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Abstract

There is a renewed interest in urban gardening in the past decade stimulated by the increased awareness of benefits that it brings to the city, local communities, and individuals. Previous studies have shown different perspectives on urban food growing in the context of developed and developing countries, but less is known about the countries in transition in Southeast Europe. Specifically, no published research has coped with the perspectives of the possible future users of allotment and community gardens. This paper fills the gap to a certain extent by providing first insights into the demand for collective urban gardens in the city of Belgrade. There are no institutional tools at present to support the development of such gardens, although there has been an almost century-long process of advocating collective urban gardening among the experts in city planning. By looking into the possible future needs and motivations of the potential gardeners, specifically, those who are not involved in allotment or community gardening, this study also aims to contribute to the efforts made in the past. The survey was conducted among 300 randomly selected respondents in three municipalities in Belgrade. Data were analysed using factor analytic—multiple regression approach to establish correlations between personal characteristics of potential gardeners and their motivations for gardening. Results indicated a potentially high demand for collective urban gardens, with individual plots slightly preferred to shared gardens. Commonly mentioned motivations are access to healthy and fresh food followed by recreation and light physical activity. People with previous experience in agriculture or gardening are more willing to get involved. Older respondents seem to be more motivated by „subjective well-being“, specifically in terms of relaxation and pleasure from gardening. The results of the study could serve as an input for the regulation and planning of collective urban gardens, specifically considering the needs and motivations of the senior population in cities.

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... Regarding the special benefited groups, only 16 articles [27,28,31,33,34,36,[38][39][40][41][42][43][44][45][46][47] have recorded such specific benefited groups from particular urban agriculture practices, which include older adults, migrants, low-income people, disabled people, people with mental disorders, school children, cancer patients, and women (Table S1). However, the most abundant recorded special groups are elderly people, low-income people, and migrants. ...
... Regarding the special benefited groups, only 16 articles [27,28,31,33,34,36,[38][39][40][41][42][43][44][45][46][47] have recorded such specific benefited groups from particular urban agriculture practices, which include older adults, migrants, low-income people, disabled people, people with mental disorders, school children, cancer patients, and women (Table S1). However, the Health and emotional benefits were recorded more than twice as much in developed countries [17,26,27,36,[38][39][40]46,47,49,50,52,53,[56][57][58][59][60][61] compared to developing countries [29,59,[62][63][64][65][66] ( Table 2). ...
... Regarding the special benefited groups, only 16 articles [27,28,31,33,34,36,[38][39][40][41][42][43][44][45][46][47] have recorded such specific benefited groups from particular urban agriculture practices, which include older adults, migrants, low-income people, disabled people, people with mental disorders, school children, cancer patients, and women (Table S1). However, the Health and emotional benefits were recorded more than twice as much in developed countries [17,26,27,36,[38][39][40]46,47,49,50,52,53,[56][57][58][59][60][61] compared to developing countries [29,59,[62][63][64][65][66] ( Table 2). The top three health and emotional sub-categories recorded in developed countries are food nutrition and quality, connection with nature, physical activity, and mental relaxation. ...
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Multifunctionality of urban agriculture can support the resolve of many urban challenges. There-fore, it is vital to understand the contribution of academic studies on urban agriculture practices as scientific information. The present study followed a systematic literature review based on the PRISMA method. Finally, 54 identified articles were analyzed. The review study mainly examined the contribution of academic literature on urban agriculture under four dimensions: the socio-economic context of the country, type of agriculture model, opportunities, and challenges. The results revealed the focus of academic literature on urban agriculture to show favoritism toward developed countries' community gardens. Moreover, the leading academic focus on this discipline identifies multifunctionality. People's motivations in developed countries tend to favor social, health-related, and educational benefits of urban agriculture; however, in developing countries, urban agriculture is more related to economic and ecological needs. Challenges for urban agriculture are also different among developed and developing countries. Nevertheless, existing academic studies have given comparatively less attention to identifying challenges, benefit groups of urban agriculture, and government support. Since urban agriculture is highly reliant on local factors, studying more about opportunities and challenges for urban agriculture under different socio-economic contexts and different agriculture models could be more beneficial to connect farming practices in cities with urban planning. Therefore, to make an adequate academic contribution to urban sustainability, future urban agriculture studies need to be more holistic.
... AGs offer a variety of benefits and have been the subject of numerous scientific studies. During the Industrial Revolution, AGs responded to the unhealthy living conditions and poverty in the workers' settlements [14]. After the Second World War, the benefits of gardens were primarily to provide food [15][16][17]. ...
... The same planning strategy may have different impacts in different contexts. A recent study shows that more than half of people prefer to rent an individual plot with their family rather than a shared plot where they work with other gardeners and share the harvest [14]. The experience from Paris [121] can be drawn upon before applying these solutions, with a questionnaire to understand the knowledge and perceptions of urban residents to make scientific judgments. ...
Article
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Allotment gardens (AGs) are widely used in metropolitan areas around the world to offer agricultural opportunities to urban residents. However, there are not enough individual plots for residents to rent for urban gardening, and research on AGs from a city-wide perspective is ongoing. In addition, AGs have a long history in Tokyo, yet few international studies on the current situation of AGs have addressed Asian cities. Thus, this study intends to analyze the provision of AGs and its influencing factors in Tokyo. Using ArcGIS combined the 472-points dataset created by geo-coordinate mapping with urban GIS data to reveal spatial characteristics in four dimensions. Results demonstrate that most AGs are in the urbanization promotion area; most municipalities have AGs; AGs are concentrated within 20 to 30 km from the center of Tokyo; the AGs’ clusters are located at the municipal boundaries. We conducted multiple regressions to determine the influencing factors at the municipal level, with the provision that AGs are related to population density, land price, and the ratio of productive green space. The policy implication of this study is that policymakers need to consider the siting strategy of AGs based on spatial characteristics of AGs.
... Thus, the psychological theory of motivational functionalism defines ecosystem services as motivation [38,62]. The ecosystem service motivations of UCGs include those related to food supply, biodiversity preservation, soil fertility maintenance, air purification, climate regulation, physical health, recreation, interpersonal communication, and cultural education [39,51,61,[64][65][66][67]. While fewer existing studies have focused on the impact of residents' perceived UCG ecosystem services on their gardening behavior, many studies confirm a significant association between resident or gardener motivation and urban gardening intention or behavior, focusing on the causes of motivation and how motivation affects behavioral intention or practice. ...
... Consistent with the TPB theory, the study concluded that residents' attitudes towards UCGs have the greatest influence on their behavioral intention. Attitude or emotional motivation is an important determinant of all horticulture behavioral intention [15,19,67]. A study of gardeners' participation in community (allocation) gardens found that the positive emotional connection they established with the garden strengthened their intention to participate [39]. ...
Article
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Urban community gardens (UCGs), greenspace cultivated and managed for vegetables by local communities, provide substantial ecosystem services (ES) and are warmly welcomed by residents. However, they also have many ecosystem disservices (EDS) and are almost always refused by the decision-makers of the government, especially in China. Better understanding the residents’ perceived ES and EDS and the impact on the behavioral intention (BI) toward UCGs is of great value to solve the conflicts between residents and the government concerning UCGs and to develop sustainable UCGs. Following the theory of planned behavior (TPB), we measured perceived ES/EDS, attitudes (ATT), perceived behavioral control (PBC), subjective norm (SN), and BI of 1142 residents in Changsha, China, and investigated their direct and indirect causal relationships using structural equation modeling (SEM). The results showed that: (1) ATT, PBC, and SN significantly and positively impact the BI of UCGs and together explained 54% of the variation of BI. (2) The extended TPB model with additional components of perceived ED/EDS improved the explanatory ability of the model, explaining 65% of the variance of BI. Perceived ES and perceived EDS showed significant direct positive and negative impacts on UCGs, respectively. They also indirectly impacted BI by influencing ATT, PBC, and SN. The findings of this study can extend our understanding of residents’ attitudes, behavior, and driving mechanism toward UCGs, and can help decision makers to design better policies for UCG planning and management.
... Furthermore, the relationships between the ES assessment and spatial characteristics coincide with the results presented by Olsen, Jensen, and Panduro (2020) The results obtained by WTP multivariate modelling show significant relationships between the WTP and the degree of urbanisation/naturalness (NDBI) of the residence area, the declared pro-environmental attitude (VECI), the current use of the study area (USER), and the distance (DIST) from the residence to the study area and the existence of other AGs. These results are similar to those obtained in previous AGs assessments, where the influence on the WTP of environmental awareness (Meng, 2019), knowing and frequenting the study area (Slavica, Tomicevic-Dubljevic, & Zivojinovic, 2020), or the naturalness of the residence area (Mancebo, 2018) was evidenced. The influence of the spatial dimension in this work is in consistent with the results of Slavica et al. (2020) for a study of urban gardens, in which they showed the existence of preferences for those spaces located near the places of residence, while Bendt, Barthel, and Colding (2013) confirmed a lower utility of the new actions if there are already urban gardens in the residence neighbourhood. ...
... These results are similar to those obtained in previous AGs assessments, where the influence on the WTP of environmental awareness (Meng, 2019), knowing and frequenting the study area (Slavica, Tomicevic-Dubljevic, & Zivojinovic, 2020), or the naturalness of the residence area (Mancebo, 2018) was evidenced. The influence of the spatial dimension in this work is in consistent with the results of Slavica et al. (2020) for a study of urban gardens, in which they showed the existence of preferences for those spaces located near the places of residence, while Bendt, Barthel, and Colding (2013) confirmed a lower utility of the new actions if there are already urban gardens in the residence neighbourhood. ...
Article
Allotment gardens (AGs), one of the basic types of urban gardening, provide goods and services as recreation and climate regulation to the urban population beyond food supply. Ecosystem services (ES) associated with these spaces and spatial factors, such as distances and the presence of substitutes, are of great importance. These aspects, previously studied in the literature, are rarely focused on the economic valuation, through which benefits are revealed. This paper evaluates the creation of AGs in a peri-urban degraded agroecosystem in Murcia (SE-Spain). The values of ES are quantified economically, so are the influences of the socioeconomic and spatial characteristics. A survey was undertaken, from which the willingness to pay (WTP) for owning an AG and the factors influencing the valuation were determined. The results indicate that provisioning services are the ES valued most highly. The valuation of the project for the whole population is 5.4 €/household/month, with a WTP of 17.2 €/household/month for owning an AG plot. Multivariate analysis showed the importance of ES and spatial factors in this valuation. This WTP spatial study shows the existence of local patterns to be considered in the evaluation of new AGs location alternatives. These results will be useful to urban planners in their decision making.
... The experience of using arboreal plants of different geographical origin and differentiation of species composition for ecologically functional groups of planting objects, the aspects of correct choice of trees [11], including representatives of specific systematic groups [12], as well as the studies on the perception and preference of green infrastructure objects [13], the demand for collective urban gardens [14], the importance of urban green spaces in maintaining physical activity [15], social interaction and, in general, comfortable emotional state of population [16] were analyzed. ...
... The possession of dacha for the population of Siberia and, in general, Russia, is a socio-cultural necessity, which is important from the point of view of psychological and emotional comfort, as well as a subsidiary farm for obtaining agricultural products. A similar request was identified among the population of other countries, for example, Serbia [14]. ...
Article
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Based on the publications analysis and our own research, the ecological principles are considered, which should form the basis of long-term plans for planting of greenery in settlements in Baikal Siberia and take into account important regional features. The research was conducted using methods of information collection and analysis, which include comparison and systematization of data on the indicated problem. The current general urban plans of towns, which are in open access, as well as urban planning standards for the allocation of functional zones of settlements were studied. The influence of the urban environment on the existence of plants is examined. The problem of invasion of cultivated species as a result of unreasoned planting of greenery and the need to use indigenous species for amenity planting, especially those that are rare and in need of protection, were identified. The conclusion was made that when planting of greenery, one should take into account the florogenetic and phytocoenotic properties of the vegetation cover of the studied territory. Environmental principles of planting of greenery in settlements of Baikal Siberia are proposed as conceptual. Keywords: amenity planting, urban infrastructure, Cisbaikalia, Transbaikalia.
... The multifunctional benefits of gardening for community, physical health and psychological wellbeing have been documented before the COVID-19 pandemic (Soga et al., 2017a,b;Howarth et al., 2020;de Bell et al., 2020;Chalmin-Pui et al., 2020). Evidence indicates the drivers for pre-COVID gardening include a safe place to connect with nature, respite, love of gardening, physical activity, growing fresh food, educational attainment, social interactions, creating community, social-ecological justice, and catalysing new food movements (Nordh et al., 2016;Kingsley et al., 2019;Palar et al., 2019;Cepic et al., 2020). The experiences of participants in our study show these positive benefits continued during COVID-19 and may have been strengthened during this period as gardeners had space to relax in nature and connect with people at a deeper level (Marsh et al., 2021). ...
Article
Gardening has the potential to improve health and wellbeing, especially during crises. Using an international survey of gardeners (n = 3743), this study aimed to understand everyday gardening experiences, perspectives and attitudes during early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020. Our qualitative reflexive thematic and sentiment analyses show that during the first months of the COVID-19 pandemic, gardening seemed to create a safe and positive space where people could socially connect, learn and be creative. Participants had more time to garden during the pandemic, which led to enhanced connections with family members and neighbours, and the ability to spend time in a safe outdoor environment. More time gardening allowed for innovative and new gardening practices that provided enjoyment for many participants. However, our research also highlighted barriers to gardening (e.g. lack of access to garden spaces and materials). Our results illustrate the multiple benefits of gardening apparent during COVID-19 through a lens of the social-ecological model of health.
... Urban agriculture experiments seeking to cultivate vegetables and fruits in collective gardens are popular with city dwellers and can change urban living patterns and philosophies. Urban collective gardens and farms are places of production, of social ties and well-being; they are considered as an interface between city, nature, and agriculture (Scheromm, 2015 ;Da Silva et al., 2016 ;Slavica et al., 2020). They allow the inhabitants to immerse themselves in an extra-ordinary universe where gardening leads them to recover forgotten skills, to learn from nature and the environment. ...
Article
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Simultaneously perceived as places of agriculture, of nature, and of social ties, urban collective gardens and farms enable city dwellers to immerse themselves in gardening, to recover forgotten skills, to learn from nature and the environment. They reinstate the soil as a feature of the city by making it visible to the urban population, to whom it is often unknown. In this article, we focus on urban gardeners’ representations of the soil in a city of south of France. These representations were analyzed through the lens of the relationships that gardeners develop with the soil as an element of nature. Our results highlight relations where the care ethic is central. They suggest that the practice and the extension of agroecological urban gardening, by placing city dwellers in physical, skilled contact with the soil, promise a reconfiguration of citizens’ relationship with soil.
... Urban gardens (UGs) have grown steadily over recent decades, especially in the most urbanized territories where the risks of social exclusion and urban degradation are relentlessly emerging (Camps-Calveta et al., 2016;Glatron and Granchamp, 2018;Slavica et al., 2020;Rusciano et al., 2020). Their increased popularity stems from the potential of their cultivation, especially in terms of social advantages at both individual and community levels, positive effects on health and wellbeing, urban regeneration of vacant spaces, and increased food security (e.g., Eizenberg, 2012;Bendt et al., 2013;Garcia et al., 2018;Kondo et al., 2018;Kim et al., 2020;Diekmann et al., 2020). ...
Article
This paper illustrates the motivations driving foreign gardeners to cultivate a garden in Lombard municipalities. Motivations underlying urban gardening derives from social, economic, health and environmental benefits. Several studies document them with reference to the entire population of gardeners, while ignoring the specific perspective of each social subgroups, mainly for missing data. This scarce knowledge is particularly evident for the subset of foreign gardeners, i.e., migrants moving to Italy for work and/or family reasons who decide to cultivate an urban garden in the municipality of residence. Although the Lombard regional government has legally recognized the importance of urban gardens and many Lombard municipalities promote their realization locally, there is no database of these experiences. No information on the numbers of gardens cultivated by migrants, as well as those relative to the motivations that lead them to cultivate are collected locally. This paper fills the gap and presents some results deriving from the elaboration of two questionnaires sent to municipalities and gardeners. Findings indicate that about 21% of the responding municipalities promote urban gardening initiatives. Of these municipalities, less than one in five have at least one foreign gardener. Foreign gardeners come mainly from North Africa and Eastern Europe, have an average age of approximately 40 years and live with their families in Lombard municipalities for more than 5 years. Their motivations consist of a growing interest in participation in local communities, breaching multiple relationships and enforcing participation. Oppositely, they attribute little importance in sharing values and strengthening personal and social identity or to preserving the social ecological memory of ancient practices. Finally, they accentuate a lot the contribution of cultivation in reducing pollution and in reconnection with food practices being food access a priority.
... Trendov (2018) shows that CGs in Budapest (Hungary) and Zagreb (Croatia) contribute to the preservation of the environment, the development of an environmentally conscious lifestyle, and raising awareness from an environmental point of view. The main motivations for gardening organized by individuals, civic organizations, or groups of residents in Belgrade (Serbia) are to provide healthy food and socialization, as well as the conservation of biodiversity (Djokić et al. 2018;Cepic et al. 2020). The development of CGs by activists in the post-socialist city of Zagreb (Croatia) was a response to the excessive construction of shopping zones and shopping malls. ...
Article
The aim of the article is to identify the impact of the frequency of visits to community gardens in Slovakia with regard to how people perceived the importance of membership of community garden, how satisfied they were in general with community relations in the gardens, how they perceived improved social relations between people, and the influence of the community gardens on the members’ quality of life. A mixed methods approach was adopted comprising a questionnaire survey and semi-structured interviews. Relationships were tested using Cramer’s V coefficient, the Mann-Whitney U test, and the Kruskal-Wallis test. The analysis of perceptions of the community garden members did not confirm the dependence between the frequency of visits to community gardens and the gardens’ impact on the CG members’ communities. A further finding was that members of community gardens positively rated the relationships in those communities. The authors conclude that there was no evidence of statistical relationships between the variables in their analysed data set. The frequency with which the members visited community garden did not affect the results.
... Special programs can also be designed for youths such as school gardening programs to teach them gardening skills and to nurture their interests in gardening. It was reported that individuals with experience in gardening when young would be more likely to participate in gardening in the future (Cepic, Tomicevic-Dubljevic, & Zivojinovic, 2020). Therefore, the gardening programs for youth may help to ease the manpower shortage in the CGs in the long run. ...
Article
Community gardens (CGs) are a common form of urban green infrastructure with potential to improve urban food security. The characteristics of CGs vary, which may affect the utilization of their food provisioning service. Using the city-state of Singapore as a case study, we examined how CGs’ biophysical characteristics, gardeners’ profiles, and gardening practices may affect the utilization of the CGs’ food provisioning service through in-depth interviews with CG leaders (n=36). Surveys of non-gardener residents (n=337) were also conducted to assess if the biophysical characteristics of CGs would affect their social acceptance. The results showed that gardeners’ profiles showed the strongest correlation to the three indicators of the utilization of food provisioning service in CGs—proportion of food crops, gardeners’ tendency to share produce with non-gardeners, and their perceived self-sufficiency level. Although 75% of the species found in the CGs were edible, 60% of the gardeners were not confident that their CGs could be a food source owing to space and manpower constraints. Additionally, non-gardener residents in neighborhoods with older CGs had more positive perceptions of the respective CG's produce. Our results would be useful for urban planners to increase food self-sufficiency by encouraging food production in CGs using sustainable practices.
... A study of Welsh allotment gardeners similarly found that older adults undertook gardening tasks mainly at low to moderate physical activity levels but emphasized that this had significant potential for disease prevention (Hawkins et al., 2015). There is also evidence that, especially for older adults, gardening can offer benefits in terms of well-being; reducing age-related weight gains, falls, cardiovascular and diabetes risk; and increasing the likelihood of meeting physical activity guidelines, compared with younger adults (Artmann et al., 2017;Cepic et al., 2020;Chen, & Janke, 2012;de Bell et al., 2020;Litt et al., 2017;Robson, & Troutman-Jordan, 2015;Scott et al., 2020;Sommerfeld et al., 2010). A recent Japanese study, conducting during the COVID-19 pandemic, found that gardening improved physical function in older cardiac rehabilitation patients and was recommended as a physical activity for people suffering cardiovascular disease (Ogura et al., 2021). ...
Article
This study investigates the associations of vigorous-intensity gardening time with cardiometabolic health risk markers. This cross-sectional study (AusDiab) analyzed 2011-2012 data of 3,664 adults (55% women, mean [range], age = 59.3 [34-94] years) in Australia. Multiple linear regression models examined associations of time spent participating in vigorous gardening (0, <150 min/week, ≥150 min/week) with a clustered cardiometabolic risk (CMR) score and its components, for the whole sample and stratified by age and gender. Of participants, 61% did no vigorous gardening, 23% reported <150 min/week, and 16% reported ≥150 min/week. In the whole sample, spending ≥150 min/week in vigorous gardening was associated with lower CMR (lower CMR score, waist circumference, diastolic blood pressure, and triglycerides) compared with no vigorous gardening. Stratified analyses suggested that these associations were almost exclusively observed for older adults and women. These findings suggest the public health potential of vigorous-intensity gardening in reducing CMR.
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Studies on participation in community gardens have revealed that gardeners’ participation is driven by functional and emotional motives. Most studies, however, have failed to recognize gardeners’ diverse characteristics. To fill this research gap, this study examined the moderating effect that variations within gardeners has on their participation, particularly as in the case of past gardening experience. The data for this study were obtained through a survey administered in three plot-based community gardens in Austin, Texas. Results revealed that increased gardening experience bolsters the effect of emotional motivations on garden participation, while no effect was shown in the relationship between functional motivations and participation. The importance of gardeners’ past gardening experience on emotional motivations is discussed as it relates to sustained participation in gardening.
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Urban gardening (UG) as a component of urban agriculture (UA) has reached popularity during the last decades. This growing interest depends on several factors including the different functions that have been attributed to UG over the years, operating from the economic to the social, health and cultural levels. While multifunctionality of UG is well documented, only a few studies investigated individual gardeners' motivations, which can be subjective and heavily affected by the local context in which it takes place. The paper aims to detect some peculiar features of Milan city gardeners, in order to highlight the motivations of their activity through an innovative and replicable approach based on multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA). The analysis has been applied to the Milan case study, in the North of Italy; the results suggest a great importance of the social component of UG, and trace some different gardeners' profiles..
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Prague, the capital of Czechia, has a long history of allotment gardening, however, since 1989 allotment gardens are diminishing at a considerable rate. Allotments are being transformed into recreation sites, permanent residences, or used for the construction of residential projects, transportation infrastructure or commercial facilities. Often, they simply turn into vacant land. This paper critically assesses the decline of allotment gardens in Prague. The analysis is based on an extensive field survey. Land use changes of allotment gardens in Prague were monitored during three time periods and the main reasons and motives that have led to a diminution of gardening as a sustainable productive and recreational function during the nineties and the first decade of the new millennium are presented (construction of second homes, transformation to residential dwelling, destruction). The need for a much broader community and civic movement involvement in the planning decision-making processes is viewed as crucial to secure the continuity of the allotment gardens within the city. A successful case of negotiation with local government and further conversion of one of Prague´s threatened allotment garden colonies into public access garden is then presented as a suitable solution to the problems with allotment gardens´ extinction.
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In the cities of industrialized countries, the sudden keen interest in urban agriculture has resulted, inter alia, in the growth of the number and diversity of urban collective gardens. While the multifunctionality of collective gardens is well known, individual gardeners’ motivations have still not been thoroughly investigated. The aim of this article is to explore the role, for the gardeners, of the food function as one of the functions of gardens, and to establish whether and how this function is a motivating factor for them. We draw on a set of data from semi-structured interviews with 39 gardeners in 12 collective gardens in Paris and Montreal, as well as from a survey on 98 gardeners and from field observations of the gardeners’ practices. In the first part we present the nature and diversity of garden produce, and the gardeners’ assessment thereof. In the second part we describe the seven other functions mentioned by the gardeners, which enables us to situate the food function in relation to them. We conclude that the food function is the most significant function of the gardens, and discuss the implications for practitioners and policy makers.
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Growing food for personal and family consumption is a significant global activity, but one that has received insufficient academic attention, particularly in developed countries. This paper uses data from the European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) to address three areas of particular concern: the prevalence of growing your own food and how this has changed over time; the individual and household context in which growing takes place; and whether those who grow their own food are happier than those who do not. Results showed that there was a marked increase in growing your own food in Europe, in the period 2003–2007. This increase is largely associated with poorer households and thus, possibly, economic hardship. In the UK however the increase in growing your own food is predominantly associated with older middle class households. Across Europe, whether causal or not, those who grew their own were happier than those who did not. The paper therefore concludes that claims about the gentrification of growing your own may be premature. Despite contrary evidence from the UK, the dominant motive across Europe appears to be primarily economic — to reduce household expenditure whilst ensuring a supply of fresh food.
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About 39% of the Bosnian population is urban. The main objective of this work is to get an insight into urban and peri-urban agriculture (UPA) in Bosnia with a focus on legal and regulatory framework, governance, and advisory services’ role. Information were collected by a literature review and semi-structured interviews of 30 urban gardeners as well as extension agents and municipal officers in Sarajevo region. The paper analyses references to UPA in the main agricultural development policies in Bosnia; assesses focus on UPA by extension agents; and analyses urban planning and zoning regulations and budget dedicated to agriculture in many municipalities of Sarajevo region. Semi-structured interviews focused also on economic, environmental, aesthetical and social benefits of UPA. Development of UPA requires improving the regulatory framework, promoting multilevel and multi-stakeholder governance, and fostering pluralistic extension and advisory services.
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Globally, rapid urbanisation has substantially reduced the amount of viable agricultural land – a food security issue. Food security is bringing a renewed scholarly interest in community gardens. This paper reviews the extent of English academic literature on community gardens, including: who has undertaken the research, where it has been published, the geographical location of the gardens studied, and the various methods used to undertake the research. The characteristics of the community gardens are summarised, including what types of plants are grown, who is involved in the gardens, and who owns the land. The motivations, benefits and limitations of community gardening are also examined. Finally, potential directions for research into community gardens are highlighted. Academic literature on community gardens is dominated by studies investigating gardens in low-income areas with diverse cultural backgrounds. Research based in cities in the USA also dominates the literature. Scholars from a wide diversity of disciplines have examined community gardens but research is mostly concentrated in the social sciences. The natural sciences are notably under-represented, yet they have much to offer including assessing gardening practices to better understand the agro-biodiversity conservation potential of community gardens.
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Collectively, Polish allotment gardeners represent the largest land managers or users in Poland. Policies that today dedicate the use of this often prime city space reflect a history of social stability that spans the political and economic transformations of the 19th, 20th, and earliest 21st centuries. In 1997, the gardeners celebrated 100 years of formalized urban allotment food production that is rooted in Poland's agrarian past and efforts to move rural labor into urban settings without an infrastructure to meet their basic needs. Poland's allotment garden arrangement provides an important, though fraught, model for food security and urban open space policy. The system combines local and national government policy, administration and management by a non-governmental organization (NGO), and deeded private use by individual gardeners. Today this arrangement produces ongoing tension among the stakeholders and a contentious, even healthy, debate about the private and public uses of urban land.
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The paper offers an analysis of an urban agriculture case in Plovdiv, the second largest city in Bulgaria, where the municipality is clearing more than 2 hectares of allotments that have been tolerated on public land for more than 30 years in order to extend the neighbouring park, without involving the evicted allotment users in a discussion about the future of urban agriculture. At the same time, a number of non-governmental organizations are promoting urban agriculture practices as a social innovation that can alleviate pressing urban problems such as poverty and social exclusion. Using two theoretical viewpoints, the text presents this case as an example of the barriers that hinder a social practice that displays all the prerequisites to fully empower its members and be implemented as a meaningful social innovation. The first viewpoint is based on the writings of Moulaert and co-authors, and explores the factors that make social innovations capable of changing social relations in regard to governance, thus enabling satisfaction of the needs and increasing the level of participation of deprived groups in society by boosting the civic capability to access required resources (Moulaert et al, 2005). The second viewpoint gives grounds for analysing public space as a common good that exists in three interrelated but distinct forms: perceived, conceived and lived space (Lefebvre, 1991; 1996). Borrowing from Lefebvre’s model, the paper analyses the social processes that characterise the development of urban agriculture practices as a manifestation of “the right to the city” in the sense of civic engagement in the creation of urban space and its physical use.
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This paper focuses on four examples of Zagreb urban gardening communities: their actors, their structures, and the aims of the established gardens. The article begins by introducing the practice and perception of the illegal (“wild”) gardens that have existed in Zagreb on vacant and derelict plots for decades. A discussion of the changing contexts of urban gardening within the last few years follows. Further ethnographic examples of new, alternative, and hybrid gardens indicate the variety of organizational methods and actors involved, types of communality and solidarity, and the negotiation and debate regarding discursive, structural, and governance issues. The analysis aims to examine the heterogeneity of gardening communities in Zagreb and to illuminate the dynamics (changes and modifi cations) of various relationships that are constituent to the phenomenon. The article concludes by considering the politics of space, particularly the transformation of urban public spaces, and the potential of gardening initiatives in the sphere of contemporary urban governance strategies. © 2018, Institute of Ethnology and Folklore Research. All rights reserved.
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This paper considers urban gardens as lived spaces which have an important role in reconnecting with nature in an urban environment, but also as an archive of concepts related to culture and everyday life. In this context, the paper studies the character of three of Belgrade’s urban gardens and their contribution to the quality of everyday life in the large-scale socialist residential settlements built during the 1970s. Focus is placed on establishing relations between the dwelling culture, social and cultural needs and changes, and the dominant architectural and planning paradigms of modernism and post-modernism. Belgrade’s urban gardens were created and developed spontaneously (most often non-legally) as self-organized citizens’ acts. Research presented in our case studies confirms the paper’s initial assumption that the urban gardens in Belgrade are still considered marginal and certainly not representative urban practices, overshadowed by the planned urban conceptions and socio-political actions. In this sense, we may notice the lack of a systematic approach to managing these gardens, and complete absence of legislation either provided by authorities, private or public bodies or even associations. Although the urban gardens emerged in socialism outside of any rules and regulations, they promoted the values of an active relationship between the user, dwelling culture and immediate residential surroundings, and contributed to improving the dwelling culture of the “new working class” in the socialist dwelling units. Also, the gardens were not only a place for producing food in financially difficult times, especially during the post-socialist transition of the 1990s, but above all a place associated with socialization and a “sense of home”. Recognizing the benefits of urban gardens and accordingly raising awareness about this concept in the city, together with the adoption of appropriate regulations, would certainly be of immense relevance to urban gardening and generally landscape quality in Serbia.
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This paper analyzes the phenomenon of urban gardening in Zagreb, focusing on two different types of gardens: firstly, unauthorized gardens planted on city-owned land squatted by individual initiatives in a bottom-up way, and secondly, community gardens, which are largely a result of non-governmental organization initiatives, whose institutionalization nevertheless makes them a product of top-down policies. The former type of gardens have been a staple of various Zagreb locations for decades while the latter have been established only recently – in early 2013, or are still in the process of being established. Therefore, several research methods were used in the study. In addition to ethnographic fieldwork (conducted in the Jarun neighborhood, using observation of the gardens and semi-structured interviews with participants) and gathering additional information by consulting archival materials, particular attention was given to recent coverage of the phenomenon in the newspapers and on web portals devoted to ecology.
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Food production was mostly perceived as an agricultural issue grounded in a rural hin-terland. However, with the social, political and economic crisis especially in the Euro-pean South urban agriculture is rapidly developing and becoming increasingly important for city dwellers. Drawing on a case-study of a municipal allotment garden in Northern Greece this article set out to explore the motives of urban dwellers for engaging in urban gardening. We elaborate a typology of gardeners using statistical analysis and Maslow's hierarchy of human needs. We then move from motives to placemaking and argue that despite the recent surge of gardens as places of production and satisfaction of basic level needs, new needs are emerging from lived experiences. Meanings, emotions and memories are embedded in the garden. Self-actualisation needs are fulfilled , new skills are developed and virtual communities are also grown. This symbiotic relationship of agriculture and the city has yet to reach its full potential in helping city dwellers to overcome what they are deprived of due to the crisis, not only material goods and social benefits but moreover a sense of belonging and self-respect.
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As cities and city dwellers in developed countries have shown increasing interest in agriculture, collective gardens (defined as opposed to individual back-yard gardens) have multiplied. Their increase in the city of Montpellier reflects both a demand among citizens and the support of the municipality, and in this article we address the bridge they create between city and agriculture. Forty semi-structured interviews were conducted in different municipal collective gardens to investigate the gardeners’ motivations, their agricultural practices, and their views on gardening and farming. We identified an interest in reconnecting with farming even when food production is not a priority, and our results suggest that this expansion of cultivation promoted by city dwellers supports a new link between cities and agriculture that could be significant in the construction of a sustainable and fertile city.
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Food security is a fundamental element of community health. Informal house-lot food growing, by providing convenient access to diverse varieties of affordable and nutritious produce, can provide an important support for community food security. In this exploratory assessment of the contribution home food gardening makes to community food security, in-depth interviews were conducted with gardeners in two contrasting neighborhoods in Toronto, Canada. A typology of food gardeners was developed, and this qualitative understanding of residential food production was then assessed from a community food security perspective. It was found that growing food contributes to food security at all income levels by encouraging a more nutritious diet. The sustainability of household food sourcing and gardeners’ overall health and well-being also increased with food production. Secure access to suitable land to grow food and gardening skills were the most significant barriers found to residential food production. KeywordsHome gardening–Household food production–Urban agriculture–Community food security
Urbane baštenske kolonije na užoj teritoriji Beograda, značaj i upotreba (master thesis). Šumarski fakultet
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