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Abstract

The paper discusses two main approaches to personalised learning through humanistic and functionalist approaches and tries to identify the shared areas. The paper argues that these areas are related to the development of a flexible curriculum and are focused on learner's needs and potentials, learner's ownership of the learning process, recognition of learner’s pace and assessing personal progress. The paper is based on literature review, trying to systemise current theoretical and practical approaches to personalised learning.
SOCIETY. INTEGRATION. EDUCATION
Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference. Volume III, May 22th -23th, 2020. 266-273
© Rēzeknes Tehnoloģiju akadēmija, 2020
http://dx.doi.org/10.17770/sie2020vol3.5009
THE FLEXIBILITY OF CURRICULUM FOR
PERSONALISED LEARNING
Lina Kaminskiene
Vytautas Magnus University, Lithuania
Maria Jose DeUrraza
Vytautas Magnus University, Lithuania
Abstract. The paper discusses two main approaches to personalised learning through
humanistic and functionalist approaches and tries to identify the shared areas. The paper
argues that these areas are related to the development of a flexible curriculum and are focused
on learner's needs and potentials, learner's ownership of the learning process, recognition of
learner’s pace and assessing personal progress. The paper is based on literature review, trying
to systemise current theoretical and practical approaches to personalised learning.
Keywords: personalised learning, learner-centred pedagogy, curriculum.
Introduction
Personalised learning is typically defined as a strategy to respond to the
diversity of learners and to actualize their opportunities in the most appropriate
form to achieve their learning goals. The idea of personalised learning has become
particularly actualised in the recent years. Although there is an increasing interest
on personalised learning, the scientific literature is limited in providing models of
its implementation and thus, this phenomenon still remains under-researched.
Practices are rather scarce which could be explained by the fact that personalised
learning as a concept is not very clearly defined. The difficulty of defining
personalisation arises from its varied implementation in educational practice.
Most definitions of personalised learning are complex and reveal the main
components of personalisation. Understanding and revealing diverse aspects of
personalisation in education will help to identify it from the related teaching
strategies, mainly individualisation. In personalised learning approach it is
important to seek interaction, cooperation and involvement of each learner,
however, it needs further research how much flexibility in curriculum should be
ensured to address these needs.
The paper aims to investigate personalised learning practices, mainly
focusing on general education level. For reaching this aim, the following
objectives were defined:
Kaminskiene & DeUrraza, 2020. The Flexibility of Curriculum for Personalised Learning
267
1) Discuss variations of the concept of personalised learning through
humanistic and functionalist approaches.
2) Identify shared attributes of personalised learning which contribute to
the development of flexible curriculum.
The paper is based on literature review, trying to systemise current
theoretical and practical approaches to personalised learning. We referred to
holistic and functionalist perspectives as proposed by Mincu (2012a; 2012b) to
analyse different characteristics of personalised learning. This allowed us to
define attributes of flexible curriculum which helps practical implementation of
personalised learning models.
Literature review
Nowadays different concepts are used for the personalisation of education:
personalised, individualised, tailored, self-regulated learning. Somehow, they are
familiar and simultaneously, represent diverse conceptualizations. However, how
we could know, which one reflects properly the aim of personalised learning?
Which one reflects the concept from its essence? Watkins (2012) express this
misunderstanding in the following quotation:
One more recent development creates a further hijack of personalised
learning and is indicated in the view of this term which is emerging in the UK.
Taking as an indicator of the 100,000 UK web pages, which use the term:
36% are associated with 'individual';
35% are associated with ICT/web/e-learning;
17% mention the classroom, mostly in passing. (Watkins, 2012, p. 7)
Still today we find these approaches to the concept and the confusion has not
been solved. A research done by Monica E. Mincu (2012a) for the collection of
articles called Personalisation of Education in contexts, Policy Critique and
theories of personal improvement, gives scope to an almost recent situation in the
study and the uses of this concept in different countries. Her work summits with
her article doing a mapping of the different conceptualisations and practices of
personalised learning. The use of the term in her research centres on the word
personalisation, what is not a reduction, otherwise is a border concept that joins
different combinations and describes the theories in their essence. It signifies that
using the words education, learning, teaching, instruction together to
'personalised' concept, automatically refers to conceptualisations and strategies of
implementation. In the article Mapping meanings of personalisation, Mincu
(2012b) attempts to do an outline of the uses of the concept and the theoretical
background managed by the authors. The analysis done gives, as a result, a
conceptual diagram of categories for the use of the concept 'personalisation'.
Among seven authors, she noticed several recurrent terms, which are
SOCIETY. INTEGRATION. EDUCATION
Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference. Volume III, May 22th -23th, 2020. 266-273
268
dichotomised, combined or used as synonymous. This categorisation shows the
diverse applications of the concept and the strategies that they intend. Mincu
(2012a) reflects these matches:
Personalisation versus individualisation;
Individualisation and socialisation;
Individualisation = personalisation;
Individualised instruction and personalised learning.
In her study, Mincu (2012b) founds other keywords, which frame units of
study. One of them is the conception of personalisation as a universal approach or
as a pedagogical strategy targeted for particular pupils (Mincu, 2012b). This
perception refers to the inclusion of pupils with disabilities in the mainstream of
the school and defines the paradigm of teaching in/for diversity. Other keywords
found in the different studies are the result of the logical or coherent
implementation of the different conceptualisations and the fulfilling of the needs
of education in the current times. To underline the study of the concept is
important to use such kind of categories to define the lines of research and the
frame for clear argumentations.
Analysing the concept of personalised learning, it is still needed a
background of its history and the evolution of the concept. To situate the
beginning of the term, it is necessary to classify two more categories demarcated
by Mincu (2012b): humanist and functionalist. Making a broad distinction, the
humanistic perspective talks about a person-centred perspective, and the
functionalist, a learner-centred one. Both perceptions offer changes in education,
both focus the attention on the learners, and both concentrate in the fulfilment of
their needs. Nevertheless, the differences arise from the key values that structure
the diverse applications.
The child-centred or learner-centred pedagogy is simultaneously focused on
each individual and in the process of learning. It suggests the shift between
teacher-centred education, to the full awareness of the learner. Chocarro,
González-Torres and Sobrino (2007) make a comparative description of these two
pedagogic perspectives. While the learner is the subject who learns in both
propositions, the concept of learning differs. In the teacher-centred context,
learning is the acquisition of knowledge, attitudes and strategies by the learner. In
the learner-centred pedagogy, learning is the internal construction of knowledge
by the learner. Another important differentiation is the definition of learning
process goals, strategies and contexts. In the first perspective, it is the school
curriculum, which indicates the outlines, while in the second approach it is
radically the learner (Chocarro et al., 2007). The last feature is the main category
which leads to a conceptualisation of personalised learning because the centre is
in the learner's voice and his or her capacity of decision above the process of
Kaminskiene & DeUrraza, 2020. The Flexibility of Curriculum for Personalised Learning
269
learning. Co-production, co-learning, learners’ ownership of the learning process
are concepts, which arise with the flourish of this approach. The knot that connects
learner-centred and personalised learning bases on the importance given to the
learner and his responsibility in the learning process. However, they are not
synonyms because one precedes the other. Personalised learning appears because
of the shift made by the learner-centred pedagogy.
Returning to the functionalist aspect, there should be remarked a difference
within learner ́s voice and learner’s choice. It could be the main distinction, and
somehow, a fake shift from learner-centred to personalised learning. Emphasizing
the learner ́s choice rather than voice, we find the broad scope of a modern
conception of personalised learning as a product of marketisation of the school.
The word choice refers to many aspects: learner as a consumer, school efficacy,
user-centric education, modernisation, etc. (Hartley, 2008). These terms relate to
a proposition, which concentrates on the learner's needs, however, in the aim to
satisfy and create an atmosphere of learning just for me, just by me. In this
perspective, there is no pedagogical theory and the goal is the development of
schooling (Mincu, 2012b).
Another characteristic of functionalism is the pragmatic overview, which
sees personalisation as an individualistic performance that tries to reach school
targets, special needs groups. This way of personalisation appears to find
heterogeneity teaching solutions and an inclusive view of education.
Personalised assessment, flexible curriculum and the use of ICT means are
the main elements of this perspective. This part of functionalism includes a
pedagogical theory or strategy that includes different methods for personal
assessment. In this case, we talk about functionalism from the use of the word as
a perspective of functional; reminding what has a utilitarian purpose.
Humanist approach to personalised learning allows to connect the personal
world of the learner and the way it shapes the process of learning. In the year
2017, UNESCO published a document entitled 'Personalised Learning' explaining
the main features of this educational perspective:
'for an education to be meaningful, it needs to be personal: we cannot learn
well if we do not see the relevance of what we are learning and how it applies to
our personal situations'.
This outlook gives the idea to deep on a theory, which puts the centre in the
person and its personal situation in the frame of learning processes. He or she,
together with the teacher, with classmates, in a school environment, construct
one’s way of learning, being the owner of the process.
A humanist approach of personalisation of learning focuses on the idea of
educating the whole person and the personal development. The learner has to
develop cognitive abilities and concurrently, other dimensions of his personality.
Therefore, the personal improvement leads him to better academic achievements.
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This point of view shaped by a philosophical tradition mainly stands on the ideas
of personalism. Personalism is the philosophical theory, which keynote is the
person. The human person surpasses all the other objects of knowledge and nature
beings. This theory affirms that the human being is creative, and it implies that
his actions make him a unique self (Mounier, 1989).
Singularity is a basis for the personalised learning strategy because it helps
to identify the singular needs and the potentials of each learner. The idea of
education one size fits for all, changed with the child-centred pedagogy, and the
focus on the learner improved the level of consideration to each pupil.
Personalisation expects to bring into focus each person among a group, and then
he or she is not any more one among others (Camps-Bansell, 2018). This
proposition mainly recognises the uniqueness of individual persons and the
development of their life. It signifies that there are not exactly equal persons and,
consequently, the treatment with each one should be particular. The total actuality,
the whole world of a person, should not be identified by rules, by common
standards; willingly it has to be studied individually, considering each person.
The faculty to make decisions is a key concept in personalism. In the field of
education, it refers to the personal development of the learners. Considering
treating learner as a person, the authors affirm that he constructs his personality
with his decisions and acts. Not shaped by the outside, but it arises from himself,
and education awakes it (Peters, 1977; Mounier, 1989). Therefore, the goals of
education do not address just knowledge, but furthermore, the needs to develop
other dimensions of the personality as the affections, the will, the behaviour, and
socialisation. Learning is not just a collection of practical knowledge, which is
going to be useful in the practical world. Learning is seen as the way of
development of the learner as a person who needs the tools to work and those
tools are not only knowledge but also an educated, fulfilled personality.
Flexibility of curriculum: the shared points in different conceptualisations
Even though there are dichotomies within the different insights of
personalisation, there are some repeated features which affects the elements of
curriculum making it flexible enough to address the following challenges:
Consideration of learner's needs and potentials;
Learner's ownership of the learning process;
Recognition of learner’s pace;
Assessment of a personal progress.
The individual attention to the learner is an essential characteristic of child-
centred learning. Working in the classroom is necessary to observe the different
ways of working, recognizing the diverse methods of learning. The awareness of
Kaminskiene & DeUrraza, 2020. The Flexibility of Curriculum for Personalised Learning
271
each pupil's needs helps them to feel understood, and to reach the academic
achievements. The principal stands of recognition are observation and hearing the
learner's voice: What catches his attention? Which environment does he need?
What topics does he find interesting? These questions at one moment demarked
the definition of child-centred education, though the difference is on using they
(about the pupils) or he-she (about one pupil). The personalised learning
pedagogy addresses these issues concerning one learner individually, instead of
the whole group together as makes the child-centred approach.
Considering the voice of learners, curriculum development is a collaborative
process between teachers and pupils. It is a dynamic creation attending the needs
of students and their abilities for each subject.
The literature referred to personalised learning, frequently mentions the co-
creation of knowledge as a core aspect of its pedagogy. The importance of co-
creation bases on the fact that learners have the capability of decision making. As
the learner can decide, he is responsible for his acts and can collaborate in the
process of learning. Education is a process where two persons assume the task to
learn and cooperate to achieve that goal (Carbajo-López, 2004). Collaboration
requires engagement sense from the student and support from the teacher
(Kaminskienė & Khetsuriani, 2019).
The feature of decision making, as is mentioned, implies responsibility, and
it is what configures ownership and autonomy. Both mentioned characteristics
presuppose the capacity to modify the circumstances around the learner as, his
curriculum (Camps-Bansell, 2018).
The groups of schooling do not guarantee homogeneity. Indeed, it is a
characteristic not found in the classrooms. Each pupil has one’s learning
strategies, modes of work and pace for solving different tasks. Regarding
differences within the same age, related to skills, personal development, cognitive
achievements, it is impossible to look forward to uniformity. Moreover, it is not
desirable to think that teachers tend to standardise and allow stereotypes in
education under the concept of one size fits for all (Bernardo et al., 2011).
Therefore, the application of pedagogical methods respecting the different paces
and learning strategies is the core of personalisation of education. Educational
institutions should promote adaptability for each pupil in terms of dynamism and
interactive learning (Bernardo et al., 2011) and to stimulate and reinforce personal
improvement, it is necessary flexibility for the particular circumstances of each
learner.
One of the key features of personalized learning is the flexibility of various
teaching / learning strategies that allow the implementation of a personalised
learning plan. It also encourages learners to take responsibility for and sustain
their learning. The scientific literature suggests that being able to design and
implement a personal plan has a positive effect on learner motivation (Nethoc,
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Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference. Volume III, May 22th -23th, 2020. 266-273
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2017). Learners are motivated to succeed in their learning - they face their own
choices and decisions. The school and the teacher do not determine the content
and pace of learning, so the learner is expected to be responsible for managing
learning - the more the learner demonstrates their motivation and the self-
regulation it exerts, the more they are given learning autonomy (Campbell et al.,
2007).
In personalised learning assessment is organised when the teacher and the
learner formulate clear criteria detailing the outcomes and demonstrating the
quality of the assignment (Zmuda, Curtis, & Ullman, 2015). The learner should
understand these criteria so that he / she can clearly organise the learning.
However, developing a variety of assessment criteria descriptions based on
subject-specific outcomes and interdisciplinary key competences to assess each
student's personal learning experience poses a real challenge for the teacher. Such
descriptors are necessary to ensure that the assessment is informative and reveals
personal learning in the area of subject-specific outcomes and, if included, of
interdisciplinary key competences. It is important that all learners have a
continuous record of the learning process in a form of their choice, such as activity
diaries, feedback from peers and similar. The assessment evidences allow learners
to see progress in implementing the development plan. Progress is one of the most
important elements of assessment (Zmuda, Curtis, & Ullman, 2015). The practice
of personalised learning gives priority to formative assessment that is multifaceted
and opens up the whole process of personal learning (Zmuda, Curtis, & Ullman,
2015). However, it is also advisable to apply summative assessmentat the end
(Karmeshu, Raman, & Nedungadi, 2012) in order to benchmark learning
outcomes defined in the curriculum.
Conclusions
Different researchers link personalised learning with individualised learning,
while others, on the contrary, try to mark a borderline between them. Two
approaches, the humanistic and the functionalist, both focus on the learners and
both concentrate on fulfilling their needs. However, they also have distinct
differences. In humanistic perspective personalised learning it is the learner who
together with the teacher, with classmates construct personal way of learning.
Personalisation of learning focuses on the idea of educating the whole person and
the personal development. The learner has to develop cognitive abilities and
concurrently, other dimensions of his personality. In functionalist approach,
personalised learning is associated with co-production, co-learning, learners’
ownership of the learning process. Personalised assessment, flexible curriculum
and the use of ICT means are the main elements of this perspective.
Kaminskiene & DeUrraza, 2020. The Flexibility of Curriculum for Personalised Learning
273
Notwithstanding different approaches, they also share common
characteristics, which were defined as follow: consideration of learner's needs and
potentials; learner's ownership of the learning process; recognition of learner’s
pace; assessment of personal progress. These attributes change practices in
implementation of the curriculum and thus, contribute to its flexibility, which
allows fulfilling diverse learning needs.
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Co-creation of learning as an engaging practice. Society, Integration, Education: proceedings of the international scientific conference
  • L Kaminskienė
  • N Khetsuriani
Kaminskienė, L., & Khetsuriani, N. (2019). Co-creation of learning as an engaging practice. Society, Integration, Education: proceedings of the international scientific conference, 2, 191-199. Rēzekne: Rēzeknes Tehnoloģiju akadēmija.
Mapping meanings of personalisation. In Personalisation of Education in Contexts
  • M E Mincu
Mincu, M.E. (2012a). Mapping meanings of personalisation. In Personalisation of Education in Contexts. Brill Sense. DOI:10.2753/EUE1056-4934410103
Editorial Introduction. In Personalisation of Education in Contexts: Policy critique and theories of personal improvement
  • M E Mincu
Mincu, M.E. (2012b). Editorial Introduction. In Personalisation of Education in Contexts: Policy critique and theories of personal improvement. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers. DOI:10.2753/EUE1056-4934410103