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Assessment of Educational Facilities in Nigeria-The Ekiti-South West Example

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The aim of Education for the 21st Century is to enable every person to attain all-round development in the domains of ethics, intellect, physique, social skills and aesthetics according to his/her attributes so as to contribute to the future well-being of the nation and the world as a whole. The aim of the study was to assess the provision and maintenance of educational facilities in Ekiti State, Nigeria with a focus on the Ekiti-South West LGA and Community-Based Development Associations in the study area. This study adopted the survey research method and used three different sets of a questionnaire to collect research data from the authority of the Ekiti South-West LG Council officials, Community Development Unit of the LG Council and the 61 (CBDAs) officials were available in the study area. The findings among others revealed that majority of the secondary schools were privately-owned, while the primary and nursery/primary schools were Community-owned. However, the present monthly allocation from Federal Government to LGCs is grossly inadequate, and it is not enough to embark on provision and maintenance of educational facilities. Given the findings, there were need to improve the schools through additional appropriation and maintenance of the existing schools; finally, the governments and other stakeholders should inculcate good maintenance culture on our educational facilities for effective management with the intention of promoting high-quality education for the well-being of the nation.
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American International Journal of Humanities, Arts and Social Sciences
Vol. 2, No. 1; 2020
ISSN 2643-0061 E-ISSN 2643-010X
Published by American Center of Science and Education, USA
29
Assessment of Educational Facilities in Nigeria-The Ekiti-South
West Example
Okosun, S.E
Department of Geography
Federal University Lokoja, Nigeria
E-mail: okosunsenator@gmail.com
Omokhafe, C
Department of Law
Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma Edo-State, Nigeria
Dairo, O.E
Department of Estate Management
Federal University of Technology Minna, Nigeria
Olowookere, C.A
Department of Geography and Planning Science,
Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria
Abstract
The aim of Education for the 21st Century is to enable every person to attain all-round development in the domains
of ethics, intellect, physique, social skills and aesthetics according to his/her attributes so as to contribute to the
future well-being of the nation and the world as a whole. The aim of the study was to assess the provision and
maintenance of educational facilities in Ekiti State, Nigeria with a focus on the Ekiti-South West LGA and
Community-Based Development Associations in the study area. This study adopted the survey research method and
used three different sets of a questionnaire to collect research data from the authority of the Ekiti South-West LG
Council officials, Community Development Unit of the LG Council and the 61 (CBDAs) officials were available in
the study area. The findings among others revealed that majority of the secondary schools were privately-owned,
while the primary and nursery/primary schools were Community-owned. However, the present monthly allocation
from Federal Government to LGCs is grossly inadequate, and it is not enough to embark on provision and
maintenance of educational facilities. Given the findings, there were need to improve the schools through additional
appropriation and maintenance of the existing schools; finally, the governments and other stakeholders should
inculcate good maintenance culture on our educational facilities for effective management with the intention of
promoting high-quality education for the well-being of the nation.
Keywords: Community Development, Educational Facilities, Ekiti South-West, Maintenance, Schools.
1. Introduction
The quality of education delivered, and achievement by the school is dependent on the facilities provided for
students to develop their full potentials. Education facilities are material or resources that enhance teaching and
learning. Educational facilities can be defined as the entire school plant which school administrators, teachers and
students harness, allocate and utilize for the smooth and efficient management of any educational institution (Asiyai,
2013). Educational facilities serve as pillars of support for effective teaching; as well as the physical and spatial
enablers of learning. According to Adedokun (2011), educational facilities are physical resources that facilitate
effective learning. They include blocks of classrooms, Blackboard, laboratories, workshops, libraries, equipment,
consumables, electricity, water, visual and audio-visual aids, tables, desks, chairs, playground, storage space and
toilets. These promote and increase the production of results. Most governments in the third world countries like
Nigeria face severe financial problems in providing educational facilities for the school bus, laboratories,
workshops, libraries, equipment, in the urban/rural setting. In Nigeria, provision of schools/education continued to
increase without a corresponding increase in facilities which has to meet the needs of rapidly growing users for
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effective teaching and learning. One of the main problems of education in Nigeria is underfunding, this has resulted
in the depleting conditions of educational facilities in the country (Nigerian). These are of great concern to the
government i.e. Local Government Council Authorities, Community-Based Development Associations, and other
agencies in encouraging the provision and proper maintenance of schools and existing educational facilities.
The role of provision and maintenance of educational institutions in grassroots development and poverty
reduction cannot be over-emphasized both in urban and rural environments. A provision in this paper means an item
of goods provided/supply and obtained for future use. The word maintenance, according to Eti et al. (2006) means
preserving and keeping in good order as near as possible in their original state. By implication, maintenance means
keeping in good order and shape all projects of development that are of benefit to the people. However, the attitude
of people towards the maintenance of educational facilities is that the government property does not belong to
anybody. To this extent educational facilities that were meant to benefit the masses are just rotting away, without
being put to any good use as people are not interested in making such facilities sustainable. Governments have come
to term with the LG for the need to be involved in grassroots development. However, the establishment of LGCs in
Nigeria which aimed among others to facilitate rural and urban development through infrastructure development and
delivery in which schools (i.e educational facilities) provision and maintenance are inclusive. The LGC is statutorily
empowered to construct and maintain schools and other public facilities (FGN, 1999). The recognition and
importance of this process are to tackle local socio-economic problems and to manage grassroots development.
Despite these provisions, educational services in both urban and rural areas in Nigeria in inadequate. Sehinde (2008)
maintained that in Nigeria, the overriding impression is that LGCs are weak in responding to the challenges posed
by infrastructural development. This has led to self-help programs through which private sector are now involved in
educational facilities development. The CBDAs form one of the main actors of the Local Economic Development
(LED) process. They have been responsible for the provision of communal facilities such as schools, markets, water
supply, and town halls. Akinsolu (2004) asserted that educational curriculum cannot be sound and well operated
with poor and badly managed school facilities.
The aim of Education for the 21st Century “is to enable every person to attain all-round development in the
domains of ethics, intellect, physique, social skills and aesthetics according to his/her own attributes so that he/she is
capable of life-long learning, critical and exploratory thinking, innovating and adapting to change; filled with self-
confidence and a team spirit; willing to put forward continuing effort for the prosperity, progress, freedom and
democracy of their society, and contribute to the future well-being of the nation and the world at large. “ Hong Kong
Education Commission, 2000)”, as stated by Edewor et al. (2003) the Nigeria people must be given proper
education to ensure improvement in their health condition so as to enhance their economic empowerment and help
in decision making that will liberate them. In the education sector, it is common to see dilapidated school buildings
with collapsed roofs without ceiling occupied by students, thus, making learning environment very unsuitable
especially in hot seasons. All of these point to the fact that educational facilities as a social service are not
adequately maintained. Norris (1997) defined LGC as the government of urban areas or rural areas subordinate
having an independent legal existence. The functions of an LGC in Nigeria include provision and maintenance of
primary, adult and vocational education. While CBDAs is regarded as an association that provides the forum for
people to articulate their views, aspirations and needs. The associations aim at helping people within a local
community to identify their social need, and work towards achieving them.
2. Aim and Objectives
The aim of this study is to assess the performance of the Ekiti-South West LG Council and Community-Based
Development Associations in the provision and maintenance of educational facilities in Ekiti South West.
The study objectives are set as follows:-
Highlight the involvements of the ekiti-south west lg council in the development of educational facilities in
ekiti south west
Classify the existing educational facilities (i.e schools) according to ownership and conditions in the study
area; and
Highlight the educational facilities provision and maintenance projects embarked upon by the ekiti-south
west lg council and cbdas in ekiti south west
3. The Study Area
Ekiti South-West Local Government Council of Ekiti State, Nigeria.(See Figures 1, 2), is one of the 16 Local
Government Areas that make up Ekiti State. It is one of the fastest growing LGA in Ekiti State. However, Ekiti
South West LGA shares boundaries with Ado-Ekiti on the Southwest, on the East by Ikere-Ekiti, and on the West by
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Igede and on the North by Igbara-Oke. It is made up of three major towns, namely (Ilawe-Ekiti, Igbara Odo, and
Ogotun). It occupies the area lying approximately between longitude 5 ° 5 and 60 E of Greenwich meridians and
latitude 7o35 and 60 N of the equator. The population figure is put at about 139,308 persons (NPC, 2009).
The historical background of Ekiti South West LG shows waves of immigrants or settlers who had to settle
permanently. It consist of Yoruba’s who track their origin to Ile-Ife like others and were later joined by some
migrants from Benin. However, the indigenous people speak the Ekiti dialect with slight difference in intonations of
the villages, they speak also the Yoruba language and having the same culture and traditions. They are homogenous
in culture, tradition, values and socials, the culture of the people are identical and similar to that of the Yorubas of
the South Western Nigeria. Their mode of dressing is the Yoruba attires though with the elites adorning the English
dresses particularly those in Government establishment. The physical features of the area is characterized by hard
rocks and mountains and bisected by Erita streams which capture into its valley and the topography of the land is not
uniform, those are wards in Ilawe and Igbara Odo.
Gusau
ZAMFARA
Sok oto
SOKOTO Katsina
KA TSINA
Kano
KA NO Dutse
JIGAWA
Damaturu
YOBE
Ma iduguri
BOR NO
BA UCHI
Birnin-Kebbi
Baj oga
Ba uchi Gombe
Yola
Jos
Min na
Ilorin
do-ki ti
Osogbo
Ibadan
Abeokuta
Ikeja Benin City A saba Awka
Lokoja
kure
Owerri
AB IA
Abakiliki
Calabar
P. Ha rcourt
Yenegoa Uyo
Ma kurdi
Abuja
KA DUNA
NIGER
KWARA
OYO NA SAR AWA
PLATEAU
GOMBE
ADA MAWA
ONDO
OSUN
DELTA
EDO ENUGU
BENUE
TARABA
CR OSS-
RIVER
EBONYI
IMO
BAYELSA
AKWA-
IBOM
Enu gu
EKITI
FCT
NIGER REPUBLIC
REPUBLIC OF BENIN
CAM EROON
Sta te Capital
State Bound ary
National Bo undary
Rivers
CAM EROON
KOGI
RIV ERS
KEBBI
ANAM.
ANAM - An ambra
Umuahia
B i g h t o f Be n i n
ATLANTIC OCEAN
Jalingo
Lafia
Kaduna
OGUN
CHAD
10 °
11 °
12 °
13 °
LA GOS
10 °
11 °
12 °
13 °
7 ° 8 ° 10° 11° 12 °
10° 11° 12 °
EKITI
Ondo State
Kwara
State
Osun State
Kogi
State
Figure 1. Map of Nigeria Showing Ekiti State
Source: Federal Ministry of Survey, Abuja 2016
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Figure 2. Map of Ekiti State Showing Ekiti South West LG Area (Study Area).
Source: Ekiti State Ministry of Works, Ado-Ekiti. 2016
4. Literature Review
Educational facilities serve as pillars of support for effective teaching; as well as the physical and spatial enablers of
learning. The importance of school in the education process has necessitated the need for the provision,
management, and maintenance of those facilities in the school system. According to Olutola, (1998) the operational
input resources in education industry are referred to as school facilities, the provision, management and maintenance
of these facilities have been found to be significantly related to school performance. In the study of Olutola’s (1998)
schools with good faculties recorded greater achievement in WASC examination than schools with poor educational
facilities. Educational facilities provision and maintenance is a powerful instrument of development, especially
among developing nations like Nigeria have led to the evolution of educational programs such as the Universal
Basic Education in Nigeria (Abdulkareen, 1999). Nigeria school system is witnessing expansion in school enrolment
and school programs. This has necessitated a great demand for more provision of schools, and the need to maintain
the facilities, such as classrooms, libraries, laboratories, multipurpose rooms/halls, toilets and school fields for the
teeming school population. Adedokun (2011) also stated that, in spilled of government huge financial allocation to
education in its annual budget; school facilities are still grossly inadequate in Nigeria. Consequently, there is a called
for the need to explore strategies in sustaining the school system. Over the years government and non-governmental
agencies (i.e CBDAs) and individuals have been concerned about the management of education, the crucial aspect
of this management is the provision and maintenance of educational facilities.
The provision and maintenance of educational facilities and services is essential for the promotion of
efficient operations of any country, state, or town in enhancing the general standard of living. As stated by
Okwakpam (2010), human needs are insatiable, and the government alone cannot meet them. In recent times,
various efforts have been made by the government. One of the strategies employed to enhance development is
SOUTH WEST
EKITI
SOUTH
WEST
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through grassroots participation. The government has come to terms with the need to partner with the LGC and
CBDAs as agents (or institutions of development) in addressing the shortage in infrastructural facilities, including
schools. Ilawe-Ekiti is faced with the inadequate and poor state of the existing schools. Provision and maintenance
in this paper are used to indicate the extent to which educational facilities such like school buildings/walls,
classrooms, sports field and library in the Nigerian communities are affected so as to bring about better-living
conditions, (economic, social and cultural developments).
In this study the researchers observed that; most of the school compounds were bushy, majority of the
signboards, gates and walls of the schools were defaced, coupled with dilapidated buildings and leaking roofs;
(some of which have been blown off), rough floors and windows without louvers, poor illumination in some cases,
broken chairs and desks. It appears adequate management and maintenance is not provided in the available
schools/educational facilities. Educational facilities are supposed to be kept in good and proper condition near their
original state by the school educational administrators. Based on our causal observation, it appears that owners of
school are neglecting the role of educational facilities provision, management and maintenance. The question now is
could this observation be the same for all nursery, primary and secondary schools in Ekiti State? It’s against this
background that this study was carried out.
5. Research Methodology
The survey research method was adopted for this study. The target populations were classified into four (4) groups;
Ekiti South West LGC Caretaker Chairman, Community Development Unit in-charge of Community Development
Projects in the Ekiti South West LGC office, Community/Quarters-Heads in Ilawe-Ekiti and CBDAs. A Non-
probability sampling approach was employed for use in this study; it is carried out when particularly the researcher
is not concerned about the representativeness of sample. A total census (i.e 100% coverage) survey was also
conducted on all the 61 (CBDAs). Only the President/Chairman/Secretary of the CBDAs was interviewed. Only one
questionnaire was administered on the Ekiti-South West LGC Caretaker Chairman, and also one questionnaire was
administered on the official in-charge of the Community Development Project Unit in the LGC office. Data were
collected with the aid of the structured-multiple choice questionnaire. It consists of sixty-one (61) questions which
were set to elicit accurate information from the respondents.
This study employed the use of four sets of the questionnaire for data collection. In this study, the
researchers in conjunction with the seven (7) Field Assistants administered the questionnaires. Students from the
Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Crown Polytechnic Odo, Ado-Ekiti, were used. The data collected
from the field were collated and proceed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 19.
6. Result and Discussions
The discussions of the data were based on the research objectives generated for the study.
6.1 Involvement of the Ekiti-South West Local Government Council in the Provision and Maintenance of
Educational Facilities in Ekiti South West as at, 2016
The Community Development Unit of the Ekiti-South West LG Council is in-charge of Community development
project undertaken by the Ekiti-South West LG Council. Provision and maintenance of educational facilities were
embarked upon by the Ekiti-South West LG Council, Community-Based Development Associations, and private
individuals in the study area. Findings reveal that the participation of the people in educational development is
satisfactory. However, the problem of finance and human factor were of the hindrances in the provision and
maintenance of educational facilities in the area. The community development unit of the Ekiti-South West LG
Council only provides the available detail information's from the year 2010 - 2015 on the cost of the project, status
of the project and the nature of projects executed in Ilawe-Ekiti. However the educational facilities projects are
discussed as follow:-
6.2 The Existing Ownership of Schools
Schools in the study area were built by the government, Private individuals and the community. The majority of the
schools in the town were built by the community i.e the Faith Based Organizations (FBOs) this was mostly carried-
out by the Church Missionary Society and one was built by the Muslim Islamic Society. Through community
participation efforts, the Faith Based Organizations (FBOs) built the nursery, primary and secondary schools in the
town. Furthermore, individuals also owned and built schools (private schools), while few schools were constructed
by the government. All of this represents a total number of 42 schools in the study area. Out of which 8 are
secondary schools; those includes 3 Governmentowned secondary school, which represents 38.0% of the total
numbers of secondary school in the town, 4 private-owned secondary schools which represent 49.5%, and only 1
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community-owned secondary school, which represents 12.5% of the numbers of percentage of secondary schools in
the area. Further findings revealed that there are nine primary schools; out of which included, 1 Governmentowned
primary school and eight community-owned primary schools. However, there are 25 nursery/primary schools in all
ward in the town, out of which included, 1 Governmentowned nursery/primary school, ten privateowned
nursery/primary schools and 14 community-owned nursery/primary schools.
Table 1. The Ownership of Schools
S/N
Ownership of Schools
No
Percent
1.
GovernmentOwned Secondary School
3
38.0
Private-Owned Secondary School
4
49.5
Community-Owned Secondary School
1
12.5
Sub Total
8
100
2.
GovernmentOwned Primary School
1
11.1
PrivateOwned Primary School
-
0.0
Community-Owned Primary School
8
88.9
Sub Total
9
100
3.
GovernmentOwned Nursery/Primary School
1
4.0
PrivateOwned Nursery/Primary School
10
40.0
Community-Owned Nursery/Primary School
14
56.0
Sub Total
25
100
Source: Fieldwork, 2016
6.2.1 The Existing Ownership of Secondary Schools, 2016
There are eight secondary schools in Ekiti South West (Ilawe-Ekiti); those include Oniwe Grammer School at Aaye,
Glorify God Secondary School at Aaye, Victory College at Irorin, Oniwe Comprehensive High School at Irorin,
Ejire Secondary School at Irorin, Solid Foundation at Okebedo, Corpus Christi College at Adin and United High
School at Oke-Emo. Those secondary schools were mostly built by the private individual, private-owned secondary
schools in Ilawe-Ekiti constituted (50.0%) of the total secondary schools, while (37.5%) were Government-owned
secondary schools, Community-owned secondary schools represented (12.5%). However, (75.0%) of the secondary
schools in the town are in fair conditions, while (25%) are in good conditions. Secondary schools in Ilawe-Ekiti
were built by the government, Private individual and the community. Corpus Christi College is the first major
secondary school in the town, built in 1967 at Adin by the community. Findings reveal that the involvement of
private schools in the town has helped in improving the standard and quality of education in the study area (75.0%)
of the secondary schools in the town are in fair conditions, while (25%) are in good conditions.
6.2.2 The Existing Ownership of Nursery/Primary
There are a total of 25 nursery/primary schools in the wards. The majority (65.0%) of the nursery/primary schools in
the town were owned by the community i.e the Faith Based Organizations, (29.0%) consist of individuals’ private-
owned nursery/primary. While the government-owned nursery/primary schools in the town constituted (6.0%).
Findings reveal that majority of the nursery/primary schools were established more than 22 years again and most of
them are unkempt, the signboards and walls of the schools are defaced, as they are engulfed by weeds. Further
findings revealed that the community-owned nursery/primary schools in the town were later handed over to the
government. The criteria used in assessing the conditions of those schools in Ilawe-Ekiti, was carried out with the
aid of rank-size relationship. The ranking relationship shows the condition of nursery/primary schools in wards.
Marks assigned to each ranking are as follow: Very good-5, Good-4; Fair-3; Poor-2; and bad-1. Having summed up
the total percentage score of all the nursery/primary schools, the number of school facilities that scored certain
marks was multiplied by 100 to calculate the percentage score.
The result from the ranking relationship shows that condition of nursery/primary schools in wards of Ilawe-Ekiti is
in the fair state, which consists of 16 (47.0%). Number of good are 14 (41.0%), Poor are 4 (12.0%). The percentage
of very good and bad nursery/primary schools cumulated to 0%. Like the foundation of a house, nursery/primary
school education forms the bedrock of the educational system of any country.
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6.3 Educational Facilities Provision and Maintenance Projects by the LG Council and CBDAs in Ekiti South
West
Educational facilities embarked upon by the LG Council included construction of 3 class rooms and office each in St
Augustine’s catholic nursery/primary school at Irorin, Ilawe Grammar School at Okebedo, and St. Stephen at Adin.
The LG Council was responsible for the renovation of schools such like Ilupeju nursery/primary school at Aaye,
Holy Trinity at Adin, and Irowelede primary school at Okebedo. The educational facilities executed by the CBDAs
were embarked upon by the social clubs; social construction was done by the school clubs; who provided books and
awarded scholarship to indigenes of the town, they provided boarding school facilities for the male and female
hostel in Corpus Christi College at Adin, renovated classrooms and equip the library, the Faith Based Organization
(FBOs) provided tables, chairs, and books in Corpus Christi College at Adin. The CBDAs supports on educational
facilities were on materials; this was very instrumental in improving educational facilities in the town. However,
data on the cost of educational projects were not available at the time of this study
The CBDAs are good examples of grassroots development. Findings reveal that all the educational
facilities projects of the LGC and CBDAs were completed; only the scholarship grants for students are currently on.
The results showed that maintenance of the school facilities was inadequate. Renovation and construction were the
most prevalent practice of the LGC and CBDAs in the town while students in the community and Government
schools were responsible for maintenance of most of the school fields.
Table 2. Educational Facilities Provision and Maintenance Projects by the Ekiti-South West LG Council and
Community-Based Development Associations
S/N
Name of Schools
Location
Institution
Responsible
Facility
Year of
Commencement
Status of
Project
1
Oke-Osun
Aaye
LG
Construction of toilet
2013
Completed
Ilupeju Nur/Pry
School
Aaye
LG
Renovation of school
2014
Completed
2
St Augustine’s
Catholic Nur/Pry
School
Irorin
LG
Construction of 3 class
rooms and office
2013
Completed
3
-
Okebedo
CBDAs
Provision of teaching
materials
2015
Completed
Ilawe Grammar
School
Okebedo
LG
Construction of 3 class
rooms and office
2013
Completed
Irowelede Primary
School
Okebedo
LG
Renovation of school
2013
Completed
5
St. Stephen
Adin
LG
Construction of 3 class
rooms and office
2013
Completed
Holy Trinity
Adin
LG
Renovation of school
2014
Completed
Corpus Christi
College
Adin
CBDAs
Construction of school
hall
2010
Completed
Corpus Christi
College
Adin
CBDAs
Construction of toilet
2010
Completed
Corpus Christi
College
Adin
CBDAs
Provision of boarding
facilities
-
Completed
Corpus Christi
College
Adin
CBDAs
Equipping the library
2013
Completed
Corpus Christi
College
Adin
CBDAs
Renovation of classes
-
Completed
Corpus Christi
College
Adin
CBDAs
Scholarship grant
2014
On-going
6
L.A Pilot
Oke-Emo
LG
Renovation of school
2012
Completed
Methodist
Oke-Emo
LG
Construction of toilet
2013
Completed
7
-
Okepa/Iro
LG
Construction of toilet
2013
Completed
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/Okeloye
St. Anthony’s
Okepa/Iro
/Okeloye
LG
Construction of 3 class
rooms and office
2013
Completed
-
Okepa/Iro
/Okeloye
CBDAs
Donation of Reading
facilities
2014
Completed
Source: Author’s Fieldwork, 2016
4. Recommendations
The need for encouragement of maintenance culture among target population is inevitable. There is the need to
promote maintenance culture in the study area. The school owners, administrators, teachers and students should
develop and inculcate good educational facilities maintenance culture that will prolong their durability and
efficiency; People’s participations and involvement in the formulation and implementation of policies on
educational delivery is needed, because people’s participation is one of the ingredients of good governance; More
money should be disbursed to the Local Government Council, in order to improve educational facilities through
additional provision and maintenance of the existing schools; Finally, the three tiers of governments and other
stakeholders should provide and inculcate good maintenance culture on our educational facilities for effective
management and consistently organize seminars and conferences to sensitize people on maintenance culture from
time to time with the intension of promoting high-quality education in the study area. This will also help to improve
and ensure sustainable provision and maintenance of educational facilities and develop the capacity of Local
Government Council and communities in the area.
5. Conclusion
The Government, i.e. the Local Government and Community-Based Development Associations
involvements/participation programs have helped in developing town/communities in Ekiti-South West Local
Government Area of Ekiti State, Nigeria to some extent. The CBDAs have been responsible for the provisions and
maintenance of educational facilities in the study area due to the government failure to do this. The two tiers of
government (local and state) particularly the Local Government that is close to the grass root should endeavor to
identify these Community-Based Developments Associations, streamline their activities and provide adequate
supervision, motivation, monitoring and evaluation of their projects through appropriate government personnel to
support development in the study area. However the present monthly allocation from Federal Government to LGCs
is grossly inadequate and it is not enough to embark on provision and maintenance of educational facilities.
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Principles and Practice of Community Development
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Federal Government of Nigeria (FGN). (1999): The Nigeria Constitution, Federal Ministry of Information, Abuja.
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