing regular care to women in pregnancy and postpartum period play a critical role in early detection and management of perinatal depression. Therefore, it is important to assess their knowledge and beliefs towards perinatal depression, in order to improve its recognition and management. Objective To synthesize the current literature about the levels of perinatal depression literacy (defined in terms of recognition and knowledge of symptoms, causes, risk factors and treatment options, beliefs, and attitudes) among frontline health professionals working with perinatal women. Design A systematic review of the literature was conducted in line with PRISMA guidelines and registered in PROSPERO (CRD42020172018). Six electronic databases were searched for eligible studies. Quantitative and qualitative studies published in English reporting findings on perinatal depression literacy among health professionals working with perinatal population were included. Pharmacists, medical or nursing students, volunteer workers, religious leaders, community leader and birth attendants were excluded from the target population. Included studies were assessed for risk of bias. Findings From the 3172 papers screened, a total of 43 were included. All studies were classified with strong or moderate quality. Frontline health professionals presented average levels of perinatal depression literacy. However, a lack of knowledge about the definition, prevalence, symptoms, risk factors, screening tools and treatments for perinatal depression was found in several studies, which could act as barriers to providing proper care to perinatal women. Health professionals’ knowledge and attitudes seemed to differ across countries. Implications for practice The findings of this systematic review highlight the need to provide health professionals with training to increase their levels of knowledge about perinatal depression and to promote more positive attitudes towards it, which can potentially increase their confidence and skills in its management and treatment.
Article
Background Evidence on risk factors for postpartum depression (PPD) are fragmented and inconsistent. Aims To assess the strength and credibility of evidence on risk factors of PPD, ranking them based on the umbrella review methodology. Method Databases were searched until 1 December 2020, for systematic reviews and meta-analyses of observational studies. Two reviewers assessed quality, credibility of associations according to umbrella review criteria (URC) and evidence certainty according to Grading of Recommendations-Assessment-Development-Evaluations criteria. Results Including 185 observational studies (n = 3 272 093) from 11 systematic reviews, the association between premenstrual syndrome and PPD was the strongest (highly suggestive: odds ratio 2.20, 95%CI 1.81–2.68), followed by violent experiences (highly suggestive: odds ratio (OR) = 2.07, 95%CI 1.70–2.50) and unintended pregnancy (highly suggestive: OR=1.53, 95%CI 1.35–1.75). Following URC, the association was suggestive for Caesarean section (OR = 1.29, 95%CI 1.17–1.43), gestational diabetes (OR = 1.60, 95%CI 1.25–2.06) and 5-HTTPRL polymorphism (OR = 0.70, 95%CI 0.57–0.86); and weak for preterm delivery (OR = 2.12, 95%CI 1.43–3.14), anaemia during pregnancy (OR = 1.47, 95%CI 1.17–1.84), vitamin D deficiency (OR = 3.67, 95%CI 1.72–7.85) and postpartum anaemia (OR = 1.75, 95%CI 1.18–2.60). No significant associations were found for medically assisted conception and intra-labour epidural analgesia. No association was rated as ‘convincing evidence’. According to GRADE, the certainty of the evidence was low for Caesarean section, preterm delivery, 5-HTTLPR polymorphism and anaemia during pregnancy, and ‘very low’ for remaining factors. Conclusions The most robust risk factors of PDD were premenstrual syndrome, violent experiences and unintended pregnancy. These results should be integrated in clinical algorithms to assess the risk of PPD.
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Introduction Perinatal depression is one of the most common complications during pregnancy and one year following childbirth. A negative impact on the mental and physical health of women, their children, partners, or significant others has been associated with this disease. Web-based and Mobile-based psychological interventions can reduce the burden of the disease through prevention of new cases of depression. It is crucial to know the effectiveness of these interventions to implement them around the globe. This systematic review and meta-analysis aims to assess the effectiveness of Web-based and Mobile-based psychological interventions to prevent depression during the perinatal period. Method and analysis A systematic review and meta-analysis will adhere to the PRISMA guidelines. Studies will be identified through MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Web of Science, Scopus, CINAHL, CENTRAL, Opengrey, Australian New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry, National Institute for Mental Health Research at the Australian National University, clinicaltrial.gov, beacon.anu.edu.au, and evidencebasedpsychotherapies.org from inception until 31 March 2021. We will also search the reference lists provided in relevant studies and reviews. The selection criteria will be as follows: 1) pregnant women or women who have given birth in the last 12 months and who were non-depressive at baseline; 2) Web-based and Mobile-Based psychological interventions; 3) comparators will be usual care, attention control, waiting list or no intervention; 4) outcomes will be the incidence of new cases of perinatal depression and/or the reduction of depressive symptoms as measured by validated instruments; and 5) the design of the studies will be randomized controlled trials. No restrictions regarding the year or language of publication will be considered. Pooled standardized mean differences and 95% confidence intervals will be calculated. The risk of bias of the studies will be assessed through the Cochrane Collaboration risk of bias 2.0 tool. Heterogeneity and publication bias will be estimated. Sensitivity and sub-group analyses will also be conducted. Random effects meta-regression will be performed. Ethics and dissemination As a systematic review, ethical approval is not required. The results from this study will be presented at international conferences and disseminated through peer-reviewed publications. Patients and the public will be involved in the dissemination plans. PROSPERO registration number 230,089 (submitted).
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Aims and objectives: The aim of this systematic review was to summarize the key findings of empirical studies assessing the influence of maternal depression on child attachment security measured before 24 months after birth. Method: The study followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement guidelines. A literature search was conducted on the EBSCO (Academic Search Complete; Health Source: Nursing/Academic Edition; MEDLINE; PsycARTICLES) and PubMed databases, with infant attachment AND depression as search terms with Boolean operators. Study design or sample size did not affect inclusion. After screening, 29 of the 1510 unique publications originally identified were included in the review. Results: The studies reveal an equivocal association between maternal depression and child attachment security. Our findings indicate that depression had a significant influence on the attachment style almost only when diagnosed by structured interview: Depression measured by self-descriptive questionnaires was unrelated to attachment style. Furthermore, postpartum depression was found to be significant only when measured up to six months after childbirth. Conclusion: The relationship between maternal depression and infant attachment is both complex and dynamic, and the possible negative effects of depression might be compensated by maternal involvement in childcare. Therefore, further studies in this area should employ a reliable methodology for diagnosing depression and a suitable time point for measuring it; they should also adopt a multifactorial and prospective approach. It is important to note that breastfeeding/formula feeding was omitted as a factor in the majority of studies.
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Maternal mental disorders can significantly impact on children's psychosocial and psychological development, incurring substantial ongoing economic and personal costs. A key mediating mechanism is mother-infant relationship quality (MIRQ). Research studies and perinatal mental health screening initiatives have predominantly focused on depressive symptoms and perinatal depression as predictors of MIRQ. While maternal depression is associated with suboptimal MIRQ, the findings have not been consistent. Personality characteristics are associated with parenting and proneness to depression, presenting a potential addition to prenatal mental health assessment. We conducted a systematic review of studies that have examined the link between prenatal depressive symptoms and/or personality characteristics with postnatal MIRQ. Our findings suggest that both maternal personality traits and depressive symptoms measured in early pregnancy are associated with postnatal MIRQ. A measure of personality characteristics may enhance prenatal mental health assessment, affording opportunities for targeted intervention commencing in pregnancy to improve MIRQ, parenting, maternal mental health outcomes, and infant psychosocial and psychological development, and thereby contributing to the reduction of human and economic cost burdens. © 2019 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.
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Introduction The postpartum period represents the time of risk for the emergence of maternal postpartum depression. There are no systematic reviews of the overall maternal outcomes of maternal postpartum depression. The aim of this study was to evaluate both the infant and the maternal consequences of untreated maternal postpartum depression. Methods We searched for studies published between 1 January 2005 and 17 August 2016, using the following databases: MEDLINE via Ovid, PsycINFO, and the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group trials registry. Results A total of 122 studies (out of 3712 references retrieved from bibliographic databases) were included in this systematic review. The results of the studies were synthetized into three categories: (a) the maternal consequences of postpartum depression, including physical health, psychological health, relationship, and risky behaviors; (b) the infant consequences of postpartum depression, including anthropometry, physical health, sleep, and motor, cognitive, language, emotional, social, and behavioral development; and (c) mother–child interactions, including bonding, breastfeeding, and the maternal role. Discussion The results suggest that postpartum depression creates an environment that is not conducive to the personal development of mothers or the optimal development of a child. It therefore seems important to detect and treat depression during the postnatal period as early as possible to avoid harmful consequences.
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Objective To examine the influence of prenatal exercise on depression and anxiety during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Design Systematic review with random effects meta-analysis and meta-regression. Data sources Online databases were searched up to 6 January 2017. Study eligibility criteria Studies of all designs were included (except case studies) if they were published in English, Spanish or French and contained information on the Population (pregnant women without contraindication to exercise), Intervention (subjective or objective measures of frequency, intensity, duration, volume or type of exercise), Comparator (no exercise or different frequency, intensity, duration, volume and type of exercise) and Outcome (prenatal or postnatal depression or anxiety). Results A total of 52 studies (n=131 406) were included. ‘Moderate’ quality evidence from randomised controlled trials (RCTs) revealed that exercise-only interventions, but not exercise+cointerventions, reduced the severity of prenatal depressive symptoms (13 RCTs, n=1076; standardised mean difference: −0.38, 95% CI −0.51 to –0.25, I ² =10%) and the odds of prenatal depression by 67% (5 RCTs, n=683; OR: 0.33, 95% CI 0.21 to 0.53, I ² =0%) compared with no exercise. Prenatal exercise did not alter the odds of postpartum depression or the severity of depressive symptoms, nor anxiety or anxiety symptoms during or following pregnancy. To achieve at least a moderate effect size in the reduction of the severity of prenatal depressive symptoms, pregnant women needed to accumulate at least 644 MET-min/week of exercise (eg, 150 min of moderate intensity exercise, such as brisk walking, water aerobics, stationary cycling, resistance training). Summary/Conclusions Prenatal exercise reduced the odds and severity of prenatal depression.
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The present study evaluated the combined effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for postnatal depression. A systematic search was conducted across databases including PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane library to identify the randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that assessing CBT versus control for postnatal depression until March 2017. Data was extracted by two reviewers, independently. The Review Manager 5.3 and Stata 11.0 were used to calculate the synthesized effect of CBT on depression, and anxiety. A total of 20 RCTs involving 3623 participants were included. The results of meta-analysis showed that CBT was associated with a better Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) than control in short-term (mean difference = -2.86, 95% CI: -4.41–-1.31; P<0.05) and long-term (mean difference = -1.68, 95% CI: -1.81–1.56; P<0.05). CBT also improved short-term (mean difference = -6.30, 95% CI: -11.32–-1.28; P<0.05) and long-term (mean difference = -4.31, 95% CI: -6.92–-1.70; P<0.05) Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Subgroup analysis based on intervention types showed that in-home and telephone-based therapy exhibited significant reductions in EPDS scores (P<0.05 for all). CBT significantly improved the short-term [odds ratio (OR) = 6.57, 95% CI: 1.84–23.48; P<0.05] and long-term (OR = 2.00, 95% CI: 1.61–2.48; P<0.05) depressive symptomatology as compared to control. CBT also reduced the score of Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS), though without significance. In conclusion, CBT effectively improved the symptoms and progression of postnatal depression.
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Postpartum depression (PPD) is a major public health problem affecting 10–57% of adolescent mothers which can affect not only adolescent mothers but also their infants. Thus, there is a need for interventions to prevent PPD in adolescent mothers. However, recent systematic reviews have been focused on effective interventions to prevent PPD in adult mothers. These interventions may not necessarily be applicable for adolescent mothers. Therefore, the purpose of this review was to examine the effectiveness of the existing interventions to prevent PPD in adolescent mothers. A systematic search was performed in MEDLINE, CINAHL, and SCOPUS databases between January 2000 and March 2017 with English language and studies involving human subjects. Studies reporting on the outcomes of intervention to prevent PPD particularly in adolescent mothers were selected. Non-comparative studies were excluded. From 2002 identified records, 13 studies were included, reporting on 2236 adolescent pregnant women. The evidence from this systematic review suggests that 6 of 13 studies from both psychological and psychosocial interventions including (1) home-visiting intervention, (2) prenatal antenatal and postnatal educational program, (3) CBT psycho-educational, (4) the REACH program based on interpersonal therapy, and (5) infant massage training is successful in reducing rates of PPD symptoms in adolescent mothers in the intervention group than those mothers in the control group. These interventions might be considered for incorporation in antenatal care interventions for adolescent pregnant women. However, this review did not find evidence identifying the most effective intervention for preventing postpartum depression symptoms in adolescent mothers.
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Objectives Anxiety and/or depression during pregnancy or year after childbirth is the most common complication of childbearing. Economic evaluations of interventions for the prevention or treatment of perinatal anxiety and/or depression (PAD) were systematically reviewed with the aim of guiding researchers and commissioners of perinatal mental health services towards potentially cost-effective strategies. Methods Electronic searches were conducted on the MEDLINE, PsycINFO and NHS Economic Evaluation and Health Technology Assessment databases in September 2017 to identify relevant economic evaluations published since January 2000. Two stages of screening were used with prespecified inclusion/exclusion criteria. A data extraction form was designed prior to the literature search to capture key data. A published checklist was used to assess the quality of publications identified. Results Of the 168 non-duplicate citations identified, 8 studies met the inclusion criteria for the review; all but one focussing solely on postnatal depression in mothers. Interventions included prevention (3/8), treatment (3/8) or identification plus treatment (2/8). Two interventions were likely to be cost-effective, both incorporated identification plus treatment. Where the cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained was reported, interventions ranged from being dominant (cheaper and more effective than usual care) to costing £39 875/QALY. Conclusions Uncertainty and heterogeneity across studies in terms of setting and design make it difficult to make direct comparisons or draw strong conclusions. However, the two interventions incorporating identification plus treatment of perinatal depression were both likely to be cost-effective. Many gaps were identified in the economic evidence, such as the cost-effectiveness of interventions for perinatal anxiety, antenatal depression or interventions for fathers. PROSPERO registration number CRD42016051133.
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Background Family therapy is a potential strategy to increase family support for those suffering from perinatal depression. Family therapeutic interventions for this population typically target depressed women and their adult family members to improve family functioning and reduce depressive symptoms. Objective This systematic review and meta-analysis is a synthesis of the current evidence on the usefulness of family therapy interventions in the prevention and treatment of perinatal depression and impacts on maternal depressive symptoms and family functioning. Methods This study used the Cochrane Collaboration guidelines for systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Six electronic databases were searched for randomized controlled trials and cluster randomized trials. The primary outcomes included maternal depressive symptoms and family functioning. Results Seven studies were included in the qualitative and quantitative analyses. Fixed effects models showed statistically significant reductions in depressive symptoms at post-intervention in intervention group mothers. Intervention intensity and level of family involvement moderated intervention impacts on maternal depression. A fixed effects model showed a trend in improving family functioning at post-intervention in intervention group couples. Conclusion Although a limited number of controlled trials on family therapeutic interventions for this population exist, the findings show that these types of interventions are effective in both the prevention and treatment of perinatal depression. Recommendations for future research are addressed. Systematic review and meta-analysis protocol registration PROSPERO, CRD42017075150.
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Introduction: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is used to treat postpartum depression and psychosis based on clinical experience and small observational studies. Aims: The primary aim was to test the hypothesis that the response rate to ECT for depression and psychosis is higher during the postpartum period than outside this period. The secondary aim was to identify predictors of a response to ECT during the postpartum period. Materials and methods: Cases with postpartum depression and/or psychosis received ECT within 6 months of delivery. A matched comparison group with depression and/or psychosis (not within the postpartum period) was identified from the Swedish National Quality Register for ECT. The improvement 1 week after ECT was classified according to the Clinical Global Impressions Scale - Improvement scale (CGI-I) as responder (CGI-I score 1-2) or non-responder (CGI-I score 3-7). Results: 185 cases and 185 comparison group subjects were included (46% with psychosis in each groups). More cases (87.0%) than comparison group subjects (73.5%) responded to ECT (p = 0.001). Adjusted binary regression analysis revealed that more severe symptoms prior to treatment were the only statistically significant predictor of response. Limitations: There was no control group without ECT treatment. Conclusion: The response rate of those with postpartum depression and/or psychosis to ECT was high. The response rate of patients with psychosis or depression was higher during the postpartum period than outside it. This study supports the use of ECT for severe forms of postpartum depression and/or psychosis.
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Objective: Several countries have developed Clinical Practice Guidelines regarding treatment of perinatal depressive symptoms and perinatal use of antidepressant. We aimed to compare guidelines to guide clinicians in best clinical practice. Methods: An extensive search in guideline databases, MEDLINE and PsycINFO was performed. When no guidelines were (publicly) available online, we contacted psychiatric-, obstetric-, perinatal- and mood disorder societies of all first world countries and the five largest second world countries. Only Clinical Practice Guidelines adhering to quality criteria of the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation instrument and including a systematic review of evidence were included. Data extraction focussed on recommendations regarding continuation or withdrawal of antidepressants and preferred treatment in newly depressed patients. Results: Our initial search resulted in 1094 articles. After first screening, 40 full-text articles were screened. Of these, 24 were excluded for not being an official Clinical Practice Guidelines. In total, 16 Clinical Practice Guidelines were included originating from 12 countries. Eight guidelines were perinatal specific and eight were general guidelines. Conclusion: During pregnancy, four guidelines advise to continue antidepressants, while there is a lack of evidence supporting this recommendation. Five guidelines do not specifically advise or discourage continuation. For new episodes, guidelines agree on psychotherapy (especially cognitive behavioural therapy) as initial treatment for mild to moderate depression and antidepressants for severe depression, with a preference for sertraline. Paroxetine is not preferred treatment for new episodes but switching antidepressants for ongoing treatment is discouraged (three guidelines). If mothers use antidepressants, observation of the neonate is generally recommended and breastfeeding encouraged.
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Background Postpartum depression (PPD) poses a major global public health challenge. PPD is the most common complication associated with childbirth and exerts harmful effects on children. Although hundreds of PPD studies have been published, we lack accurate global or national PPD prevalence estimates and have no clear account of why PPD appears to vary so dramatically between nations. Accordingly, we conducted a meta-analysis to estimate the global and national prevalence of PPD and a meta-regression to identify economic, health, social, or policy factors associated with national PPD prevalence. Methods We conducted a systematic review of all papers reporting PPD prevalence using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. PPD prevalence and methods were extracted from each study. Random effects meta-analysis was used to estimate global and national PPD prevalence. To test for country level predictors, we drew on data from UNICEF, WHO, and the World Bank. Random effects meta-regression was used to test national predictors of PPD prevalence. Findings 291 studies of 296284 women from 56 countries were identified. The global pooled prevalence of PPD was 17.7% (95% confidence interval: 16.6–18.8%), with significant heterogeneity across nations (Q = 16,823, p = 0.000, I² = 98%), ranging from 3% (2–5%) in Singapore to 38% (35–41%) in Chile. Nations with significantly higher rates of income inequality (R² = 41%), maternal mortality (R² = 19%), infant mortality (R² = 16%), or women of childbearing age working ≥40 h a week (R² = 31%) have higher rates of PPD. Together, these factors explain 73% of the national variation in PPD prevalence. Interpretation The global prevalence of PPD is greater than previously thought and varies dramatically by nation. Disparities in wealth inequality and maternal-child-health factors explain much of the national variation in PPD prevalence.
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Partner-related factors associated with the occurrence of Postpartum Depression (PPD) may justify the partner’s inclusion in preventive and treatment approaches. The aim of this qualitative systematic review was to synthesize the literature on partner-inclusive interventions designed to prevent or treat postpartum depression (PPD) in women. In accordance with the PRISMA guidelines, the systematic search of studies published between 1967 and May 2015 in PsycINFO and PubMed identified 26 studies that met the inclusion criteria, which reported on 24 interventions. The following partner parameters were analyzed: participation type, session content, mental health assessment, attendance assessment, and the effects of partner’s participation on the women’s response to the interventions. Total participation by the partner was mostly reported in the prevention studies, whereas partial participation was reported in the treatment studies. The session content was mostly based on psychoeducation about PPD and parenthood, coping strategies to facilitate the transition to parenthood such as the partner’s emotional and instrumental support, and problem-solving and communication skills. Some benefits perceived by the couples underscore the relevance of the partner’s inclusion in PPD interventions. However, the scarce information about the partner’s attendance and the associated effects on the women’s intervention outcomes, along with methodological limitations of the studies, made it difficult to determine if the partner’s participation was associated with the intervention’s efficacy. Conclusions about the clinical value of including partners in PPD interventions are still limited. More research is warranted to better inform health policy strategies.
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Background: Women may not seek help for perinatal psychological distress, despite regular contact with primary care services. Barriers include ignorance of symptoms, inability to disclose distress, others' attitudes, and cultural expectations. Much of the evidence has been obtained from North American populations and may not, therefore, extrapolate to the UK. Aim: To understand the factors affecting women's decision to seek help for perinatal distress. Design and setting: Meta-synthesis of the available published qualitative evidence on UK women's experiences of seeking help for perinatal distress. Method: Systematic searches were conducted in accordance with PRISMA guidelines. Databases searched were PubMed, Scopus, PsycINFO, PsycARTICLES, CINAHL, and Academic Search Complete. Searches of grey literature and references were also conducted. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they reported qualitative data on UK women's experiences of perinatal distress and contact with healthcare professionals. The synthesis was conducted using meta-ethnography. Results: In all, 24 studies were eligible for inclusion. Metasynthesis identified three main themes: identifying a problem, the influence of healthcare professionals, and stigma. These themes build on current understanding of help seeking by identifying the need for women to be able to frame their experience, for healthcare professionals to educate women about their roles, the need for continuity of care, and the way that being seen as a 'bad mother' causes women to self-silence. Conclusion: Perinatal care provision needs to allow for continuity of care and for staff training that facilitates awareness of factors that influence women's help seeking. Further research is required, particularly in relation to effective means of identifying perinatal psychological distress.
Article
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Postpartum depression can have detrimental effects on both a mother’s physical and mental health and on her child’s growth and emotional development. The aim of this study is to assess the effectiveness of exercise/physical activity-based interventions in preventing and treating postpartum depressive symptoms in primiparous and multiparous women to the end of the postnatal period at 52 weeks postpartum. Electronic databases were searched for published and unpublished randomised controlled trials of exercise/physical activity-based interventions in preventing and treating depressive symptoms and increasing health-related quality of life in women from 4 to 52 weeks postpartum. The results of the studies were meta-analysed and effect sizes with confidence intervals were calculated. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment and Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system was used to determine the confidence in the effect estimates. Eighteen trials conducted across a range of countries met the inclusion criteria. Most of the exercise interventions were aerobic and coaching compared to usual care, non-intervention and active controls. Small effect sizes of exercise-based interventions in reducing depressive symptoms were observed collectively and the quality of evidence was low across the individual studies. Although exercise-based interventions could create an alternative therapeutic approach for preventing major depression in postpartum women who experience subthreshold elevated depressive symptoms, the clinical effectiveness and the cost-effectiveness of exercise-based and physical activity interventions need to be better established. There is a need for further more rigorous testing of such interventions in high-quality randomised controlled trials against active control conditions before large-scale roll-out of these interventions in clinical practice is proposed.
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Background: The perinatal period is a time of high risk for onset of depressive disorders and is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality, including maternal suicide. Perinatal depression comprises a heterogeneous group of clinical subtypes, and further refinement is needed to improve treatment outcomes. We sought to empirically identify and describe clinically relevant phenotypic subtypes of perinatal depression, and further characterise subtypes by time of symptom onset within pregnancy and three post-partum periods. Methods: Data were assembled from a subset of seven of 19 international sites in the Postpartum Depression: Action Towards Causes and Treatment (PACT) Consortium. In this analysis, the cohort was restricted to women aged 19-40 years with information about onset of depressive symptoms in the perinatal period and complete prospective data for the ten-item Edinburgh postnatal depression scale (EPDS). Principal components and common factor analysis were used to identify symptom dimensions in the EPDS. The National Institute of Mental Health research domain criteria functional constructs of negative valence and arousal were applied to the EPDS dimensions that reflect states of depressed mood, anhedonia, and anxiety. We used k-means clustering to identify subtypes of women sharing symptom patterns. Univariate and bivariate statistics were used to describe the subtypes. Findings: Data for 663 women were included in these analyses. We found evidence for three underlying dimensions measured by the EPDS: depressed mood, anxiety, and anhedonia. On the basis of these dimensions, we identified five distinct subtypes of perinatal depression: severe anxious depression, moderate anxious depression, anxious anhedonia, pure anhedonia, and resolved depression. These subtypes have clear differences in symptom quality and time of onset. Anxiety and anhedonia emerged as prominent symptom dimensions with post-partum onset and were notably severe. Interpretation: Our findings show that there might be different types and severity of perinatal depression with varying time of onset throughout pregnancy and post partum. These findings support the need for tailored treatments that improve outcomes for women with perinatal depression. Funding: Janssen Research & Development.
Article
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Introduction: Prevalence rates of postpartum depression (PPD) vary widely, depending on the methodological parameters used in studies: differences in study populations, diagnostic methods, and postpartum time frame. There is also no consensus on the ideal time to perform screening, on whether PPD can only be diagnosed in the early postnatal period, or on how soon after a delivery depression may be related to it. Objective: To review which instruments have been used over recent years to screen and diagnose PPD and the prevailing periods of diagnosis. Methods: Only articles published within 5 years and related exclusively to screening and diagnosis were selected. The sample comprised 22 articles. Results: The Edinburgh Posnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) was the most common screening tool, used in 68% of the sample (15 articles), followed by the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) (27%, 6 articles), and the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) (18%, 4 articles). Screening time frame was reported in 21/22 articles: 0 to 3 months postpartum in 9 (43%), up to 6 months in 4 (19%), and up to 12 months or more in 8 (38%). In short, 13 articles screened during the first 6 months (59%) while only 8 (36%) screened up to 1 year. Conclusion: The most frequent PPD diagnosis tool was the EPDS, but other scales were also used. The most common period for diagnosis was up to 3 months postpartum. However, some researchers diagnosed PPD 12 months or more postpartum. Greater standardization of parameters for investigation of this disease is needed.
Article
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Maternal depression, a non-psychotic depressive episode of mild to major severity, is one of the major contributors of pregnancy-related morbidity and mortality. Maternal depression (antepartum or post partum) has been linked to negative health-related behaviours and adverse outcomes, including psychological and developmental disturbances in infants, children, and adolescents. Despite its enormous burden, maternal depression in low-income and middle-income countries remains under-recognised and undertreated. In this Series paper, we systematically review studies that focus on the epidemiology of perinatal depression (ie, during antepartum and post-partum periods) among women residing in low-income and middle-income countries. We also summarise evidence for the association of perinatal depression with infant and childhood outcomes. This review is intended to summarise findings from the existing literature, identify important knowledge gaps, and set the research agenda for creating new generalisable knowledge pertinent to increasing our understanding of the prevalence, determinants, and infant and childhood health outcomes associated with perinatal depression. This review is also intended to set the stage for subsequent work aimed at reinforcing and accelerating investments toward providing services to manage maternal depression in low-income and middle-income countries.
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Background: Several studies have shown a connection between mothers with post-natal depression (PND) and emotional-behavioral problems in their children. Mothers' psychopathology may impair interactional patterns with children and these outcomes can be influenced by father's psychopathological symptoms. The primary aim of the study was to assess over time parent-infant interaction in families where mothers have experienced postnatal depression and have received psychological treatment during the child's first year of life considering the severity of parents' psychopathological symptoms and children's temperament. Methods: Three groups of families were involved: families with mothers with PND wherein both parents followed a psychological treatment (TxMF); families with mothers affected by PND wherein only the mother followed the treatment (TxM) and control families wherein the mothers did not have a psychopathological diagnosis and did not receive any treatment (Con). The families were assessed at two time points through Symptom Check-List-90-Revised (SCL-90-R), Questionari Italiani Temperamento (QUIT) and the video-recorded procedure observing mealtime Scala di Valutazione Interazioni Alimentari (SVIA). Results: Parents in the TxMF group had significantly lower SVIA scores (i.e . less maladaptive) at T2. TxMF group scored lower at T2 at SCL-90-R, whereas TxM showed no significant differences between T1 and T2. Involvement of fathers in the treatment was important to improve the psychopathological symptoms of both parents and the quality of interactions with their children.
Article
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Perinatal period may pose a great challenge for the clinical management and treatment of psychiatric disorders in women. In fact, several mental illnesses can arise during pregnancy and/or following childbirth. Suicide and infanticide have been considered relatively rare events during the perinatal period. However, in some mental disorders (i.e. postpartum depression, bipolar disorder, postpartum psychosis, etc.) have been reported a higher risk of suicidal ideation, suicide attempt or suicide. Therefore, a complete screening of mothers’ mental health should also take into account thoughts of suicide and thoughts about harming infants as well. Clinicians should carefully monitor and early identify related clinical manifestations, potential risk factors and alarm symptoms related to suicide. The present paper aims at providing a focused review about epidemiological data, risk and protective factors and an overview about the main clinical correlates associated with the suicidal behaviour during the pregnancy and postpartum period.
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The aim of the presented work is to provide an overview on the clinical data of the promising convulsive brain stimulation technique, the magnetic seizure therapy (MST). We review the advantages and disadvantages of MST, focusing on rationale, development and current treatment procedure. We also provide a summary of the current literature including clinical trials and case reports found in the PubMed database. Furthermore, we consider effectiveness and side effects, emphasizing on crucial issues to be addressed for a better understanding of this potential new treatment option in treatment-resistant depression (TRD).
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Postnatal depression (PND) is a major depressive disorder in the year following childbirth, which impacts on women, their infants and their families. A range of interventions has been developed to prevent PND. Objectives To (1) evaluate the clinical effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, acceptability and safety of antenatal and postnatal interventions for pregnant and postnatal women to prevent PND; (2) apply rigorous methods of systematic reviewing of quantitative and qualitative studies, evidence synthesis and decision-analytic modelling to evaluate the preventive impact on women, their infants and their families; and (3) estimate cost-effectiveness. Data sources We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index and other databases (from inception to July 2013) in December 2012, and we were updated by electronic alerts until July 2013. Review methods Two reviewers independently screened titles and abstracts with consensus agreement. We undertook quality assessment. All universal, selective and indicated preventive interventions for pregnant women and women in the first 6 postnatal weeks were included. All outcomes were included, focusing on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), diagnostic instruments and infant outcomes. The quantitative evidence was synthesised using network meta-analyses (NMAs). A mathematical model was constructed to explore the cost-effectiveness of interventions contained within the NMA for EPDS values. Results From 3072 records identified, 122 papers (86 trials) were included in the quantitative review. From 2152 records, 56 papers (44 studies) were included in the qualitative review. The results were inconclusive. The most beneficial interventions appeared to be midwifery redesigned postnatal care [as shown by the mean 12-month EPDS score difference of –1.43 (95% credible interval –4.00 to 1.36)], person-centred approach (PCA)-based and cognitive–behavioural therapy (CBT)-based intervention (universal), interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT)-based intervention and education on preparing for parenting (selective), promoting parent–infant interaction, peer support, IPT-based intervention and PCA-based and CBT-based intervention (indicated). Women valued seeing the same health worker, the involvement of partners and access to several visits from a midwife or health visitor trained in person-centred or cognitive–behavioural approaches. The most cost-effective interventions were estimated to be midwifery redesigned postnatal care (universal), PCA-based intervention (indicated) and IPT-based intervention in the sensitivity analysis (indicated), although there was considerable uncertainty. Expected value of partial perfect information (EVPPI) for efficacy data was in excess of £150M for each population. Given the EVPPI values, future trials assessing the relative efficacies of promising interventions appears to represent value for money. Limitations In the NMAs, some trials were omitted because they could not be connected to the main network of evidence or did not provide EPDS scores. This may have introduced reporting or selection bias. No adjustment was made for the lack of quality of some trials. Although we appraised a very large number of studies, much of the evidence was inconclusive. Conclusions Interventions warrant replication within randomised controlled trials (RCTs). Several interventions appear to be cost-effective relative to usual care, but this is subject to considerable uncertainty. Future work recommendations Several interventions appear to be cost-effective relative to usual care, but this is subject to considerable uncertainty. Future research conducting RCTs to establish which interventions are most clinically effective and cost-effective should be considered. Study registration This study is registered as PROSPERO CRD42012003273. Funding The National Institute for Health Research Health Technology Assessment programme.
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Background: The purpose was to describe utilization of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), including trends in prevalence, characteristics of users, drug switching and changes in prescribed doses in a large group of pregnant women across four Nordic countries. Methods: A drug utilization study based on linked individual-level data from the nationwide prescription- and medical birth registers in Denmark, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. The study population comprised all pregnancies in these countries, resulting in a live birth or stillbirth after gestational week 22 from January 1st 2008 to December 31st 2012 (N = 1 162 470). In addition to the main study drugs SSRIs and SNRIs, we included (concurrent) use of other antidepressants, antipsychotics, anxiolytics and hypnotics. Results: A total of 38 219 (3.3%) pregnancies were exposed to SSRIs and 5 634 (0.5%) to SNRIs. Prevalence of SSRI and SNRI use varied by country (1.8% in Norway to 7.0% in Iceland). Use and prescribed dosages decreased with each passing trimester of pregnancy; prevalence was 2.7% at conception, and 2.1%, 1.7% and 1.3% respectively in 1st, 2nd and 3rd trimester. In 0.6% of pregnancies women filled a prescription before pregnancy and in every trimester. In one third of exposed pregnancies, women were also dispensed anxiolytics, hypnotics or sedatives. Conclusion: Use of SSRI and SNRI use during pregnancy varied between the Nordic countries, but the overall prevalence remained low and relatively stable from 2008 to 2012. The low prevalence of use and high proportion of women who discontinue treatment in pregnancy raise questions about adequate treatment of depression in pregnant women.
Article
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Background Maternal depression in the postpartum period confers substantial morbidity and mortality, but the definition of postpartum depression remains controversial. We investigated the heterogeneity of symptoms with the aim of identifying clinical subtypes of postpartum depression. Methods Data were aggregated from the international perinatal psychiatry consortium Postpartum Depression: Action Towards Causes and Treatment, which represents 19 institutions in seven countries. 17 912 unique subject records with phenotypic data were submitted. We applied latent class analyses in a two-tiered approach to assess the validity of empirically defined subtypes of postpartum depression. Tier one assessed heterogeneity in women with complete data on the Edinburgh postnatal depression scale (EPDS) and tier two in those with postpartum depression case status. Findings 6556 individuals were assessed in tier one and 4245 in tier two. A final model with three latent classes was optimum for both tiers. The most striking characteristics associated with postpartum depression were severity, timing of onset, comorbid anxiety, and suicidal ideation. Women in class 1 had the least severe symptoms (mean EPDS score 10·5), followed by those in class 2 (mean EPDS score 14·8) and those in class 3 (mean EPDS score 20·1). The most severe symptoms of postpartum depression were significantly associated with poor mood (mean EPDS score 20·1), increased anxiety, onset of symptoms during pregnancy, obstetric complications, and suicidal ideation. In class 2, most women (62%) reported symptom onset within 4 weeks postpartum and had more pregnancy complications than in other two classes (69% vs 67% in class 1 and 29% in class 3). Interpretation PPD seems to have several distinct phenotypes. Further assessment of PPD heterogeneity to identify more precise phenotypes will be important for future biological and genetic investigations. Funding Sources of funding are listed at the end of the article.
Article
(JAMA. 2019;321(6):588–601) Perinatal depression is defined as a major or minor depressive episode during pregnancy or up to 1 year after childbirth, and is estimated to affect >180,000 new mothers annually in the United States. There are numerous risk factors that indicate a higher likelihood of developing perinatal depression after childbirth, but there is no standard practice in place for care providers for perinatal depression prevention. This systematic review study aimed to examine various perinatal depression interventions to develop a new US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendation.
Article
Tackling mental disorders before they arise in pregnant women and new mothers is an approach that could be scaled up online — and would aid the overall health of populations. Tackling mental disorders before they arise in pregnant women and new mothers is an approach that could be scaled up online — and would aid the overall health of populations. Pregnant women paint their bellies with smiling faces to celebrate "Healthy Maternity Week"
Article
Background: Depression in pregnancy negatively affects maternal-child health. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), a non-invasive brain stimulation treatment for depression, has not been evaluated in pregnancy. Objective: To conduct a pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT) to evaluate tDCS for antenatal depression. Methods: In this pilot RCT in Toronto, Ontario (October 2014 to December 2016), adult pregnant women 14-32 weeks gestation with major depressive disorder who had declined antidepressant medication were considered for inclusion. Participants were randomly assigned 1:1 to tDCS or sham-control. Active tDCS comprised 30-min sessions of 2 mAmp direct current delivered over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, 5 days per week, for 3 weeks. Sham was administered similarly, but with current turned off after 30 s. Main outcomes were feasibility, acceptability, and protocol adherence. Maternal Montgomery Asperg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) was measured post-treatment and at 4 and 12 weeks postpartum. Results: Of 20 women randomized, 16 completed treatment and provided data (124 tDCS, 122 sham sessions). Views of treatment were positive with no serious adverse events. Post-treatment estimated marginal mean MADRS scores were 11.8 (standard error, SE 2.66) for tDCS and 15.4 (SE 2.51) for sham (p = 0.34). At 4 weeks postpartum, 75.0% of tDCS women were remitted versus 12.5% sham-control (p = 0.04). Conclusions: Results support proceeding to a definitive RCT to evaluate tDCS for antenatal depression. The preliminary efficacy estimates immediately post-treatment and in the postpartum, are encouraging with respect to the potential use of tDCS to improve treatment rates in this population. The trial was registered at: clinical trials.gov (NCT02116127).
Preprint
Background: Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) has been suggested as an alternative treatment to postnatal depression (PPD). Objectives: This systematic review aims to examine and summarise evidence on rTMS efficacy in treating depression during the postnatal period. Methods: We included randomized and non-randomized, single arm, and case report studies, with active rTMS and theta-burst stimulation, sham rTMS, pharmacotherapy or no treatment as comparators. Participants included women with PPD, who were administered rTMS after delivery and up to 12 months postpartum. The observed outcomes were response rate and acceptability. Results: rTMS shows promising results, with clinically significant decreases in Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) scores at week 4 and an overall low risk of dropout. Limitations: The reduced number of reports, the lack of complete datasets and the serious/high risk of bias of the studies warrant cautious interpretations. Conclusions and implications: Despite the promising results, existing evidence on rTMS efficacy is limited, and questions remain on what the most beneficial stimulation parameters should be. Future multicentre randomized clinical trials are needed to better ascertain the clinical efficacy of rTMS in the treatment of depression in the postpartum period.
Article
Background Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) is an efficacious treatment for major depressive disorder (MDD), however there is limited safety and efficacy data in the peripartum period. The purpose of this review is to systematically examine the safety, acceptability and effectiveness of rTMS administered during the peripartum period as an intervention for MDD. Methods We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsychINFO from 2008 to January 2019 to identify peer reviewed publications evaluating rTMS during the peripartum period as an intervention for peripartum MDD. We systematically extracted reported adverse events, side effects, rates of discontinuation, as well as clinical response and remission. Results Data was synthesized from 1 randomized control trial, 3 uncontrolled trials, 3 case series and 5 case studies, representing a total of 87 patients. No serious adverse events were reported. Side effects occurred at rates comparable to those observed in the non-peripartum population, and obstetric and neonatal complications are infrequent and do not separate from sham-rTMS. Randomized controlled data suggests antidepressant efficacy with an effect size of 0.87. Uncontrolled studies report rates of clinical response between 41.4% and 71.4%, and rates of clinical remission between 20.7 and 30.0%. The treatment appears acceptable, with few patients opting to discontinue treatment. Limitations Due to the paucity of research in this population, majority of data comes from sources with inherently higher risk of bias. Conclusions: rTMS in the peripartum period appears to be efficacious, acceptable and well tolerated. Additional research is required, however rTMS's risk benefit profile may be attractive to women in the peripartum period.
Article
Background: Clinical practice guidelines recommend that women be screened for depression as a routine component of maternity care however there is ongoing debate about the benefits of depression screening programs in this context. Aim: This narrative review identifies and describes the clinical effectiveness of perinatal depression screening programs in relation to one or more of the following interrelated domains: referral for additional mental health support or treatment; engagement with mental health support or treatment options; and, maternal mental health or parenting outcomes. Methods: English-language studies, published up to July 2017, were identified and their methodological quality was assessed. RCTs and non-RCTs were included. Results: Overall, the majority of the fourteen studies identified showed that participation in a perinatal depression screening program increases referral rates and service use, and is associated with more optimal emotional health outcomes. One of four available studies demonstrated an improvement in parenting outcomes as a result of participation in an integrated postnatal depression screening program. Conclusion: This small but important body of work is integral to the continuing debate over the merits of screening for depression in the perinatal period. Current evidence favours the overall benefits of perinatal depression screening programs across the three focus areas of this review. Future research should consider a woman's broader psychosocial context and should address the economic as well as clinical outcomes of these programs. Rigorous evaluation of emerging digital approaches to perinatal depression screening is also required.
Article
Importance: Depression during pregnancy and the postpartum period is relatively common and can have adverse effects on both mother and child. Objective: To systematically review benefits and harms of primary care-relevant interventions to prevent perinatal depression, a major or minor depressive episode during pregnancy or up to 1 year after childbirth, to inform the US Preventive Services Task Force. Data sources: MEDLINE, PubMED (for publisher-supplied records only), PsycINFO, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials; surveillance through December 5, 2018. Study selection: Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) and nonrandomized controlled intervention studies of interventions (eg, behavior-based, antidepressants, dietary supplements) to prevent perinatal depression in general populations of pregnant and postpartum individuals or in those at increased risk of perinatal depression. Large cohort studies were considered for harms of antidepressant use only. Data extraction and synthesis: Two investigators independently reviewed abstracts and full-text articles and quality rated included studies. Random-effects meta-analysis was used to estimate the benefits of the interventions. Main outcomes and measures: Depression status; depression symptoms; maternal, infant, and child health outcomes. Results: Fifty studies (N = 22 385) that met inclusion criteria were identified. Counseling interventions were the most widely studied interventions. Compared with controls, counseling interventions were associated with a lower likelihood of onset of perinatal depression (pooled risk ratio [RR], 0.61 [95% CI, 0.47-0.78]; 17 RCTs [n = 3094]; I2 = 39.0%). The absolute difference in the risk of perinatal depression ranged from 1.3% greater reduction in the control group to 31.8% greater reduction in the intervention group. Health system interventions showed a benefit in 3 studies (n = 5321) and had a pooled effect size similar to that of the counseling interventions, but the pooled effect was not statistically significant using a method appropriate for pooling a small number of studies (restricted maximum likelihood RR, 0.58 [95% CI, 0.22-1.53]; n = 4738; I2 = 66.3%; absolute risk reduction range, -3.1% to -13.1%). None of the behavior-based interventions reported on harms directly. A smaller percentage of participants prescribed sertraline had a depression recurrence compared with those prescribed placebo (7% vs 50%, P = .04) at 20 weeks postpartum in 1 very small RCT (n = 22 analyzed) but with an increased risk of adverse effects to the mother. Conclusions and relevance: Counseling interventions can be effective in preventing perinatal depression, although most evidence was limited to women at increased risk for perinatal depression. A variety of other intervention approaches provided some evidence of effectiveness but lacked a robust evidence base and need further research.
Article
Problem: Postpartum depression affects many women globally, yet rates of treatment use are low. A comprehensive view of factors associated with treatment use, from women's and providers' perspectives, based on a theoretical model is lacking. Background: Several studies examined various factors associated with postpartum depression service use; however, each study focused on a small number of factors. Aim: This study describes a systematic literature review based on the Behavioral Model of Health Service Use. The purpose of this article is to review and synthesize the available literature regarding factors associated with women's mental health service use for postpartum depression from women's and healthcare providers' perspectives, and provide a comprehensive integrative view of the subject. Methods: Three electronic databases were searched, and 35 studies published up to 2018 in English language journals met inclusion criteria for review. Factors associated with postpartum depression service use were classified according to the Behavioral Model of Health Service Use's constructs. Findings: Service use for postpartum depression is a function of a woman's predisposition to use mental health services; individual, familial, and communal factors which enable or pose barriers to use of mental health services; and the woman's perceived or evaluated need for treatment. In addition, societal determinants impact the woman's decision to seek help directly or through impacting the health and mental health care service system's resources and organization. Conclusion: This review illustrates key factors for researchers and practitioners to consider when treating postpartum women and developing interventions to enhance postpartum depression treatment use.
Article
Background: It is still largely unknown whether physical activity (PA) during pregnancy may be useful to avert subsequent postpartum depression (PPD). We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the preventive effects of PA during pregnancy on PPD. Methods: A systematic review of English and non-English articles was conducted using CINAHL, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, PsycINFO, MEDLINE, SportDiscuss and Web of Science databases. Studies which tested the effect of any type of PA measured during pregnancy on depression or depressive symptoms in the first year postpartum were included. Relevant articles were extracted independently by 2 authors using predefined data fields, including study quality indicators. The protocol was registered on PROSPERO (CRD42018087086). Results: Twenty one studies, fit our selection criteria. Among them, seventeen studies were included in the meta-analysis, representing 93 676 women. Robust Variance Estimation random-effects meta-analysis indicated a significant reduction in postpartum depression scores (Overall SMD = -0.22 [95% CI -0.42 to -0.01], p = 0.04; I2 = 86.4%) for women physically active during pregnancy relative to those who were not active. This association was reinforced in intervention studies (SMD = -0.58 [9% CI -1.09 to -0.08]). Limitations: Overall meta-analysis showed important heterogeneity in PA assessment, suggesting the existence of potential moderators such as intensity, frequency, trimester of pregnancy or type of physical activity practiced. Conclusions: PA during pregnancy appears to reduce the risk of PPD symptoms. High quality studies addressing the role of PA in the perinatal period and its impact on new mother's mental health remain necessary.
Article
Background: Major depressive disorder (MDD) affects 10% of pregnancies. Because transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a nonmedication option, psychiatric patients who do not tolerate or prefer to avoid antidepressants are good candidates for TMS. Method: In a randomized controlled trial of twenty-two women with MDD in the second or third trimester of pregnancy, subjects were randomized to active TMS (n=11) or sham TMS (n=11). This study took place at a single academic center. Subjects received 20 sessions of TMS to the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex at 1 Hz as a single train of 900 pulses per session at 100% motor threshold. Estradiol and progesterone and were measured before session 1 and after session 20. Results: Results demonstrated significantly decreased Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS-17) scores for the active compared to the sham group (p=0.003). Response rates were 81.82% for the active and 45.45% for the sham coil (p=0.088). Remission rates were 27.27% for the active 18.18% for the sham coil (p=0.613). Late preterm birth (PTB) occurred in three women receiving active TMS. All other maternal and delivery outcomes were normal. Conclusions: Right-sided, low frequency TMS was effective in reducing depressive symptoms in this sample of pregnant women. There may be a possibility that TMS is associated with late PTB although a larger sample size would be needed for adequate power to detect a true difference between groups. This study demonstrated that TMS is low risk during pregnancy although larger trials would provide more information about the efficacy and safety of TMS in this population. This trial shows that an RCT of a biologic intervention in pregnant women with psychiatric illness can be conducted.
Article
Background: Perinatal depression has been associated with infant low birth weight and with multiple health indicators affecting childhood morbidity and mortality. The condition is twice as prevalent in low and middle-income countries (LMICs) compared to high-income countries but poorly studied. Aim: To conduct a review of published literature on interventions for perinatal depression in LMICs. Methods: A search of the literature was performed for articles published up to October 2017. The key inclusion criteria were peer-reviewed studies focusing on interventions for perinatal depression during pregnancy and/or up to one-year postpartum. Results: 1088 citations were retrieved, of which 18 studies with representation from countries in Africa, Asia, North America (Mexico) and South America were included. The majority of interventions were conducted in lower-income settings. Most were psychosocial in nature and often provided by lay health workers and in the community. Interventions integrated as part of general health programs and employing psychotherapeutic approaches were more effective and were also preferred. Only one study incorporated the use of psychiatric medications. Conclusion: Despite the limited publications, there is reasonable evidence for the benefit of psychological interventions in perinatal depression in LMICs. More research is needed to verify and extend these results and, in particular, to evaluate the benefit of adjunctive medications when treating moderate to severe depression and whether interventions can increase social supports.
Article
The importance of maternal depression for child outcomes is well established, and impairments in psychosocial function and parenting are as severe in women with high subsyndromal levels of depressive symptoms as they are in women with clinical depression. The author conducted a systematic review that explored the association between maternal depressive symptoms and child neurodevelopmental outcomes, including in neuroimaging studies. The results strongly suggest that the influences of maternal depressive symptoms operate across a continuum to influence child outcomes, implying that maternal depression may appropriately be considered an issue of population health. This conclusion is strengthened by recent findings that reveal distinct influences of positive maternal mental health on parenting and child outcomes. [AJP at 175: Remembering Our Past As We Envision Our Future April 1851: Fleetwood Churchill, "On the Mental Disorders of Pregnancy and Childbed" "Women affected with any degree of mental derangement during pregnancy are more disposed than others to puerperal mania. But the serious character of these attacks is even deepened by the fact, abundantly established, that the evil is not limited to the mother. Not only may organic diseases of the body be transmitted to the infant, but a predisposition to insanity, thus multiplying the distress in a most alarming ratio." (Am J Psychiatry 1851; 7:297-317 )].
Article
Purpose To explore trends in use of maternal medication 3 months prior to, during and 3 months after pregnancy. Method Data on births from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway were linked to the Norwegian Prescription Database, identifying women's use of medications around pregnancy. All women giving birth in Norway during 2005 to 2015 (638 532 singleton births to 414 567 women) were included. Proportions of pregnant women using different medications in association with pregnancy, and annual relative change in medication use during 2005 to 2015, were calculated. Results In Norway, 60% of pregnant women used prescription medications during pregnancy (2005‐15), increasing from 57% in 2005 to 62% in 2015. The annual relative increase was 0.9% (95% CI: 0.8‐1.0). In the first trimester, approximately 17% of the women used medications regarded as potentially teratogenic during 2005 to 2015, increasing from 15% to 19%. Overall, this proportion was higher in the first than in the second (8.9%) and third (8.0%) trimesters, and higher than in the 3 months after pregnancy (14%). The annual relative increase of medications regarded as potentially teratogenic in the first trimester was 2.5% (95% CI: 2.3‐2.7). Conclusion The proportion of women using potentially teratogenic medications in the first trimester of pregnancy have increased during the last decade. Clinicians need to be aware of the possibility of pregnancy when prescribing potentially teratogenic medication to women of fertile age and focus this in the consultations. The increasing trends call for the need of routine surveillance of adverse birth outcomes linked to medication use in pregnancy.
Article
Women with psychiatric disorders during pregnancy and the postpartum period (i.e., perinatal period) are at increased risk for adverse maternal and child outcomes. Effective treatment of psychiatric disorders during the perinatal period is imperative. This review summarizes the outcomes of 78 studies focused on the treatment of depression, anxiety, and trauma-related disorders during the perinatal period. The majority of studies focused on perinatal depression (n = 73). Of the five studies focused on anxiety or trauma-related disorders, only one was a randomized controlled trial (RCT). The most studied treatment was cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT; n = 22), followed by interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT; n = 13). Other interventions reviewed include other talk therapies (n = 5), collaborative care models (n = 2), complementary and alternative medicine approaches (n = 18), light therapy (n = 3), brain stimulation (n = 2), and psychopharmacological interventions (n = 13). Eleven studies focused specifically on treatment for low-income and/or minority women. Both CBT and IPT demonstrated a significant benefit over control conditions. However, findings were mixed when these interventions were examined in low-income and/or minority samples. There is some support for complementary and alternative medicine approaches (e.g., exercise). Although scarce, SSRIs demonstrated good efficacy when compared to a placebo. However, SSRIs did not outperform another active treatment condition (e.g., CBT). There is a tremendous need for more studies focused on treatment of perinatal anxiety and trauma-related disorders, as well as psychopharmacological effectiveness studies. Limitations and future directions of perinatal treatment research, particularly among low-income and/or minority populations, are discussed.
Article
Background: Depression is common in the postnatal period and can lead to adverse effects on the infant and wider family, in addition to the morbidity for the mother. It is not clear whether antidepressants are effective for the prevention of postnatal depression and little is known about possible adverse effects for the mother and infant, particularly during breastfeeding. This is an update of a Cochrane Review last published in 2005. Objectives: To assess the effectiveness of antidepressant medication for the prevention of postnatal depression, in comparison with any other treatment, placebo or standard care. Search methods: We searched the Cochrane Common Mental Disorders Controlled Trials Register (CCMDCTR ‒ both Studies and References), CENTRAL (Wiley), MEDLINE (OVID), Embase (OVID), PsycINFO (OVID), on 13 February 2018. We also searched the World Health Organization (WHO) trials portal (ICTRP) and ClinicalTrials.gov on 13 February 2018 to identify any additional unpublished or ongoing studies. Selection criteria: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of initiation of antidepressants (alone or in combination with another treatment), compared with any other treatment, placebo or standard care for the prevention of postnatal depression among women who were either pregnant or had given birth in the previous six weeks and were not currently depressed at baseline. Data collection and analysis: We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. We requested missing information from investigators wherever possible and sought data to allow intention-to-treat analyses. Main results: Two trials including a total of 81 participants fulfilled the inclusion criteria for this review. All participants in both studies had a history of postnatal depression and were not taking antidepressant medication at baseline. Both trials were conducted by the same research group. Risk of bias was low or unclear in most domains for both studies. We were unable to perform a meta-analysis due to the small number of studies.One study compared nortriptyline with placebo and did not find any evidence that nortriptyline was effective in preventing postnatal depression. In this study, 23% (6/26) of women who took nortriptyline and 24% (6/25) of women who took placebo experienced postnatal depression (RR 0.96, 95% CI 0.36 to 2.59, very low quality evidence) in the first 17 weeks postpartum. One woman taking nortriptyline developed mania; and one side effect, constipation, was more common among women taking nortriptyline than those taking placebo.The second study compared sertraline with placebo. In this study, 7% (1/14) of women who took sertraline developed postnatal depression in the first 17 weeks postpartum compared with 50% (4/8) of women who took placebo. It is uncertain whether sertraline reduces the risk of postnatal depression (RR 0.14, 95% CI 0.02 to 1.07, very low quality evidence). One woman taking sertraline had a hypomanic episode. Two side effects (dizziness and drowsiness) were more common among women taking sertraline than women taking placebo.Conclusions are limited by the small number of studies, small sample sizes and incomplete outcome data due to study drop-out which may have led to bias in the results. We have assessed the certainty of the evidence as very low, based on the GRADE system. No data were available on secondary outcomes of interest including child development, the mother‒infant relationship, breastfeeding, maternal daily functioning, family relationships or maternal satisfaction. Authors' conclusions: Due to the limitations of the current evidence base, such as the low statistical power of the included studies, it is not possible to draw any clear conclusions about the effectiveness of antidepressants for the prevention of postnatal depression. It is striking that no new eligible trials have been completed in the period of over a decade since the last published version of this review. Larger trials are needed which include comparisons of antidepressant drugs with other prophylactic treatments (e.g. psychological interventions), and examine adverse effects for the fetus or infant. Future reviews in this area may benefit from broadening their focus to examine the effectiveness of antidepressants for the prevention of perinatal (i.e. antenatal or postnatal) depression, which could include studies comparing antidepressant discontinuation with continuation for the prevention of relapse of depression during pregnancy and the postnatal period.
Article
We sought to establish the feasibility and preliminary effects of home-wearable light therapy for postpartum depression, and its effects on circadian measures. Eight women within 6 months postpartum were prescribed 60 min of daily morning light therapy for 5 weeks. The device was well tolerated. Significant improvements were observed in self-report and clinician-rated depression symptoms, with little change in objective circadian measures. Home-wearable light therapy is feasible for postpartum women and may be a promising treatment for postpartum depression. Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT02769858
Article
Background Interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) has demonstrated efficacy for the prevention and treatment of perinatal depression. Previous systematic reviews have not evaluated the effects of IPT on other outcomes, most notably symptoms of anxiety and interpersonal functioning, or assessed moderators of treatment efficacy specific to IPT. Method A systematic review identified 28 studies assessing the efficacy of IPT during pregnancy or the first year postpartum. Random effects meta-analyses assessed the average change in outcomes (depression, anxiety, relationship quality, social adjustment, and social support) from pre- to post-treatment, the difference in the change in outcomes between treatment and comparison conditions, and the difference in prevalence of depressive episodes between treatment and comparison conditions. Study, intervention, and sample characteristics were evaluated as potential moderators of effect sizes. Results In prevention studies, IPT was effective for reducing depressive symptoms and the prevalence of depressive episodes. In treatment studies, IPT reduced symptoms of depression and anxiety and improved relationship quality, social adjustment and social support. Few significant moderators were identified, and results of moderation analyses were inconsistent across outcomes. Limitations There are insufficient studies to evaluate the effects of preventive IPT on anxiety and interpersonal outcomes. Analyses of potential moderators were limited by the number of studies available for subgroup comparisons. Conclusions IPT is an effective preventive intervention for perinatal depression. IPT is clearly effective for treating depressive symptoms and promising as a treatment for anxiety and improving interpersonal functioning. Further research is necessary to assess whether adaptations to IPT enhance its efficacy.
Article
Introduction: Postpartum depression (PPD) is a serious maternal disorder that can have adverse effects on maternal and infant health. The importance of offering effective and acceptable treatments is well recognized, particularly given the numerous barriers women in many settings face in accessing interventions for PPD. The aim of this systematic review was to synthesize qualitative research exploring women's experiences of professional psychological and psychosocial support for PPD. Methods: A systematic review of the literature was conducted in April 2017 by searching 5 electronic databases (CINAHL, MEDLINE, PubMed, Ovid, and Web of Science). Qualitative research studies published in English that explored women's experiences of professional psychosocial support for PPD were included, whereas studies exploring women's experiences of antidepressant medication only were excluded. Seventeen articles met inclusion criteria and were appraised for methodologic quality. Data were synthesized using the interpretive thematic synthesis method. Results: Four main themes were identified: the process of help-seeking, barriers to seeking and accepting support, valued aspects of support, and outcomes. Women found the process of seeking help difficult, with several barriers preventing them from both seeking and accepting professional support. Despite this, women described the support received as beneficial and particularly valued the therapeutic relationship. Women reported 1) feeling more positive and confident after receiving a psychological and/or psychosocial intervention and 2) experiencing better relationships with their infant and other family members. Discussion: Although seeking and accepting professional support for PPD was a difficult process, women highly valued mental health care support and perceived it as beneficial. Clinical services should aim to address the barriers women face in accessing mental health care and empower women to feel in control throughout the process, offering interventions appropriate to each woman's personal circumstance.
Article
Background: Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is a leading cause of the disease burden for women of childbearing age, but the burden of MDD attributable to perinatal depression is not yet known. There has been little effort to date to systematically review available literature and produce global estimates of prevalence and incidence of perinatal depression. Enhanced understanding will help to guide resource allocation for screening and treatment. Methods: A systematic literature review using the databases PsycINFO and PubMED returned 140 usable prevalence estimates from 96 studies. A random-effects meta-regression was performed to determine sources of heterogeneity in prevalence estimates between studies and to guide a subsequent random-effects meta-analysis. Results: The meta-regression explained 31.1% of the variance in prevalence reported between studies. Adjusting for the effects of all other variables in the model, prevalence derived using symptom scales was significantly higher than prevalence derived using diagnostic instruments (odds ratio [OR] 1.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.3-2.0). Additionally, prevalence was significantly higher in women from low and middle income countries compared to women from high income countries (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.4-2.2). The overall pooled prevalence was 11.9% of women during the perinatal period (95% CI 11.4-12.5). There were insufficient data to calculate pooled incidence. Limitations: Studies in low income countries were especially scarce in this review, demonstrating a need for more epidemiological research in those regions. Conclusions: Perinatal depression appears to impose a higher burden on women in low- and middle-income countries. This review contributes significantly to the epidemiological literature on the disorder.
Article
Antidepressants are commonly recommended for prevention of postpartum depression; however, there is a lack of clarity about their role in the reduction of postpartum recurrences. Surprisingly, there are only two randomized controlled trials, one open trial, and one prospective cohort study on the subject. Evidence in support of the use of antidepressants is limited to a study of only 22 women. Due to the paucity of extant literature, no firm conclusions can be drawn about the prophylactic efficacy of antidepressants.
Chapter
Pharmacovigilance studies are vital to our understanding of the safety of medications in pregnancy, but great care must be taken in the analysis and interpretation of observational data to avoid problems with confounding and bias. Data on drug excretion in breast milk and possible effects of the breastfed infant often stem from case reports or small case series, making the generalization of the results a challenge. This chapter reviews the safety of psychotropic drugs in pregnant and breastfeeding women and discusses methodological issues that have to be dealt with in the interpretation of published data.
Article
Background: Treating prenatal mental health issues is of great importance, but access to treatment is often poor. One way of accessing treatment is through computer- or web-based interventions. Reviews have shown that these interventions can be effective for a variety of mental health disorder across different populations. However, their effectiveness for women in the perinatal period has not been reviewed. This review therefore aimed to provide a first overview of computer- or web-based interventions for women's perinatal mental health issues by systematically identifying and reviewing their characteristics and efficacy. Methods: Twelve electronic databases were searched for published and unpublished literature using keywords, supplemented by hand searches. Data were extracted for characteristics of the intervention and the study, study findings and the methodological quality was assessed. Results: The majority of the eleven eligible studies were randomized controlled trials. Interventions were targeted at depression, stress, and complicated grief during the antenatal or postpartum period or the time after pregnancy loss. Findings suggest that computer- or web-based interventions targeted at improving mental health, especially depression and complicated grief, may be effective. Limitations: Findings and their generalizability is limited by the heterogeneity of reviewed interventions and study designs, as well as methodological limitations. Conclusions: This systematic review constitutes the first synthesis of research on computer- or web-based interventions for perinatal mental health issues and provides preliminary support that this could be a promising form of treatment during this period. However, there are significant gaps in the current evidence-base so further research is needed.
Article
We examined the use of near-infrared and red radiation (photobiomodulation, PBM) for treating major depressive disorder (MDD). While still experimental, preliminary data on the use of PBM for brain disorders are promising. PBM is low-cost with potential for wide dissemination; further research on PBM is sorely needed. We found clinical and preclinical studies via PubMed search (2015), using the following keywords: "near-infrared radiation," "NIR," "low-level light therapy," "low-level laser therapy," or "LLLT" plus "depression." We chose clinically focused studies and excluded studies involving near-infrared spectroscopy. In addition, we used PubMed to find articles that examine the link between PBM and relevant biological processes including metabolism, inflammation, oxidative stress, and neurogenesis. Studies suggest the processes aforementioned are potentially effective targets for PBM to treat depression. There is also clinical preliminary evidence suggesting the efficacy of PBM in treating MDD, and comorbid anxiety disorders, suicidal ideation, and traumatic brain injury. Based on the data collected to date, PBM appears to be a promising treatment for depression that is safe and well-tolerated. However, large randomized controlled trials are still needed to establish the safety and effectiveness of this new treatment for MDD.
Article
No previous studies have explored how closely women follow their psychotropic drug regimens during pregnancy. This study aimed to explore patterns of and factors associated with low adherence to psychotropic medication during pregnancy. Multinational web-based study was performed in 18 countries in Europe, North America, and Australia. Uniform data collection was ensured via an electronic questionnaire. Pregnant women were eligible to participate. Adherence was measured via the 8-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8). The Beliefs about Prescribed Medicines Questionnaire (BMQ-specific), the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), and a numeric rating scale were utilized to measure women's beliefs, depressive symptoms, and antidepressant risk perception, respectively. Participants reporting use of psychotropic medication during pregnancy (n = 160) were included in the analysis. On the basis of the MMAS-8, 78 of 160 women (48.8%, 95% CI: 41.1-56.4%) demonstrated low adherence during pregnancy. The rates of low adherence were 51.3% for medication for anxiety, 47.2% for depression, and 42.9% for other psychiatric disorders. Smoking during pregnancy, elevated antidepressant risk perception (risk≥6), and depressive symptoms were associated with a significant 3.9-, 2.3-, and 2.5-fold increased likelihood of low medication adherence, respectively. Women on psychotropic polytherapy were less likely to demonstrate low adherence. The belief that the benefit of pharmacotherapy outweighed the risks positively correlated (r = .282) with higher medication adherence. Approximately one of two pregnant women using psychotropic medication demonstrated low adherence in pregnancy. Life-style factors, risk perception, depressive symptoms, and individual beliefs are important factors related to adherence to psychotropic medication in pregnancy. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Article
Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is an empirically supported treatment for treating and preventing depression that has been widely studied in perinatal populations. Previous meta-analytic reviews of CBT interventions in this population have not investigated potential moderators of treatment efficacy specific to this type of therapy. Forty randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials assessing the efficacy of CBT during pregnancy and the first year postpartum were included in the meta-analyses. Change in depressive symptoms from pre-treatment to post-treatment was assessed in both treatment and prevention trials, and the difference in prevalence of postpartum depressive episodes was assessed in prevention trials. Characteristics of included studies, interventions and samples were assessed as potential moderators of effect sizes. CBT interventions resulted in significant reductions in depressive symptoms compared to control conditions in both treatment and prevention studies. In prevention studies, individuals who received CBT had significantly lower rates of postpartum depressive episodes compared to control conditions. In both treatment and prevention trials, interventions initiated during the postpartum period were more effective than antenatal interventions. In prevention trials, individually-administered treatments were more effective than group interventions and greater reductions in depressive symptoms were found in studies that included higher proportions of nonwhite, single, and multiparous participants. The methodological quality of included studies varied widely among studies eligible for inclusion in the meta-analysis. There is strong evidence that CBT interventions are effective for treating and preventing depression during the perinatal period. Further methodologically rigorous studies are needed to further investigate potential moderators of treatment efficacy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.