Article

Adjunct instruction in higher education: examining the effects on English foreign language proficiency

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Abstract

This study aims to measure the longitudinal impact of a 60-hour adjunct instruction course, involving L2 content-based teaching with a systematic focus on form, on students’ grammatical and lexical knowledge and on their receptive skills (i.e. reading and listening) in a foreign language higher education context. The participants were 52 university students enrolled in two different strands of the same Dentistry degree: an English-Medium Instruction (EMI) group, with no explicit L2 teaching/learning objectives, (n = 25) and an L1 group (n = 27) (Catalan/Spanish). In the L1 group, students had to read articles and teachers’ powerpoint presentations in the L2. Quantitative data collected by means of a battery of tests over 16 weeks indicate that adjunct instruction leads to statistically significant improvement in overall L2 language scores for all students alike. Nonetheless, results show that adjunct instruction tends to bring larger L2 grammatical improvement and significantly higher gains in receptive skills to Dentistry students who receive minimal English Foreign Language exposure (i.e. the L1 strand) than to those with massive exposure to English (i.e. the EMI strand).

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... Therefore, Spanish higher education institutions should provide support to EMI teachers 'in the form of continuous teacher professional development' (Dafouz, 2018, p. 550), as they regularly feel abandoned to the extent that many of them consider that the success of EMI rests squarely on their shoulders (Doíz & Lasagabaster, 2018). Although EMI has the potential to foster language learning while content is acquired, it does not substitute the necessary teaching of academic and specialized language, a task that can be best performed by implementing collaborative experiences between language specialists and content teachers (Lasagabaster, 2018;Mancho-Barés & Aguilar-Pérez, 2020;Roquet et al., 2020). ...
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... Therefore, Spanish higher education institutions should provide support to EMI teachers 'in the form of continuous teacher professional development' (Dafouz, 2018, p. 550), as they regularly feel abandoned to the extent that many of them consider that the success of EMI rests squarely on their shoulders . Although EMI has the potential to foster language learning while content is acquired, it does not substitute the necessary teaching of academic and specialized language, a task that can be best performed by implementing collaborative experiences between language specialists and content teachers (Lasagabaster, 2018;Mancho-Barés & Aguilar-Pérez, 2020;Roquet et al., 2020). ...
Chapter
The introduction of English as a medium of instruction (EMI) has changed higher education enormously in many European countries. This development is increasingly encapsulated under the term Englishization, that is, the increasing dispersion of English as a means of communication in non-Anglophone contexts. Englishization is not undisputed: legal challenges have arisen in several countries. Nor is it uniform; universities across Europe embrace Englishization, but they do so in their own way. In this volume, authors from 15 European countries present analyses from a range of perspectives coalescing around core concerns: the quality of education, cultural identity, inequality of opportunities and access, questions of justice and democracy, and internationalization and language policy. This book will appeal to researchers in applied linguistics, sociolinguistics, educational sciences, and political science, as well as policy makers and people with a concern about the direction of higher education.
... Therefore, Spanish higher education institutions should provide support to EMI teachers 'in the form of continuous teacher professional development' (Dafouz, 2018, p. 550), as they regularly feel abandoned to the extent that many of them consider that the success of EMI rests squarely on their shoulders (Doíz & Lasagabaster, 2018). Although EMI has the potential to foster language learning while content is acquired, it does not substitute the necessary teaching of academic and specialized language, a task that can be best performed by implementing collaborative experiences between language specialists and content teachers (Lasagabaster, 2018;Mancho-Barés & Aguilar-Pérez, 2020;Roquet et al., 2020). ...
... Therefore, Spanish higher education institutions should provide support to EMI teachers 'in the form of continuous teacher professional development' (Dafouz, 2018, p. 550), as they regularly feel abandoned to the extent that many of them consider that the success of EMI rests squarely on their shoulders . Although EMI has the potential to foster language learning while content is acquired, it does not substitute the necessary teaching of academic and specialized language, a task that can be best performed by implementing collaborative experiences between language specialists and content teachers (Lasagabaster, 2018;Mancho-Barés & Aguilar-Pérez, 2020;Roquet et al., 2020). ...
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Swain (1985) pointed out the need for increased modified output in the classroom in order to encourage learners to engage in more syntactic processing and, thus, make more form-meaning connections. Research in content-based instruction (CBI) (Musumeci, 1996; Pica, 2002) has revealed few occasions of pushed modified output from learners. Therefore, one questions whether CBI classes are effective in promoting and developing not only content knowledge, but also form–function abilities, specifically in the expressive skills. Second language (L2) learners from a 3rd semester university-level content-based geography course (N= 43) completed 2 (or 3) production tasks at the beginning and end of the regular semester. The findings revealed that learners made significant improvements in both content knowledge and functional linguistic abilities. However, it is possible that that latter still has room for improvement.
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The model of content-enriched instruction focuses on the integration of grammatical and lexical forms within content to beginning-level learners (Ballman, 1997). This study used quantitative data to examine the efficiency and application of this model for second- and third-semester college French. It specifically responds to the following question: Which type of focus-on-form instruction through a content-enriched instruction lesson is more effective for learning second language (L2) grammar, vocabulary, and cultural content in intermediate French L2 classes? The three instructional treatments administered were planned focus on form, incidental focus on form, and focus on meaning. The findings point to positive significance mainly toward the planned focus on form treatment, in grammar, vocabulary, and culture. This encourages a more concrete integration of content and form at low-intermediate !eve(s.
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This article reviews insights into second-language (L2) learning that have been revealed through over a decade of research on the social interaction and negotiation of L2 learners and their interlocutors, begining with the seminal work of Hatch (1978a, 197810) and Long (1980 et passim), and withereferenceto a corpus of informal, experimental, and classroom data from published studies. This research illustrates ways in which negotiation contributes to condi- tions, processes, and outcomes ofL2 learningby facilitating learners' comprehension and structural segmentation of L2 input, access to lexical form and meaning, and production of modified output. The research points out areas in which negotiation does not appear to assist L2 learning, especially with respect to the learner's need to access L2
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The importance of noticing as a cognitive process in second language (L2) acquisition has been increasingly recognized by applied linguistics researchers. However, issues concerning how noticing is related to composing and subsequent feedback processing, and what impact such noticing has on L2 writing improvement, need to be addressed. We conducted a case study to investigate these issues with two Mandarin background adult English-as-a-second language (ESL) learners. The study documents the relationship of noticing, both in the composing stage (Stage 1) and the reformulation stage (Stage 2, where learners compare their own text to a reformulated version of it), to the improvement of the written product in the posttest (Stage 3) of a three-stage writing task. The findings suggest that while composing and reformulation promote noticing, the quality of noticing, which relates directly to L2 writing improvement, is different for learners with different levels of L2 proficiency. We argue that while promoting noticing is important, promoting the quality of that noticing is a more important issue to be addressed in L2 writing pedagogy.
Article
Content-Based Instruction has been described as a new paradigm in language education, centered on fostering student competence in a second or foreign language while advancing in the knowledge of a subject matter. This approach is widely used in an extensive number of contexts and educational settings all over the world in a variety of models: some of the most common ones in foreign language education at post-secondary level are theme-based courses, adjunct/linked courses, sheltered subjectmatter instruction, and second language medium courses. Since the possibilities are multiple and purposefully designed to match different needs, this paper aims at offering a conceptual description of the main characteristics, specific applications, and perceived effectiveness of the different models as these are reported in the literature available. Prior to the presentation of the models, the rationale and evolution of the mainstream CBI paradigm will be presented, and a review of the existing literature contemplated. Additionally, an extensive, up-dated list of works in the area will be included in the reference list.
refer to the 'strong' version of EMI as a hybrid model of CBI, namely 'English-medium courses in which the content and language goals are intentionally aligned and where there is explicit focus on developing language skills as well as increasing language knowledge' (12)
  • Brinton Snow
Snow and Brinton (2017) refer to the 'strong' version of EMI as a hybrid model of CBI, namely 'English-medium courses in which the content and language goals are intentionally aligned and where there is explicit focus on developing language skills as well as increasing language knowledge' (12). In our review of the CBI models in European HE, and following the terminological distinctions outlined in Smith and Dafouz (2012), this version of EMI corresponds to ICLHE.
Tandem Teaching in CLIL for Tertiary Education
  • J M Cots
  • M Clemente
Cots, J. M., and M. Clemente. 2011. "Tandem Teaching in CLIL for Tertiary Education." In Aprendre en un altra llengua, edited by C. Escobar, and L. Nussbaum, 165-184. Bellaterra, Spain: Servei de Publicacions de la Universitat Autónoma de Barcelona.
English-medium Instruction in Multilingual University Settings: An Opportunity for Developing Language Awareness
  • E Dafouz
Dafouz, E. 2018. "English-medium Instruction in Multilingual University Settings: An Opportunity for Developing Language Awareness." In The Routledge Handbook of Language Awareness, edited by P. Garret, and J. M. Cots, 170-185. London: Routledge.
Training CLIL Teachers for the University
  • I Fortanet-Gómez
Fortanet-Gómez, I. 2010. Training CLIL Teachers for the University. CLIL in Spain: Implementations, Results and Teacher Training, 257-276. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.
The Relevance of Attention to Form in Communicative Classroom Contexts
  • García Mayo
García Mayo, M. P. 2011. "The Relevance of Attention to Form in Communicative Classroom Contexts." ELIA-Estudios de Lingüística Inglesa Aplicada 11: 11-45.