Cultural Modification and Cultural Alignment in Police Services: An Empirical Analysis of Select Variables

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Police forces, traditionally, were tacitly assumed to be rule-bound, legalistic, bureaucratic organisations, in which top-down policies prevailed through a quasi-militaristic rank hierarchy and strict discipline code ( Reiner,2016 ). The profile of the police organisations has been radically transforming, in view of the wider politico-economic and cultural context of re-emerging conflicts and social divisions in the recent past. Because of loose ends in the legal powers and processes, police officers at the operational level were characterised by the extent of discretion on how to behave or misbehave ( Newburn & Reiner, 2012 ). An empirical study was carried out in Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh using Convenience sampling on 680 (340 respondents from police from different cadres and public each through separate structured questionnaires for each category of respondents), covering three variables, namely police beat, patrolling and responding to public calls. This article presents how Visakhapatnam Police could focus on the beat and patrolling, responding to public calls as part of aligning its working processes and bring in the cultural change not only in the Police Organisation as a whole, but also among the stakeholders. The Visakha Police is today known to be more citizen-friendly, tech-savvy and relatively fast in addressing and resolving issues.

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Although recent advancements have been made in the understanding and studying of police culture, several significant gaps remain, including deficiencies in theoretical development and the lack of research on culture's influence on police practice. In the current study, we apply a multilevel theoretical framework to the examination of officers’ cultural attitudes and behavior to help bridge these gaps. In doing so, police culture is treated as a collective feature of patrol groups as opposed to as an individual‐level attribute. Furthermore, we extend previous work by introducing the concept of culture strength as a moderator of the culture–behavior relationship. After drawing on survey and behavioral data from a national multimethod project, we then test this framework with two empirical examples from each of the primary work environments (i.e., street and organization) in which police culture originates and operates. The findings reveal that workgroup culture is associated with officers’ behaviors, representing a collective effect, and that the relationship between culture and behavior may not always be linear. The results provide support for incorporating a multilevel approach to the study of police culture and officer behavior.
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Despite the advent of modern crime control methods, chiefly brought about by technological advancement, foot patrol has remained as one of the crucial crime prevention methods in both the developed and developing world. This study was aimed at describing the implementation of foot beat patrols in Harare Central Business District (CBD), Zimbabwe. The study also attempted to gauge perceptions from police officers on the effectiveness of foot beat patrols as a crime control strategy. The study revealed that hot spot patrols and high visibility are the most widely used patrol initiatives in Harare CBD. Foot patrols were widely viewed to be effective in reducing specific crimes/problems such as assault, loitering, touts, plain robbery and pick pocketing. It was also felt that reduction in specific crimes within the central business district also lowers the aggregate crime levels for the whole city. Reduction in fear of crime and provision of a reassuring presence were also considered to be the major benefits of foot patrols by community representatives.
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Many criminologists doubt that the dosage of uniformed police patrol causes any measurable difference in crime. This article reports a one-year randomized trial in Minneapolis of increases in patrol dosage at 55 of 110 crime “hot spots,” monitored by 7,542 hours of systematic observations. The experimental group received, on average, twice as much observed patrol presence, although the ratio displayed wide seasonal fluctuation. Reductions in total crime calls ranged from 6 percent to 13 percent. Observed disorder was only half as prevalent in experimental as in control hot spots. We conclude that substantial increases in police patrol presence can indeed cause modest reductions in crime and more impressive reductions in disorder within high crime locations.
This paper estimates the impact of police presence on crime using a unique database that tracks the exact location of Dallas Police Department patrol cars throughout 2009. To address the concern that officer location is often driven by crime, my instrument exploits police responses to calls outside of their allocated coverage beat. This variable provides a plausible shift in police presence within the abandoned beat that is driven by the police goal of minimizing response times. I find that a 10 percent decrease in police presence at that location results in a 7 percent increase in crime. This result sheds light on the black box of policing and crime and suggests that routine changes in police patrol can significantly impact criminal behavior.
This paper briefly reviews the changing usage of the concept of police culture in studies of policing. It argues that what are regarded as the early classic studies in the field (which hardly used the term culture itself) analyzed the world-views of police officers are primarily shaped in a dialectical interaction with structural factors stemming from the police role. Some of these factors are intrinsic to policing in any circumstances, others vary between political economies, social and organizational forms, and general cultures.
This chapter examines the pros and cons of foot patrol work from the perspective of officers performing the duty, using extensive field notes and officer quotes throughout. It explores the notion of what is “real police work” and how in the minds of many officers foot beats are not real policing, a view often shared by their commanders. The chapter explores how officers learn to use a variety of legal and informal means to police their beats and develop a rapport with the entire community, law abiding and otherwise. A section examines the potential to generate work statistics and the pressure of performance evaluations in driving ‘busy work’ that is not necessarily effective at community crime and disorder control. The chapter concludes by discussing beat integrity, the reasons why officers leave their assigned beats, and the impact that might have on crime prevention.
Anticipating and preparing for the future before it arrives can provide leaders (political, corporate, religious, and nonprofit) with great advantage. Leaders from many domains will shape the future of aging. Ten necessary leadership skills for success require intense future study and an ability to engage with radical change. Some of these skills are: Exploit your inner drive to build, grow and connect; see through complications to a future others can't envision; turn dilemmas into opportunities; learn from unfamiliar worlds; see things from nature's point of view; bring calm to tense situations; nurture purposeful business or social-change networks.
India has a substantial terrorist problem, especially in the Northeast and in the northwestern state of Jammu and Kashmir state. Somewhat related to this is tension between the majority Hindu community and the significant Muslim minority. Hindu-Muslim clashes in Gujarat during early 2002 led to open accusations of government connivance and police partisanship. While the Indian Police Service has acquired a professional elan in handling terrorism, its religious neutrality therefore continues to be questioned. This image problem is compounded by a political system that fosters police identification with the ruling political party. The ambience of corruption has also contributed to declining standards of personal rectitude among the higher police echelons. A lack of political will poses the significant obstacle to major police reforms in the foreseeable future. Copyright 2003, Oxford University Press.
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