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EFFECTIVENESS OF JASMINE OIL MASSAGE ON REDUCTION OF LABOR PAIN AMONG PRIMIGRAVIDA MOTHERS

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Abstract

The study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of jasmine oil massage on labour pain during first stage of labour among 40 primigravida women. The study design adopted was true experimental approach with pre-test - post-test control group design. The demographic Proforma were collected from the women by interview and Visual analogue scale was used to measure the level of labour pain in both the groups. Data obtained in these areas were analysed by descriptive and inferential statistics. A significant difference was found in the experimental group(tcal 9.869, p<0.05). A significant difference was found between experimental group and control group. cal The pre-test ('tcal' 0.36, p>0.05) and the post-test (tcal 11.75, p<0.05). No significant association was found between the level of labour cal cal pain and demographic variables in the experimental group. In this study Jasmine oil massage proved to reduce first stage labour pain.
EFFECTIVENESS OF JASMINE OIL MASSAGE ON REDUCTION OF
LABOR PAIN AMONG PRIMIGRAVIDA MOTHERS
1 2
Reeja Mariam Joseph & Philomena Fernandes
1 2
II year M.Sc. (N) Student, Associate Professor & HOD, Department of OBG Nursing
Nitte Usha Institute of Nursing Sciences, Nitte University, Deralakatte, Mangalore - 575 018, India.
Correspondence
Philomena Fernandes
Associate Professor & HOD, Department of OBG Nursing, Nitte Usha Institute of Nursing Sciences,
Nitte University, Deralakatte, Mangalore - 575 018, India.
Mobile : +91 94492 07845 E-mail : philferns7@gmail.com
The study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of jasmine oil massage on labour pain during first stage of labour among 40
primigravida women. The study design adopted was true experimental approach with pre-test - post-test control group design. The
demographic Proforma were collected from the women by interview and Visual analogue scale was used to measure the level of labour
pain in both the groups. Data obtained in these areas were analysed by descriptive and inferential statistics. A significant difference was
found in the experimental group( t 9.869 , p<0.05) . A significant difference was found between experimental group and control group.
cal
The pre-test ('t ' 0.36, p>0.05) and the post-test (t 11.75, p<0.05). No significant association was found between the level of labour
cal cal
pain and demographic variables in the experimental group. In this study Jasmine oil massage proved to reduce first stage labour pain.
Keywords : Jasmine oil massage, labor pain, primigravida mothers,visual analogue scale
Abstract :
Short Communication
Introduction :
Child birth is linked to the experience of pain. Labour pain is
often described as the most intense pain ever experienced,
and in many cases, it is the aspect of childbirth most feared
by the expectant mother. The goal of eliminating labour
pain is based on the assumption that pain inevitably equals
suffering. Many pharmacological approaches are carried
out to relive pain which causes deleterious effect on
mother's and fetus health. Massage therapy is one of the
most wonderful methods that can be used during labour
1
with numerous physical and emotional benefits . An
aromatherapy massage given by partner or a member of
birth team is a wonderful way to help the women to relax
and soothe the pain of contractions. The oils help reduce
friction on the skin at the same time as having therapeutic
benefits. Women who
have experienced skilful
massage during labour say
that the massage was
helpful and pain relieving.
Pain in labour is nearly
universal experience for
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NUJHS Vol. 3, No.4, December 2013, ISSN 2249-7110
Nitte University Journal of Health Science
Keywords : -
Jasmine oil massage, labor pain, primigravida mothers,
visual analogue scale Philomena Fernandes
child bearing women. Pain and its relief for women in
labour has been a subject of interest since the dawn of
mankind. Pain during childbirth is generally handled with
pharmacological techniques. Complementary, non-
pharmacologic methods of pain relief are a part of nursing
2
practice that can be safely introduced in early labour .
Massage is one of the best non pharmacological therapy
useful in labour. It has the potential benefits such as
decreasing the intensity of pain, relieving the muscle
spasm, promoting general relaxation and reducing
1
anxiety . A back massage is always comforting, particularly
if the woman is experiencing back pain .
Jasmine oil is one of the essential oil used in labour.
Jasmine's ability to reduce pain and spasms and increase
contraction strength makes it one of the best essential oils
for labour. Massage around the lower back with jasmine,
clary sage, rose and lavender has been reported to provide
3
subjective benefit in labour . It stimulates the body to
release endorphins, which are natural pain killing and
mood lifting substances. Massage is hence recommended
by child birth experts as it has been shown to ease pain and
reduce anxiety in the first stage of labour and also linked
Published online: 2020-04-26
with the shorter labours and a low risk for postpartum
4
depression .
The study findings are consistent with the findings of
Karami N K, Safarzadeh A, Fathizadeh N (2009) who had
conducted a study to evaluate the effect of massage
therapy on severity of labour pain. The finding of the study
shows that the pain severity at the first stage of labour was
significantly different between the experiment group and
the control group. At the start of active phase (p=0.009),
end of transitional phase (p=0.014) and end of first stage
5
(p=0.01) in the experimental group .
Most of the hospitals in the state of Mangalore do not
implement any non-pharmacological therapy to reduce
the pain or discomfort. Research studies revealed that non
pharmacological measures like back massage is very
effective in reducing the labour pain during first stage of
labour and as use of oil makes massage easier to carry and
more pleasant to receive. Thus the investigator felt the
need and planned to give back massage with jasmine oil
and assess its effectiveness on first stage labour pain
among primigravida women.
Materials and Methods
The study design adopted was true experimental approach
(pre test - post test control group design). Population
comprised of primigravida mothers in the first stage of
labour in selected hospitals at Mangalore. Purposive
sampling technique was used for selection of 40 sample,
and random allocation was adopted to assign 20 sample to
experimental and, 20 sample to control group.
The information regarding the demographic Proforma
were collected from the women by interview and Visual
analogue scale (VAS) was used to measure the level of
labour pain .Pre-test was done to assess the level of labour
pain in both the groups using VAS. Thereafter primigravida
women in the experimental group were given jasmine oil
back massage for 10 minutes for 3 times at an interval of 30
minutes and primigravida women in the control group
were given only normal labour care. Post-test was done in
rd
the experimental group after half an hour of the 3
massage and post-test was done in the control group after
2 hours of the pre-test. Data obtained in these areas were
analysed by frequency percentage, paired t-test,
independent t-test and fishers exact test.
Results :
The findings are discussed under the following headings.
SECTION 1: Demographic Characteristics of the
Primigravida Women
Table 1: Distribution of samples according to demographic
haracteristics n=40
Keywords : -
Jasmine oil massage, labor pain, primigravida mothers,
visual analogue scale Philomena Fernandes 105
NUJHS Vol. 3, No.4, December 2013, ISSN 2249-7110
Nitte University Journal of Health Science
Demographic
variables group n= 20 n=20
f%f%
Age
18-22years 11 55 9 45
22-26 years 8 40 9 45
26 -30years 1 5 2 10
Education
Illiterate - - - -
Primary school 3 15 1 5
High school 6 30 3 15
PUC/Diploma 6 30 13 65
Graduate/ PG 5 25 3 15
Occupation
Heavy worker 1 5 1 5
Moderate worker 4 20 2 10
Sedentary worker 6 30 9 45
Unemployed 9 45 8 40
Religion
Hindu 9 45 12 60
Christian 3 15 1 5
Muslim 8 40 7 35
Attended Child Birth Education Classes
Yes 6 30 7 35
No 14 70 13 65
experimental control group
SECTION 2: Clinical Data of the Primigravida Women
Table 2: Mean and standard deviation in relation to Fetal Heart
Rate( FHR) , BP and Pulse
Clinical Experimental group Control group
data Pre-test Post -test Pre-test Post- test
Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD
FHR 138.4 8.88 134.4 10.43 136.8 4.82 134.4 11.61
SBP 122.0 4.47 122.0 4.47 120.0 7.07 126.0 13.42
DBP 80.0 7.07 82.0 4.47 78.0 8.37 86.0 8.94
Pulse 82.4 5.18 84.4 5.90 77.2 5.59 80.4 2.61
Keywords : -
Jasmine oil massage, labor pain, primigravida mothers,
visual analogue scale Philomena Fernandes 106
NUJHS Vol. 3, No.4, December 2013, ISSN 2249-7110
Nitte University Journal of Health Science
SECTION 3: Analysis of Subjective Pain Parameters of the
Primigravida Women
The pre-test data shows that in experimental group, 5% (1)
had mild level of pain , majority 80%(16) of primigravida
women had moderate level of labour pain and 15%(3) had
severe level of labour pain , and 0% had worst pain.
Whereas in control group, 5 % (1) had mild pain and
majority of primigravida women 75%(15) had moderate
level of labour pain and 20%(4) had severe level of labour
pain.
The post-test data shows that in experimental group ,
majority of primigravida women 70%(14) of primigravida
women had mild level of labour pain , 30%(6) had
moderate level of labour pain and 0% had worst pain .
Whereas in control group, 15 %( 3) had moderate pain and
majority of primigravida women, 60 % (12) had severe level
of labour pain and 25 % (5) had worst level of labour pain.
SECTION 4 : Comparison of the Labour Pain Scores Within
the Group and Between Experimental and Control Group
Table 3 : Comparison of VAS in experimental group using
paired 't' test n= 20
Mean SD Mean 't' df p-
Difference value value
Pre-test 5.35 1.31 2.25 9.87* 19 0.001
Post-test 3.10 1.1
*significant p<0.05 table value (2.09 )
Table 4 : Comparison of VAS between experimental group and
control group using independent t test n=40
Group Mean SD Mean
Difference value value
Pre-test Experime- 5.35 1.31
ntal group
n=20 0.15 0.36 38 0.72
Control 5.20 1.32
group n=20
Post-test Experim- 3.10 1.1
ental group
n=20 4.85 11.75* 38 0.001
Control 7.95 1.5
group n=20
* Significant p<0.05 table value (2.024)
't' df p-
SECTION 5: Association Between Level of Labour Pain With
Demographic Variables.
Table 5: Association between the level of labour pain using visual
analogue pain score of experimental group with their
demographic variables n=20
Variables VAS p-value
Moderate Severe
Age in years
18-22 years 6 1
22-26 years 7 2 0.11
26-30 years 3 0 NS
Education
Primary school 2 1
High school 5 1 0.29
PUC/diploma 5 1 NS
Graduate/PG 4 0
Occupation
Heavy 1 0
Moderate 3 0 0.79
Sedentary 5 1 NS
unemployed 7 2
Religion
Hindu 8 0
Christian 2 1 0.49
Muslim 6 2 NS
Attended child birth education classes
Yes 4 1 0.24
No 12 2 NS
NS- not significant
Discussion :
In this study Jasmine oil massage proved to reduce first
stage labour pain.
The study findings are consistent with the findings of
Chandra T (2011) who had conducted a study to evaluate
the effect of olive oil back massage therapy on labor pain
during first stage of labor among primigravida women in
selected hospital at Selam .Oil massage was given to all the
mothers and the pain, was measured after massage and
compared with pre-test value. The findings of the study
shows that the mean of pain severity at the first stage of
labour was significantly different between the experiment
group and the control group The result concluded that
there was significant reduction of labour pain 't'= 8.88
6
which was significant at 0.01 level of significance
Keywords : -
Jasmine oil massage, labor pain, primigravida mothers,
visual analogue scale Philomena Fernandes 107
NUJHS Vol. 3, No.4, December 2013, ISSN 2249-7110
Nitte University Journal of Health Science
Recommendations :
lA similar study can be conducted in larger sample.
lA similar study can be conducted among primigravida
mothers in latent phase of labor
lA comparative study can also be done between the
effectiveness of various non pharmacological measures
for labour pain .
lA comparative study can also be conducted between
primi and multi women in labour.
lA study can be done to find the effectiveness of jasmine
oil massage on cervical dilatation.
Conclusion :
Pain in labour is a nearly universal experience for child
bearing women. Labor pain is a challenging issue for nurses
designing observation protocols. The present study
assessed the effectiveness of jasmine oil massage on
reduction of labour pain during first stage of labor among
primigravida mothers . Based on statistical findings, it is
evident that the jasmine oil massage was effective in
reducing level of first stage labour pain among primigravida
women.
References :
1. Brucker M, Zwelling E. Maternal newborn nursing: Theory and
practice.Philadelphia: W.B. Saunder; 2004.
2. Buckle J. The role of aromatherapy in nursing care. Nursing Clinics of
North America.2001; 36(1): 57-72.
3. Chang M, Wang S, Chen C. Effects of massage on pain and anxiety on
labor: A randomized controlled trial in Taiwan. Journal of Advances in
Nursing,.2002;38: 68-73. nd
4. Rose Mary. Pains in Childbearing And Its Control.2 Edition. Wisely-
Blackwell Publication.
5. Karami NK, Safarzadeh A, Fathizadeh N. Effects of massage therapy on
severity of pain and labor of primi-parous women. Iranian journal of
nursing and midwifery research 2009, 12(1): 6-9. Available from URL:
http://www.ijnmr.mui.ac.ir/index.php/ ijnmr/article/view/2
6. Chandra T. effectiveness of olive oil back massage on primigravida
women. Nightingale nursing times. Vol.6 .jan2011
... In addition, this study was in agreement with study conducted by Joseph & fernandes, (2013) which revealed that labor pain was found to be more sever in younger age and they are accounted (55%) for age group range (18-22) years. ...
... in agreement with the current study include studies reported by Calvert & Calvert, (2005) in Australian; Burns et. al, (2007) in Italian ;Joseph & Fernandes ,(2013) in Indian; Ganji et.al,(2013) in Iran; Vakilian et. al, (2014) in UK ;Namazi et. ...
... In In the present study, the methods show a very effective level in reducing severity of labor pain, comfort women and reduce duration of labor stage and these finding is in agreement with studies reported by Joseph & Fernandes, (2013). They use jasmine in their study and found that it was very effective in reducing level of first stage of labor pain. ...
Thesis
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Objectives: The study aimed to apply pain management practices for laboring women during labor at delivery room. Methods: A quasi-experimental design has been conducted during the period of (4th July 2018 through 24th October 2018) on non- probability (purposive sample) of (60) women who are suffering from labor pain, (30) of them were the "experimental group'' and (30) were the ''control group'' whom admitted to the hospital for delivery in Al-Elwyia Maternity Teaching Hospital. A questionnaire has been used as a tool of data collection and consists of seven parts including socio-demographic variables and, reproductive variables, pain assessment and non-pharmacological methods, for delivery, intra-partum events, positives and negatives of a pain management practices, and pain management application effectiveness. The pilot study was conducted on (10) women on 25th June 2018, to 1st July 2018. Data were collected through the utilization of application, observation, and pain assessment tool, as a mean of data collection process. Descriptive and inferential statistical using to analysis data. Results: The results of the study revealed that the study group showed a decrease in the level of pain from the severe to the moderate in the first and second stages, while the level of pain was severe in the control group. Only in the third stage the level of pain was mild in both groups, in addition to decrease the duration of labor stages (first, second and third) in the study group, while there was no decrease in duration of labor stages in the control group. Also, there were a high significant relationship at (P=0.000) between some socio-demographic characteristics and reducing pain level in active first stage, and 2nd stage with moderate pain level and in third stage with mild pain after implementation pain management methods. Finally, there were high significant relationships between some socio-demographic characteristics at (p=0.000) and the practices uses. Conclusions: The study concluded that the application of non-pharmacological pain management practices was effective on the study group by reducing the severity of the pain and the duration of labor in stages (1st, 2nd and 3rd) and improving the outcome of the women (intra partum events). Recommendations: The study recommends implementation of structured training program of non-pharmacological pain management methods during labor with publish clinical practice guide in English and Arabic which contains information about the proper use of methods and its advantages to all women. The study also suggests the use of non-pharmacological pain management practices through seminars and conferences that must be set up periodically for midwives to raise their knowledge and skills to help them perform their role effectively.
... [15] Based on the information available in the literature on the type of massaging technique and lubricant, this study was conducted using 2 types of massaging techniques -Effleurage (gliding strokes) and Petrissage (Kneading strokes) along with jasmine oil as the lubricant to soothe labor pain. [14,16] The main aim of the study was to assess and compare the effectiveness of back massage on pain during the first stage of labor in primipara mothers at a tertiary care center in Karad, Maharashtra. ...
... The sample size for the study was calculated using the proportionality formula from a study conducted by Joseph and Fernandez. [16] The post-test visual analog scale (VAS) score was 3.1 ± 1.1 and 7.95 ± 1.5 in the experimental and control groups, respectively. At the statistical power of 80% the following formula was used ...
... [28] The significant difference pain score was similar with previously conducted studies. [16,28] In our study, we observed that all mothers experienced all levels of pain, i.e., mild, moderate, and severe. However, the study signifies the effect of back massage in reducing the labor pain during the first stage. ...
Article
Background: Labor pain is one of the most severe pains a woman experiences in her life, causing an increase in the anxiety and stress levels. Massage therapy has proven beneficial for relaxation purposes. Aim: To evaluate the effectiveness of back massage in relieving pain during the first stage of labor in primi mothers. Methodology: The study included 40 primipara mothers belonging to the age group 22-25 years, equally divided into 2 groups: Experimental (massage therapy) and control (routine care). The socio-demographic data, labor assessment parameters (cervical dilation, status of fetal membranes, frequency and duration of uterine contractions during the latent and active phase of labor, and the total duration of the first stage of labor), and the level of labor pain (numerical rating pain scale) were recorded. Data analysis was performed by one-way ANOVA and two independent samples t-test (P ≤ 0.05 as significant). Results: During the latent and active phase of labor, majority of the mothers experienced 4-5 contractions in a span of 10 min. During the latent phase of labor, uterine contractions for 20-40 s were exhibited by 90% and 75% mothers in the experimental and control group, respectively; and during active phase, contractions of >40 s were exhibited by 85% mothers in both groups. A significant difference in the post-test pain scores was noted between the 2 groups (P < 0.0001). Conclusion: Our study proved that back massage was effective in reducing pain during the first stage of labor in primipara mothers in comparison to those who were subjected to routine care.
... The ketones in lavender can reduce pain, inflammation, and soothe, while the esters can prevent muscle spasms reduce tension and depression [44], [45]. This randomized clinical trial was conducted on 56 participants, 29 in the intervention group and 27 in the control group. ...
... Jasmine oil (Jasmine) is one of the oils that can be used in childbirth, which contains indole, alcohol, benzylic acetate, benzylic alcohol, livalylacetaate, and Jason. Giving back massage with jasmine oil for 10 min 3 times with an interval of 30 min is effective for reducing labor pain p < 0.05 [44]. Herbal therapy jasmine can also be given using diffused water, done by dripping 44 drops of rose essence in 300 ml of water [35], [48]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background:. labor pain can stress the mother and cause pain impulses to multiply and potentially weaken uterine muscle contractions. Pain can cause distress to the baby. One way to reduce pain is by giving herbal therapy or aromatherapy. Aromatherapy is one of the non-pharmacological methods to reduce labor pain. Aromatherapy often used to reduce labor pain is Lavender, Rose, Jasmine, Citrus Aurantium. AIM: This study aims to determine the use of herbal therapy to reduce labor pain.The purpose of this study is to analyze the challenges in implementing health education in elementary schools in Banda Aceh Methods: the design in this study was a literature review article. Search for articles using relevant ones obtained from data based on Pubmed, Proquest, Ebsco, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar in the past ten years (2011–2021) received 121 articles. Results: The study results show several challenges in implementing health education. Lack of understanding about School Health Services, School Health Services is not considered a strategic program, Low attention from policymakers, School Health Services Program has not been understood as part of the national target, Implementation of UKS program in schools is only a formality, Implementation and development School Health Services program is not evenly distributed. Barriers to the Implementation of School Health Services in Elementary School are the lack of optimal inter-sectoral cooperation, lack of trained personnel, high workload, and the impact of conflicting health issues, causing various School Health Services activities to be hampered in their Implementation CONCLUSION: Utilization of herbal therapies such as Lavender, Mawar, Jasmine, Citrus, Aurantium has been proven to reduce labor pain which can be used in various methods such as inhalation, bath, massage, and foot soak. The easy use of aromatherapy can be an alternative to reduce labor pain.
... Finally, 33 studies were been verified to meet our criteria for inclusion (Figure 1). Interventions: Inhalation (12,14,(19)(20)(21)(22)(23)(24)(26)(27)(28)(29)(30)(33)(34)(35)(36)(38)(39)(40)(41)(42), massage (11)(12)(13)(17)(18)25,31,37) footbath (12,21), inhalation and footbath, birthing pool, points for acupressure and compress (12), were the forms of aromatherapy administration in the included studies. The most essential oil used in the studies was lavender (13 studies). ...
... The effects of Jasmin aromatherapy on labor pain and anxiety: Jasmin, known as the Jasmine officinale, is a species belonging to Oleaceae family (47)(48). Joseph et al. showed that aromatherapy massage with Jasmin extract significantly decreased pain severity in the first stage of labor compared with the control group (25). Other studies do not support the effectiveness of inhalation aromatherapy with jasmine extract in reducing labor pain (30). ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Aromatherapy as an alternative and complementary medicine is a well-known method for reducing the symptoms of various physiological processes such as labor experience. The aim of this study was to systematically review the currently available evidences evaluating the use of aromatherapy for management of labor pain and anxiety. Methods: In a systematic review, 5 databases (PubMed, SCOPUS, Web of Science, Google Scholar and Scientific Information Database [SID]) were searched, from database inception up to December 2019. Keywords used included (aromatherapy OR "essential oil" OR "aroma*") AND (pain OR anxiety) AND (labor OR delivery). Using the Cochrane Collaboration's 'Risk of bias' method; the risk of bias in the included studies was evaluated. Results: A total of 33 studies were verified to meet our inclusion criteria. Most of the included studies were conducted in Iran. Aromatherapy was applied using inhalation, massage, footbath, birthing pool, acupressure, and compress. The most popularly used essential oil in the studies was lavender (13 studies), either as a single essential oil or in a combination with other essential oils. Most of included studies confirmed the positive effect of aromatherapy in reducing labor pain and anxiety. Conclusion: The evidences from this study suggest that aromatherapy, as a complementary and alternative modality, can help in relieving maternal anxiety and pain during labor.
... The study of aromatherapy effect on reducing pain is in tune with the study that has stated the difference of pain intensity of postsectio sectio caesarea before and after the application of aromatherapy inhalation [5]. Another supporting study demonstrates [6] that jasmine aromatherapy candles are able in lessening the pain of post sectio caesarea. Linalool contained in the jasmine aromatherapy is able in increasing circulation and sending electrochemical messages to the central nervous system which leads to spasmolytic, as well as decreasing the nerve impulses that transmit the pain [3]. ...
... [12] It is well-established that cortisol level elevates in response to pain, anxiety, and stress. [25,26] Furthermore, previous study with animals demonstrated that long-term oral intake of JEO significantly reduces anxiety, pain, and itching in mice. [2] Despite the long history of JEO application in traditional medicine, particularly in Thailand, Iran, and Egypt, the physical and psychological effects of this essential oil have not been yet fully investigated. ...
Article
Context: Anxiety is an unpleasant emotion and inhaling Jasmine Essential Oil (JEO) may decrease anxiety before laparotomy. Aims: Determining effects of inhaling JEO on anxiety and blood cortisol levels in patients undergoing laparotomy. Setting and Design: The setting was 5th Azar Hospital in Gorgan (Iran) and the study was a single blind parallel, randomized, controlled clinical trial that was conducted in 2016. Materials and Methods: The subjects (84 patients) were randomly allocated in two intervention and control groups. The intervention and control group inhaled two drops of JEO and two drops of distilled water respectively for 60 min. Blood cortisol and anxiety levels were measured immediately after intervention by ELISA kit, and the Spielberger's State Anxiety Inventory, respectively. Statistical Analysis: The data were described with mean, Median, Interquartile Range (IQR) and analyzed using t-test, Chi-square, Wilcoxon signed-rank, Mann–Whitney U and correlation coefficient tests. Results: The mean score of anxiety in JEO group before and after intervention was 50.90 ± 7.71 and 36.42 ± 6.62 (P = 0.001), respectively and median (IQR) of the cortisol was 160.7 (60.88) and 93.15 (52.38), respectively (P = 0.001). In the control group, cortisol (IQR) level increased (124.1 (67.42) to 127.9 (62.42), P = 0.02) and the mean anxiety score decreased slightly (P = 0.43). Median and IQR of difference cortisol level before and after in the intervention and control group were significant (P = 0.001). Conclusion: Our findings suggest that aromatherapy with JEO may have beneficial effects on preoperative anxiety in patients undergoing laparotomy.
... The researcher attempted to use aromatherapy for participant (according to their preference) due to that the researcher noted the uses of these aromatherapy are widely in world and have many benefit such as promoting general relaxation, reduce anxiety and helpful to reduce labor pain as it used in the current study depend on wide evidence based studies. (4,(5)(6)(7) especially when used during labor. Then as observed in this study some women prefer changing positions which include squatting, side-lying position and standing which used as combine with other method. ...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: To evaluate the women's perception with Childbirth Experience after utilization Pain Management Practices. Methodology: A quasi-experimental study conducted on non-probability of (30) women whom admitted to Al-Elwyia Maternity Teaching Hospital suffering from labor pain for the period of (4 th July 2018 through 24 th October 2018). Descriptive& Inferential statistical analyses were used to analyze the data. Results: show that the highest percentages of non-pharmacological methods used was frankincense oil, and related to women perception of labor pain they are assessed high as general, and they are accounted 24(96.0%). Conclusions: The study concluded that there are a positive evaluation observed regarding women's perception with childbirth experience after utilization pain management practices. Recommendations: The study recommended developing structured training program and clinical practice guideline of non-pharmacological pain management methods during labor and childbirth should be made available in English and Arabic which contains information about the proper use of non-pharmacological pain management methods and its advantages to midwives working in delivery room.
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p> Background: The maternal mortality rate in Southeast Asian countries is Indonesia 190 per 100,000 live births, Vietnam 49 per 100,000 live births, Thailand26 per 100,000 live births, Brunei 27 per 100,000 live births, and Malaysia 29 per 100,000 live births (WHO, 2015). Data on maternal mortality in the Special Region of Yogyakarta in 2020 found 40 cases, an increase from the previous year, which was 36 cases. In the Bantul district there are 20 cases of maternal mortality(DIY Health Office, 2020). Labor pain relief methods are divided into non-pharmacological (psychoprophylactic, hypnosis, acupuncture, touch healing therapy, relaxation exercises, massage therapy, music therapy) and pharmacological (systemic drugs, inhalation anesthetics, general anesthesia, regional anesthesia) (Tanvisut et al., 2018). Objectives: This study aims to determine the effect of lavender and jasmine aromatherapy on pain levels in the first stage of labor at the Bina Sehat Clinic. Methods: Q uasi experiment with pretest and posttest group design. a sample of 38 respondents using the formula (Lemeshow et al., 1997) in Sastroasmoro and Ismail (2011). Sampling technique with simple random sampling Results: Shows that jasmine aromatherapy is more effective in reducing pain levels in first-stage mothers than lavender aromatherapy at the Bina Sehat Clinic. There is a significant effect of the level of labor pain in the first stage before and after the lavender and jasmine aromatherapy intervention period. Conclusions: Jasmine aromatherapy was more effective in reducing pain levels in first-stage labor than lavender aromatherapy at the Bina Sehat Clinic with a Z_Wilcoxon value obtained at -4.001 and a significant value of 0.000 (p<0.000). There was a significant effect on the results of the first stage of labor pain before and after the lavender and jasmine aromatherapy intervention period, which was -4.143 and a significant value of 0.000 (p<0.000). </p
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Traditionally, crude extracts from various plants were used for treatment of diseases and ailments, while spices have been used for flavour, as preservatives, in rituals and as medicines for treating infectious diseases. The essential oils of 12 medicinal plants and spices were extracted and tested against Escherichia coli 0157:H7 (EHEC) to determine the antimicrobial properties. The selected plants and spices are Eugenia caryophyllata (F), Jasminium (F), Eucalyptus globulus (L), Zingiber officinale (R), Allium sativum (L), Occimum sanctum (L), Azadirachta indica (L), Psidium guajava (L), Citrus limon (L), Carica papaya (L), Morinda citrifolia (L) and Azadirachta indica (seed). These plants and spices were chosen due to their dependence by local households as a means of traditional medicine. Essential oils extracted from the plant and spices showed growth inhibition of E. coli 0157:H7, whereas the highest antimicrobial activity was recorded for clove oil. Jasmine, pawpaw and neem (seed oil) had the lowest growth respectively. All other extracts had moderate activity. Additionally, the aqueous and ethanol extracts of each plant were used to determine the total phenolic content (TPC). From the plants tested, the TPC of aqueous extract varied from 612±3.15 to 2.67±0.11 (mg GAE/100gdw), while TPC of ethanol extract varied from 434±2.87 to 1.02±0.09 (mg GAE/100gdw). The highest TPC was recorded for noni aqueous extract and the lowest was for jasmine ethanol extract. This study reports the inhibitory effects and phenolic content of 12 herbs and spices and thus its potential use for developing safe pharmaceutical agents.
Article
Labor pain (LP), as a physiological process, is known as one of the most severe pains. Aromatherapy is one of the methods to reduce LP in the first phase of labor. It is an important approach for enjoyable birth and decreases the severity of pain in today’s society. Accordingly, this study aimed to systematically review the relieving effect of aromatherapy in LP and Apgar score. We used international databases such as EMBASE, Web of Science, Scopus, Google Scholar, PubMed, Cochrane Library, ProQuest, and clinicaltrials.gov to conduct a systematic search for all relevant articles. Cochran’s Q-test and I2 statistic were applied to assess heterogeneity, a random-effects model was used to estimate the unstandardized mean difference (UMD), and a meta-regression method was utilized to investigate the factors affecting heterogeneity between studies. A total of 27 studies were included in the meta-analysis (sample size: 2,566). Overall, aromatherapy leads to relieving LP during delivery (UMD: 1.75; 95% CI: 1.13–2.37). Based on cervix dilation, aromatherapy significantly affects LP when cervix dilation is 8–10 cm (UMD: 6.18; 95% CI: 4.51–7.85) and 0–4 cm (UMD: 5.31; 95% CI: 3.74–6.87); but it had no effects on 1- and 5-min Apgar scores. No publication bias was observed (P=0.113). Mother’s age, publication year, sample size, and cervix dilation had no significant effects on heterogeneity (P>0.05). Aromatherapy had a positive impact on relieving LP, and the greatest and least effect was witnessed in dilatation of 8–10 cm and 0–4 cm, respectively. Moreover, it had no effects on 1- and 5-min Apgar scores.
Article
Aromatherapy is the fastest growing of all complementary therapies among nurses in the United States. Although aromatherapy has been used by the public for recreation for thousands of years and by nurses throughout the world during the last 15 years, it is only in the last few years that aromatherapy has become recognized by US State Boards of Nursing as a legitimate part of holistic nursing. Aromatherapy is now set to become one of the most popular tools that nurses can use to enhance their nursing care and simultaneously empower themselves. This article explores the potential role of aromatherapy in nursing, highlights four essential oils, and suggests practical ways that nurses can begin using this gentle therapy.
Article
To investigate the effects of massage on pain reaction and anxiety during labour. Labour pain is a challenging issue for nurses designing intervention protocols. Massage is an ancient technique that has been widely employed during labour, however, relatively little study has been undertaken examining the effects of massage on women in labour. A randomized controlled study was conducted between September 1999 and January 2000. Sixty primiparous women expected to have a normal childbirth at a regional hospital in southern Taiwan were randomly assigned to either the experimental (n=30) or the control (n=30) group. The experimental group received massage intervention whereas the control group did not. The nurse-rated present behavioural intensity (PBI) was used as a measure of labour pain. Anxiety was measured with the visual analogue scale for anxiety (VASA). The intensity of pain and anxiety between the two groups was compared in the latent phase (cervix dilated 3-4 cm), active phase (5-7 cm) and transitional phase (8-10 cm). In both groups, there was a relatively steady increase in pain intensity and anxiety level as labour progressed. A t-test demonstrated that the experimental group had significantly lower pain reactions in the latent, active and transitional phases. Anxiety levels were only significantly different between the two groups in the latent phase. Twenty-six of the 30 (87%) experimental group subjects reported that massage was helpful, providing pain relief and psychological support during labour. Findings suggest that massage is a cost-effective nursing intervention that can decrease pain and anxiety during labour, and partners' participation in massage can positively influence the quality of women's birth experiences.
Maternal newborn nursing: Theory and practice
  • M Brucker
  • E Zwelling
Brucker M, Zwelling E. Maternal newborn nursing: Theory and practice.Philadelphia: W.B. Saunder; 2004.
Effects of massage therapy on severity of pain and labor of primi-parous women. Iranian journal of nursing and midwifery research
  • N K Karami
  • A Safarzadeh
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Karami NK, Safarzadeh A, Fathizadeh N. Effects of massage therapy on severity of pain and labor of primi-parous women. Iranian journal of nursing and midwifery research 2009, 12(1): 6-9. Available from URL: http://www.ijnmr.mui.ac.ir/index.php/ ijnmr/article/view/2
effectiveness of olive oil back massage on primigravida women
  • T Chandra
Chandra T. effectiveness of olive oil back massage on primigravida women. Nightingale nursing times. Vol.6.jan2011