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Etude pilote portant sur les effets d’un programme d’activités physiques adaptées centré sur l’équilibre, la qualité de vie et le risque de chute des femmes autonomes âgées de plus de 65 ans

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Abstract

Les chutes peuvent avoir de multiples conséquences préjudiciables chez les personnes âgées et les femmes représentent la population la plus à risque. Les bénéfices de l’activité physique dans la prévention des chutes chez les personnes institutionnalisées ou peu autonomes ont largement été démontrés. Cependant, nous manquons de données sur les femmes âgées autonomes vivant à domicile. Notre étude se propose d’étudier les effets psychologiques et physiques d’un programme d’Activité Physique Adaptée (APA) centré sur l’équilibre, chez des femmes âgées de plus de 65 ans, autonomes vivant à domicile. Notre échantillon se compose de 26 femmes (moyenne 75,0 ans), réparties aléatoirement dans deux groupes : un groupe intervention ayant bénéficié d’un programme d’APA centré sur l’équilibre, et un groupe contrôle. Suite au programme, plusieurs indicateurs du risque de chute ont évolué positivement. Par contre, aucune amélioration de la qualité de vie n’a été observée. Cependant, la dimension physique de la qualité de vie chez les femmes n’ayant pas suivi le programme a diminué, alors même qu’elle s’est maintenue chez les participantes au programme. Ces données laissent penser à un possible effet protecteur du programme sur la dégradation de la qualité de vie physique liée à l’avancée en âge.

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Background: Falls and fall-related injuries are common, particularly in those aged over 65, with around one-third of older people living in the community falling at least once a year. Falls prevention interventions may comprise single component interventions (e.g. exercise), or involve combinations of two or more different types of intervention (e.g. exercise and medication review). Their delivery can broadly be divided into two main groups: 1) multifactorial interventions where component interventions differ based on individual assessment of risk; or 2) multiple component interventions where the same component interventions are provided to all people. Objectives: To assess the effects (benefits and harms) of multifactorial interventions and multiple component interventions for preventing falls in older people living in the community. Search methods: We searched the Cochrane Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauma Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, Embase, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, trial registers and reference lists. Date of search: 12 June 2017. Selection criteria: Randomised controlled trials, individual or cluster, that evaluated the effects of multifactorial and multiple component interventions on falls in older people living in the community, compared with control (i.e. usual care (no change in usual activities) or attention control (social visits)) or exercise as a single intervention. Data collection and analysis: Two review authors independently selected studies, assessed risks of bias and extracted data. We calculated the rate ratio (RaR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for rate of falls. For dichotomous outcomes we used risk ratios (RRs) and 95% CIs. For continuous outcomes, we used the standardised mean difference (SMD) with 95% CIs. We pooled data using the random-effects model. We used the GRADE approach to assess the quality of the evidence. Main results: We included 62 trials involving 19,935 older people living in the community. The median trial size was 248 participants. Most trials included more women than men. The mean ages in trials ranged from 62 to 85 years (median 77 years). Most trials (43 trials) reported follow-up of 12 months or over. We assessed most trials at unclear or high risk of bias in one or more domains.Forty-four trials assessed multifactorial interventions and 18 assessed multiple component interventions. (I2 not reported if = 0%).Multifactorial interventions versus usual care or attention controlThis comparison was made in 43 trials. Commonly-applied or recommended interventions after assessment of each participant's risk profile were exercise, environment or assistive technologies, medication review and psychological interventions. Multifactorial interventions may reduce the rate of falls compared with control: rate ratio (RaR) 0.77, 95% CI 0.67 to 0.87; 19 trials; 5853 participants; I2 = 88%; low-quality evidence. Thus if 1000 people were followed over one year, the number of falls may be 1784 (95% CI 1553 to 2016) after multifactorial intervention versus 2317 after usual care or attention control. There was low-quality evidence of little or no difference in the risks of: falling (i.e. people sustaining one or more fall) (RR 0.96, 95% CI 0.90 to 1.03; 29 trials; 9637 participants; I2 = 60%); recurrent falls (RR 0.87, 95% CI 0.74 to 1.03; 12 trials; 3368 participants; I2 = 53%); fall-related hospital admission (RR 1.00, 95% CI 0.92 to 1.07; 15 trials; 5227 participants); requiring medical attention (RR 0.91, 95% CI 0.75 to 1.10; 8 trials; 3078 participants). There is low-quality evidence that multifactorial interventions may reduce the risk of fall-related fractures (RR 0.73, 95% CI 0.53 to 1.01; 9 trials; 2850 participants) and may slightly improve health-related quality of life but not noticeably (SMD 0.19, 95% CI 0.03 to 0.35; 9 trials; 2373 participants; I2 = 70%). Of three trials reporting on adverse events, one found none, and two reported 12 participants with self-limiting musculoskeletal symptoms in total.Multifactorial interventions versus exerciseVery low-quality evidence from one small trial of 51 recently-discharged orthopaedic patients means that we are uncertain of the effects on rate of falls or risk of falling of multifactorial interventions versus exercise alone. Other fall-related outcomes were not assessed.Multiple component interventions versus usual care or attention controlThe 17 trials that make this comparison usually included exercise and another component, commonly education or home-hazard assessment. There is moderate-quality evidence that multiple interventions probably reduce the rate of falls (RaR 0.74, 95% CI 0.60 to 0.91; 6 trials; 1085 participants; I2 = 45%) and risk of falls (RR 0.82, 95% CI 0.74 to 0.90; 11 trials; 1980 participants). There is low-quality evidence that multiple interventions may reduce the risk of recurrent falls, although a small increase cannot be ruled out (RR 0.81, 95% CI 0.63 to 1.05; 4 trials; 662 participants). Very low-quality evidence means that we are uncertain of the effects of multiple component interventions on the risk of fall-related fractures (2 trials) or fall-related hospital admission (1 trial). There is low-quality evidence that multiple interventions may have little or no effect on the risk of requiring medical attention (RR 0.95, 95% CI 0.67 to 1.35; 1 trial; 291 participants); conversely they may slightly improve health-related quality of life (SMD 0.77, 95% CI 0.16 to 1.39; 4 trials; 391 participants; I2 = 88%). Of seven trials reporting on adverse events, five found none, and six minor adverse events were reported in two.Multiple component interventions versus exerciseThis comparison was tested in five trials. There is low-quality evidence of little or no difference between the two interventions in rate of falls (1 trial) and risk of falling (RR 0.93, 95% CI 0.78 to 1.10; 3 trials; 863 participants) and very low-quality evidence, meaning we are uncertain of the effects on hospital admission (1 trial). One trial reported two cases of minor joint pain. Other falls outcomes were not reported. Authors' conclusions: Multifactorial interventions may reduce the rate of falls compared with usual care or attention control. However, there may be little or no effect on other fall-related outcomes. Multiple component interventions, usually including exercise, may reduce the rate of falls and risk of falling compared with usual care or attention control.
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Falls warrant investigation as a risk factor for nursing home admission because falls are common and are associated with functional disability and because they may be preventable. We conducted a prospective study of a probability sample of 1103 people over 71 years of age who were living in the community. Data on demographic and medical characteristics, use of health care, and cognitive, functional, psychological, and social functioning were obtained at base line and one year later during assessments in the participants' homes. The primary outcome studied was the number of days from the initial assessment to a first long-term admission to a skilled-nursing facility during three years of follow-up. Patients were assigned to four categories during follow-up: those who had no falls, those who had one fall without serious injury, those who had two or more falls without serious injury, and those who had at least one fall causing serious injury. A total of 133 participants (12.1 percent) had long-term admissions to nursing homes. In an unadjusted model, the risk of admission increased progressively, as compared with that for the patients with no falls, for those with a single noninjurious fall (relative risk, 4.9; 95 percent confidence interval, 3.2 to 7.5), those with multiple noninjurious falls (relative risk, 8.5; 95 percent confidence interval, 3.4 to 21.2), and those with at least one fall causing serious injury (relative risk, 19.9; 95 percent confidence interval, 12.2 to 32.6). Adjustment for other risk factors lowered these ratios to 3.1 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.9 to 4.9) for one noninjurious fall, 5.5 (95 percent confidence interval, 2.1 to 14.2) for two or more noninjurious falls, and 10.2 (95 percent confidence interval, 5.8 to 17.9) for at least one fall causing serious injury, but the association between falls and admission to a nursing home remained strong and significant. The population attributable risk of long-term admission to a nursing home for these three groups (the proportion of admissions directly attributable to the three categories of falls) was 13 percent, 3 percent, and 10 percent, respectively. Among older people living in the community falls are a strong predictor of placement in a skilled-nursing facility; interventions that prevent falls and their sequelae may therefore delay or reduce the frequency of nursing home admissions.
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Frailty is considered highly prevalent in old age and to confer high risk for falls, disability, hospitalization, and mortality. Frailty has been considered synonymous with disability, comorbidity, and other characteristics, but it is recognized that it may have a biologic basis and be a distinct clinical syndrome. A standardized definition has not yet been established. To develop and operationalize a phenotype of frailty in older adults and assess concurrent and predictive validity, the study used data from the Cardiovascular Health Study. Participants were 5,317 men and women 65 years and older (4,735 from an original cohort recruited in 1989-90 and 582 from an African American cohort recruited in 1992-93). Both cohorts received almost identical baseline evaluations and 7 and 4 years of follow-up, respectively, with annual examinations and surveillance for outcomes including incident disease, hospitalization, falls, disability, and mortality. Frailty was defined as a clinical syndrome in which three or more of the following criteria were present: unintentional weight loss (10 lbs in past year), self-reported exhaustion, weakness (grip strength), slow walking speed, and low physical activity. The overall prevalence of frailty in this community-dwelling population was 6.9%; it increased with age and was greater in women than men. Four-year incidence was 7.2%. Frailty was associated with being African American, having lower education and income, poorer health, and having higher rates of comorbid chronic diseases and disability. There was overlap, but not concordance, in the cooccurrence of frailty, comorbidity, and disability. This frailty phenotype was independently predictive (over 3 years) of incident falls, worsening mobility or ADL disability, hospitalization, and death, with hazard ratios ranging from 1.82 to 4.46, unadjusted, and 1.29-2.24, adjusted for a number of health, disease, and social characteristics predictive of 5-year mortality. Intermediate frailty status, as indicated by the presence of one or two criteria, showed intermediate risk of these outcomes as well as increased risk of becoming frail over 3-4 years of follow-up (odds ratios for incident frailty = 4.51 unadjusted and 2.63 adjusted for covariates, compared to those with no frailty criteria at baseline). This study provides a potential standardized definition for frailty in community-dwelling older adults and offers concurrent and predictive validity for the definition. It also finds that there is an intermediate stage identifying those at high risk of frailty. Finally, it provides evidence that frailty is not synonymous with either comorbidity or disability, but comorbidity is an etiologic risk factor for, and disability is an outcome of, frailty. This provides a potential basis for clinical assessment for those who are frail or at risk, and for future research to develop interventions for frailty based on a standardized ascertainment of frailty.
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physical mobility testing is an essential component of the geriatric assessment. The timed up and go test measures basic mobility skills including a sequence of functional manoeuvres used in everyday life. to create a practical cut-off value to indicate normal versus below normal timed up and go test performance by comparing test performance of community-dwelling and institutionalised elderly women. 413 community-dwelling and 78 institutionalised mobile elderly women (age range 65-85 years) were enrolled in a cross-sectional study. timed up and go test duration, residential and mobility status, age, height, weight and body mass index were documented. 92% of community-dwelling elderly women performed the timed up and go test in less than 12 seconds and all community-dwelling women had times below 20 seconds. In contrast only 9% of institutionalised elderly women performed the timed up and go test in less than 12 seconds, 42% were below 20 seconds, 32% had results between 20 and 30 seconds and 26% were above 30 seconds. The 10(th)-90(th) percentiles for timed up and go test performance were 6.0-11.2 seconds for community-dwelling and 12.7-50.1 seconds for institutionalised elderly women. When stratifying participants according to mobility status, the timed up and go test duration increased significantly with decreasing mobility (Kruskall-Wallis-test: p<0.0001). Linear regression modelling identified residential status (p<0.0001) and physical mobility status (p<0.0001) as significant predictors of timed up and go performance. This model predicted 54% of total variation of timed up and go test performance. residential and mobility status were identified as the strongest predictors of timed up and go test performance. We recommend the timed up and go test as a screening tool to determine whether an in-depth mobility assessment and early intervention, such as prescription of a walking aid, home visit or physiotherapy, is necessary. Community-dwelling elderly women between 65 and 85 years of age should be able to perform the timed up and go test in 12 seconds or less.
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The fear-avoidance model of pain accounts for the debilitating consequences of strong fear as a component of reactions to painful conditions (eg, movements become anxiety-provoking because they cause pain). The model, which is supported in the literature, posits that fear of pain interferes with recovery because it leads to avoidance of beneficial activity. Despite the high prevalence of pain among the elderly, investigations of fear of pain in this population are scarce. A related construct, fear of falling, has been studied among elderly (but not younger) adults as an age-specific concern. To examine the relationship between fear of pain and fear of falling. Specifically, it is hypothesized that fear of pain and fear of falling are distinct constructs. Moreover, the authors investigated whether fear of falling becomes more relevant with increasing age in a sample of seniors and younger adults with musculoskeletal conditions. A convenience sample of younger and older adult physiotherapy outpatients (n=226) receiving treatment for musculoskeletal conditions were recruited for the study. Fear of pain and fear of falling were assessed using self-report measures. There were no age differences with respect to fear of pain and fear of falling. Regression analyses showed that fear of pain measures contribute substantial unique variance to the prediction of each other; however, they only make minor unique contributions to the prediction of fear of falling. Similar results were obtained through confirmatory analyses using structural modelling techniques. The analyses supported the distinctiveness of fear of pain and fear of falling. Moreover, among physiotherapy outpatients with musculoskeletal pain conditions, fear of falling and fear of pain are distinct constructs that appear to represent the concerns of both seniors and younger pain patients.
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to review systematically the range of case definitions and methods used to measure falls in randomised controlled trials. a Cochrane review of fall prevention interventions was used to identify fall definitions in published trials. Secondary searches of various databases were used to identify additional methodological or theoretical papers. Two independent reviewers undertook data extraction, with adjudication by a third reviewer in cases of disagreement. community-dwelling and institutionalised older persons. 90 publications met the predefined inclusion criteria. Of these, 44 provided no definition of the term fall. In the remainder, there were substantial variations in the definition and methods of measuring falls. Reporting periods ranged from 1 week to 4 years with only 41% using prospective data collection methods. the standard of reporting falls in published trials is poor and significantly impedes comparison between studies. The review has been used to inform an international consensus exercise to make recommendations for a core set of outcome measures for fall prevention trials.
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Falls are a common and often devastating problem among older people, causing a tremendous amount of morbidity, mortality and use of health care services including premature nursing home admissions. Most of these falls are associated with one or more identifiable risk factors (e.g. weakness, unsteady gait, confusion and certain medications), and research has shown that attention to these risk factors can significantly reduce rates of falling. Considerable evidence now documents that the most effective (and cost-effective) fall reduction programmes have involved systematic fall risk assessment and targeted interventions, exercise programmes and environmental-inspection and hazard-reduction programmes. These findings have been substantiated by careful meta-analysis of large numbers of controlled clinical trials and by consensus panels of experts who have developed evidence-based practice guidelines for fall prevention and management. Medical assessment of fall risks and provision of appropriate interventions are challenging because of the complex nature of falls. Optimal approaches involve interdisciplinary collaboration in assessment and interventions, particularly exercise, attention to co-existing medical conditions and environmental inspection and hazard abatement.
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Objective: To systematically review and critically appraise the effectiveness of conservative and surgical interventions to reduce fear in studies of people with chronic low back pain, based on the analysis of randomized controlled trials for which fear was a primary or secondary outcome. Data sources: Electronic databases PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO, PEDro, and CENTRAL, as well as manual searches and grey literature were searched from inception until May 2019. Study selection: Randomized controlled trials analyzing the effectiveness of conservative and surgical interventions to reduce fear were included. Data extraction: Two reviewers independently conducted the search strategy, study selection, data extraction, risk of bias assessment, and quality of the evidence judgment. Data synthesis: Sixty-one studies (n=7201) were included. A large number of fear-related search terms were used but only 3 fear constructs (kinesiophobia, fear-avoidance beliefs, fear of falling) were measured in the included studies. Multidisciplinary and psychological interventions as well as exercise reduced kinesiophobia. Fear-avoidance beliefs were reduced by the aforementioned interventions, manual therapy, and electrotherapy. A multidisciplinary intervention reduced the fear of falling. There was moderate evidence of multidisciplinary interventions and exercise to reduce kinesiophobia. There was moderate evidence of manual therapy and electrotherapy to reduce fear-avoidance beliefs. Conclusions: The present systematic review highlights the potential effectiveness of conservative interventions to reduce kinesiophobia and fear-avoidance beliefs in individuals with chronic low back pain. This information can help health professionals to reduce fear when treating patients with this condition.
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Importance Whether exercise reduces subsequent falls in high-risk older adults who have already experienced a fall is unknown. Objective To assess the effect of a home-based exercise program as a fall prevention strategy in older adults who were referred to a fall prevention clinic after an index fall. Design, Setting, and Participants A 12-month, single-blind, randomized clinical trial conducted from April 22, 2009, to June 5, 2018, among adults aged at least 70 years who had a fall within the past 12 months and were recruited from a fall prevention clinic. Interventions Participants were randomized to receive usual care plus a home-based strength and balance retraining exercise program delivered by a physical therapist (intervention group; n = 173) or usual care, consisting of fall prevention care provided by a geriatrician (usual care group; n = 172). Both were provided for 12 months. Main Outcomes and Measures The primary outcome was self-reported number of falls over 12 months. Adverse event data were collected in the exercise group only and consisted of falls, injuries, or muscle soreness related to the exercise intervention. Results Among 345 randomized patients (mean age, 81.6 [SD, 6.1] years; 67% women), 296 (86%) completed the trial. During a mean follow-up of 338 (SD, 81) days, a total of 236 falls occurred among 172 participants in the exercise group vs 366 falls among 172 participants in the usual care group. Estimated incidence rates of falls per person-year were 1.4 (95% CI, 0.1-2.0) vs 2.1 (95% CI, 0.1-3.2), respectively. The absolute difference in fall incidence was 0.74 (95% CI, 0.04-1.78; P = .006) falls per person-year and the incident rate ratio was 0.64 (95% CI, 0.46-0.90; P = .009). No adverse events related to the intervention were reported. Conclusions and Relevance Among older adults receiving care at a fall prevention clinic after a fall, a home-based strength and balance retraining exercise program significantly reduced the rate of subsequent falls compared with usual care provided by a geriatrician. These findings support the use of this home-based exercise program for secondary fall prevention but require replication in other clinical settings. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifiers: NCT01029171; NCT00323596
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The Taiwanese government has developed community care stations (CCSs) for community-based elderly care. We investigated the effects of a structured exercise intervention, applied at CCS for 6 months, on physical performance and balance in community-dwelling older adults, including a 2-year reassessment. Fifty-eight participants (aged 76.9± 6.3 years) participated in the study. The Elderly Mobility Scale, Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB), Timed Up and Go (TUG), gait speed, functional reach, one-leg-stance (OLS) and flexibility were evaluated at baseline, 6 months and 2 years. Compared with baseline, the participants improved significantly in the SPPB (0.93 points), TUG (1.94 s), gait speed (0.13 m/s) and right and left OLS (2.56 and 3.12 s) at 6 months. Furthermore, these significant effects except for OLS were maintained at the 2-year reassessment according to repeated measures ANOVA (p<.01). Our preliminary data suggests that adding a structured exercise program can benefit older adults participating in Taiwanese CCSs.
Article
Objective Previous meta-analyses have found that exercise prevents falls in older people. This study aimed to test whether this effect is still present when new trials are added, and it explores whether characteristics of the trial design, sample or intervention are associated with greater fall prevention effects. Design Update of a systematic review with random effects meta-analysis and meta-regression. Data sources Cochrane Library, CINAHL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, PEDro and SafetyLit were searched from January 2010 to January 2016. Study eligibility criteria We included randomised controlled trials that compared fall rates in older people randomised to receive exercise as a single intervention with fall rates in those randomised to a control group. Results 99 comparisons from 88 trials with 19 478 participants were available for meta-analysis. Overall, exercise reduced the rate of falls in community-dwelling older people by 21% (pooled rate ratio 0.79, 95% CI 0.73 to 0.85, p<0.001, I² 47%, 69 comparisons) with greater effects seen from exercise programmes that challenged balance and involved more than 3 hours/week of exercise. These variables explained 76% of the between-trial heterogeneity and in combination led to a 39% reduction in falls (incident rate ratio 0.61, 95% CI 0.53 to 0.72, p<0.001). Exercise also had a fall prevention effect in community-dwelling people with Parkinson's disease (pooled rate ratio 0.47, 95% CI 0.30 to 0.73, p=0.001, I² 65%, 6 comparisons) or cognitive impairment (pooled rate ratio 0.55, 95% CI 0.37 to 0.83, p=0.004, I² 21%, 3 comparisons). There was no evidence of a fall prevention effect of exercise in residential care settings or among stroke survivors or people recently discharged from hospital. Summary/conclusions Exercise as a single intervention can prevent falls in community-dwelling older people. Exercise programmes that challenge balance and are of a higher dose have larger effects. The impact of exercise as a single intervention in clinical groups and aged care facility residents requires further investigation, but promising results are evident for people with Parkinson's disease and cognitive impairment.
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La chute chez la personne âgée est un événement fréquent considéré comme un problème de santé publique. Elle a des conséquences à court et/ou à long terme sur l’intégrité physique et psychique du sujet âgé et elle est liée à plusieurs facteurs intrinsèques et extrinsèques. L’expérience de la chute entraîne une douleur corporelle, mais aussi une douleur psychique, une souffrance. L’impact psychologique de la chute met en jeu différents éléments tels que : la confrontation à la castration, l’atteinte narcissique et objectale, associées à l’évocation et l’élaboration de la perte, conduisant ou non au « travail de deuil ». En cas d’échec de ce dernier, elle peut s’inscrire comme un événement traumatique pour le sujet âgé. Aussi, l’élaboration psychique et la question du sens sont mises en jeu. À travers des vignettes cliniques tirées de trois rencontres avec des personnes âgées résidant dans un établissement médico-social (EHPAD), nous tenterons de montrer l’impact psychologique de la chute et proposerons des hypothèses sur les processus psychiques en jeu.
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Les chutes représentent une préoccupation grandissante du fait des importantes complications qui en découlent. Il est pourtant trop souvent établi que seules les chutes avec traumatisme grave entraînent des conséquences en termes de perte d’autonomie ou de mortalité alors que cela peut s’appliquer à tous les autres types de chutes. La mortalité post-fracture du col reste une des principales causes de mortalité mais les anomalies métaboliques reflétant un séjour prolongé au sol prédisent plus significativement un mauvais pronostic que la survenue d’un traumatisme grave. Ces chutes critiques multiplient la mortalité par deux à six mois par les nombreuses répercussions susceptibles de compromettre la survie. Les chutes peuvent également avoir de nombreuses conséquences psychologiques trop souvent négligées allant du syndrome post-chute au syndrome de désadaptation psychomotrice et au syndrome de peur de chuter ; ces conséquences ayant un impact réel sur la perte d’autonomie et le risque d’entrée en institution. Il faut donc changer l’idée que les chutes sans fracture ne sont pas graves pour améliorer la prise en charge de toutes les chutes.
Article
Background: Regression tree (RT) analyses are particularly adapted to explore the risk of recurrent falling according to various combinations of fall risk factors compared to logistic regression models. The aims of this study were (1) to determine which combinations of fall risk factors were associated with the occurrence of recurrent falls in older community-dwellers, and (2) to compare the efficacy of RT and multiple logistic regression model for the identification of recurrent falls. Methods: A total of 1,760 community-dwelling volunteers (mean age ± standard deviation, 71.0 ± 5.1 years; 49.4 % female) were recruited prospectively in this cross-sectional study. Age, gender, polypharmacy, use of psychoactive drugs, fear of falling (FOF), cognitive disorders and sad mood were recorded. In addition, the history of falls within the past year was recorded using a standardized questionnaire. Results: Among 1,760 participants, 19.7 % (n = 346) were recurrent fallers. The RT identified 14 nodes groups and 8 end nodes with FOF as the first major split. Among participants with FOF, those who had sad mood and polypharmacy formed the end node with the greatest OR for recurrent falls (OR = 6.06 with p < 0.001). Among participants without FOF, those who were male and not sad had the lowest OR for recurrent falls (OR = 0.25 with p < 0.001). The RT correctly classified 1,356 from 1,414 non-recurrent fallers (specificity = 95.6 %), and 65 from 346 recurrent fallers (sensitivity = 18.8 %). The overall classification accuracy was 81.0 %. The multiple logistic regression correctly classified 1,372 from 1,414 non-recurrent fallers (specificity = 97.0 %), and 61 from 346 recurrent fallers (sensitivity = 17.6 %). The overall classification accuracy was 81.4 %. Conclusions: Our results show that RT may identify specific combinations of risk factors for recurrent falls, the combination most associated with recurrent falls involving FOF, sad mood and polypharmacy. The FOF emerged as the risk factor strongly associated with recurrent falls. In addition, RT and multiple logistic regression were not sensitive enough to identify the majority of recurrent fallers but appeared efficient in detecting individuals not at risk of recurrent falls.
Article
Approximately 30% of people over 65 years of age living in the community fall each year. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2009. To assess the effects of interventions designed to reduce the incidence of falls in older people living in the community. We searched the Cochrane Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauma Group Specialised Register (February 2012), CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2012, Issue 3), MEDLINE (1946 to March 2012), EMBASE (1947 to March 2012), CINAHL (1982 to February 2012), and online trial registers. Randomised trials of interventions to reduce falls in community-dwelling older people. Two review authors independently assessed risk of bias and extracted data. We used a rate ratio (RaR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) to compare the rate of falls (e.g. falls per person year) between intervention and control groups. For risk of falling, we used a risk ratio (RR) and 95% CI based on the number of people falling (fallers) in each group. We pooled data where appropriate. We included 159 trials with 79,193 participants. Most trials compared a fall prevention intervention with no intervention or an intervention not expected to reduce falls. The most common interventions tested were exercise as a single intervention (59 trials) and multifactorial programmes (40 trials). Sixty-two per cent (99/159) of trials were at low risk of bias for sequence generation, 60% for attrition bias for falls (66/110), 73% for attrition bias for fallers (96/131), and only 38% (60/159) for allocation concealment.Multiple-component group exercise significantly reduced rate of falls (RaR 0.71, 95% CI 0.63 to 0.82; 16 trials; 3622 participants) and risk of falling (RR 0.85, 95% CI 0.76 to 0.96; 22 trials; 5333 participants), as did multiple-component home-based exercise (RaR 0.68, 95% CI 0.58 to 0.80; seven trials; 951 participants and RR 0.78, 95% CI 0.64 to 0.94; six trials; 714 participants). For Tai Chi, the reduction in rate of falls bordered on statistical significance (RaR 0.72, 95% CI 0.52 to 1.00; five trials; 1563 participants) but Tai Chi did significantly reduce risk of falling (RR 0.71, 95% CI 0.57 to 0.87; six trials; 1625 participants).Multifactorial interventions, which include individual risk assessment, reduced rate of falls (RaR 0.76, 95% CI 0.67 to 0.86; 19 trials; 9503 participants), but not risk of falling (RR 0.93, 95% CI 0.86 to 1.02; 34 trials; 13,617 participants).Overall, vitamin D did not reduce rate of falls (RaR 1.00, 95% CI 0.90 to 1.11; seven trials; 9324 participants) or risk of falling (RR 0.96, 95% CI 0.89 to 1.03; 13 trials; 26,747 participants), but may do so in people with lower vitamin D levels before treatment.Home safety assessment and modification interventions were effective in reducing rate of falls (RR 0.81, 95% CI 0.68 to 0.97; six trials; 4208 participants) and risk of falling (RR 0.88, 95% CI 0.80 to 0.96; seven trials; 4051 participants). These interventions were more effective in people at higher risk of falling, including those with severe visual impairment. Home safety interventions appear to be more effective when delivered by an occupational therapist.An intervention to treat vision problems (616 participants) resulted in a significant increase in the rate of falls (RaR 1.57, 95% CI 1.19 to 2.06) and risk of falling (RR 1.54, 95% CI 1.24 to 1.91). When regular wearers of multifocal glasses (597 participants) were given single lens glasses, all falls and outside falls were significantly reduced in the subgroup that regularly took part in outside activities. Conversely, there was a significant increase in outside falls in intervention group participants who took part in little outside activity.Pacemakers reduced rate of falls in people with carotid sinus hypersensitivity (RaR 0.73, 95% CI 0.57 to 0.93; three trials; 349 participants) but not risk of falling. First eye cataract surgery in women reduced rate of falls (RaR 0.66, 95% CI 0.45 to 0.95; one trial; 306 participants), but second eye cataract surgery did not.Gradual withdrawal of psychotropic medication reduced rate of falls (RaR 0.34, 95% CI 0.16 to 0.73; one trial; 93 participants), but not risk of falling. A prescribing modification programme for primary care physicians significantly reduced risk of falling (RR 0.61, 95% CI 0.41 to 0.91; one trial; 659 participants).An anti-slip shoe device reduced rate of falls in icy conditions (RaR 0.42, 95% CI 0.22 to 0.78; one trial; 109 participants). One trial (305 participants) comparing multifaceted podiatry including foot and ankle exercises with standard podiatry in people with disabling foot pain significantly reduced the rate of falls (RaR 0.64, 95% CI 0.45 to 0.91) but not the risk of falling.There is no evidence of effect for cognitive behavioural interventions on rate of falls (RaR 1.00, 95% CI 0.37 to 2.72; one trial; 120 participants) or risk of falling (RR 1.11, 95% CI 0.80 to 1.54; two trials; 350 participants).Trials testing interventions to increase knowledge/educate about fall prevention alone did not significantly reduce the rate of falls (RaR 0.33, 95% CI 0.09 to 1.20; one trial; 45 participants) or risk of falling (RR 0.88, 95% CI 0.75 to 1.03; four trials; 2555 participants).No conclusions can be drawn from the 47 trials reporting fall-related fractures.Thirteen trials provided a comprehensive economic evaluation. Three of these indicated cost savings for their interventions during the trial period: home-based exercise in over 80-year-olds, home safety assessment and modification in those with a previous fall, and one multifactorial programme targeting eight specific risk factors. Group and home-based exercise programmes, and home safety interventions reduce rate of falls and risk of falling.Multifactorial assessment and intervention programmes reduce rate of falls but not risk of falling; Tai Chi reduces risk of falling.Overall, vitamin D supplementation does not appear to reduce falls but may be effective in people who have lower vitamin D levels before treatment.
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This paper describes the World Health Organization's project to develop a quality of life instrument (the WHOQOL). It outlines the reasons that the project was undertaken, the thinking that underlies the project, the method that has been followed in its development and the current status of the project. The WHOQOL assesses individuals' perception of their position in life in the context of the culture and value systems in which they live and in relation to their goals, expectations, standards and concerns. It has been developed collaboratively in several culturally diverse centres over four years. Piloting of the WHOQOL on some 4500 respondents in 15 cultural settings has been completed. On the basis of this data the revised WHOQOL Field Trial Form has been finalized, and field testing is currently in progress. The WHOQOL produces a multi-dimensional profile of scores across six domains and 24 sub-domains of quality of life
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This paper deals with the relationship between health status and health perception in very advanced age. We examine how older people assess their own health and at the same time we investigate the equivalence between their health status and the perception they have of it. Based on quantitative and qualitative data collected under the Swiss Interdisciplinary Longitudinal Study on the Oldest Old (SWILSOO), this analysis confirms that, while both health status and self-rated health deteriorate in very old age, people aged 80 and over tend to underestimate the decline. We show that the widening gap between perceived and objective health status can be accounted for by mechanisms of comparison. The qualitative data point to the use of various forms of comparison which allow older people to maintain a relatively favourable perception of their own health — and therefore of themselves — until a very advanced age.
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RÉSUMÉ Dans cet article on présente une vue d’ensemble des facteurs psychosociaux ayant une influence sur la participation des personnes âgées aux interventions concernant l’activité physique et visant la prévention des chutes. On souligne l’importance des facteurs psychosociaux puisque les interventions seront rendues inutiles si elles ne réussissent pas à attirer la participation active des personnes âgées. La théorie du comportement planifié sert de cadre pour un examen de la façon dont les connaissances (un préalable), les attitudes, les normes subjectives (le contexte social) et la perception du contrôle comportemental (la confiance) encouragent ou entravent l’intention d’entre-prendre des activités pour la prévention des chutes. Cette étude est accompagnée de documents qui indiquent la manière dont la perception de soi influence l’intention. On termine par une discussion des recommendations recommendations du réseau européen Prevention of Falls Network Europe concernant l’implication des personnes âgées dans la prévention des chutes.
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Loss of balance confidence is a frequent condition that affects 20-75% of community-dwelling older persons. Although a recent fall is a common trigger, loss of balance confidence also appears independent of previous experience with falls. Maintaining or improving balance confidence is important to avoid unnecessary, self-imposed restrictions of activity and subsequent disability. Holding another person's hand or using an assistive device while walking are simple interventions that are used naturally to address poor balance confidence in daily life. However, more complex interventions have also been developed and tested to achieve more sustained improvement in balance confidence. This review describes interventions that have been tested to improve balance confidence in older community-dwelling persons. Based on 2 recent systematic reviews, an additional search for literature was performed to update current information on interventions aiming at balance confidence improvement. Interventions were classified as those directly aimed at increasing balance confidence or not, and further stratified into those using monofactorial or multifactorial approaches. A total of 46 randomized controlled trials were identified. Five of the 8 interventions that directly targeted balance confidence showed benefits. Among those, multicomponent behavioral group interventions provided the most robust evidence of benefits in improving balance confidence and in decreasing activity avoidance. Among interventions not directly aiming at balance confidence improvement (11/21 studies with benefits), exercise (including tai chi) appears as the most promising monofactorial intervention. Nine of the 17 multifactorial fall prevention programs showed an effect on balance confidence, exercise being a main component in 7 of these 9 studies. Interventions that targeted elderly persons reporting poor balance confidence and/or those at risk for falls seemed more likely to be beneficial. Positive and sometimes sustained improvement in balance confidence can be achieved by various interventions among community-dwelling elderly persons. The effect of these interventions on activity restriction associated with poor balance confidence have been less well studied, but some studies also suggest potential benefits.
Article
Medical and scientific committees need validated instruments to assess quality of life, but the lack of general population norms limits their full use in research and clinical practice. This study aimed to determine norms for the French general population for the physical and psychological health and social relationship dimensions of the abbreviated version of WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire in a large representative community sample. A sample of 16,450 randomly selected subjects 18-75 years old, in two steps: households and individuals, was drawn from the National Health Barometer 2005, a periodic study by the French National Institute for Preventive and Health Education. Quality of life and other characteristics were collected using a computer-assisted telephone interview by use of a booklet. Internal consistency was good. Normative data for the French population are analyzed by age, sex and self-reported chronic disease. Our data provide normative scores for the general French population for three of four dimensions of the WHOQOL-BREF that can be useful to researchers using this measure of health-related quality-of-life assessment and to clinical practitioners.
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Of 1042 individuals aged 65 years and over who were successfully interviewed in a community survey of health and physical activity, 35% (n=356) reported one or more falls in the preceding year. Although the overall ratio of female fallers to male fallers was 2.7: 1, this ratio approached unity with advancing age. Mobility was significantly impaired in those reporting falls. Asked to provide a reason for their falls, 53% reported tripping, 8% dizziness and 6% reported blackouts. A further 19% were unable to give a reason. There was no association between falls and the use of diuretics, antihypertensives or tranquillizers, but a significant association between falls and the use of hypnotics and antidepressants was found. Discriminant analysis of selected medical and anthropometric variables indicated that handgrip strength in the dominant hand and reported symptoms of arthritis, giddiness and foot difficulties were most influential in predicting reports of recent falls.
Article
Approximately 30% of people over 65 years of age living in the community fall each year. To assess the effects of interventions to reduce the incidence of falls in older people living in the community. We searched the Cochrane Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauma Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2008, Issue 2), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Current Controlled Trials (all to May 2008). Randomised trials of interventions to reduce falls in community-dwelling older people. Primary outcomes were rate of falls and risk of falling. Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. Data were pooled where appropriate. We included 111 trials (55,303 participants).Multiple-component group exercise reduced rate of falls and risk of falling (rate ratio (RaR) 0.78, 95%CI 0.71 to 0.86; risk ratio (RR) 0.83, 95%CI 0.72 to 0.97), as did Tai Chi (RaR 0.63, 95%CI 0.52 to 0.78; RR 0.65, 95%CI 0.51 to 0.82), and individually prescribed multiple-component home-based exercise (RaR 0.66, 95%CI 0.53 to 0.82; RR 0.77, 95%CI 0.61 to 0.97).Assessment and multifactorial intervention reduced rate of falls (RaR 0.75, 95%CI 0.65 to 0.86), but not risk of falling.Overall, vitamin D did not reduce falls (RaR 0.95, 95%CI 0.80 to 1.14; RR 0.96, 95%CI 0.92 to 1.01), but may do so in people with lower vitamin D levels. Overall, home safety interventions did not reduce falls (RaR 0.90, 95%CI 0.79 to 1.03); RR 0.89, 95%CI 0.80 to 1.00), but were effective in people with severe visual impairment, and in others at higher risk of falling. An anti-slip shoe device reduced rate of falls in icy conditions (RaR 0.42, 95%CI 0.22 to 0.78).Gradual withdrawal of psychotropic medication reduced rate of falls (RaR 0.34, 95%CI 0.16 to 0.73), but not risk of falling. A prescribing modification programme for primary care physicians significantly reduced risk of falling (RR 0.61, 95%CI 0.41 to 0.91).Pacemakers reduced rate of falls in people with carotid sinus hypersensitivity (RaR 0.42, 95%CI 0.23 to 0.75). First eye cataract surgery reduced rate of falls (RaR 0.66, 95%CI 0.45 to 0.95).There is some evidence that falls prevention strategies can be cost saving. Exercise interventions reduce risk and rate of falls. Research is needed to confirm the contexts in which multifactorial assessment and intervention, home safety interventions, vitamin D supplementation, and other interventions are effective.
Article
We conducted a prospective study of the consequences of falls in 325 elderly community-dwelling persons, all of whom had fallen in the previous year. We contacted subjects every week for one year to ascertain falls and to determine the circumstances and consequences of falls. Only 6% of 539 falls resulted in a major injury (fracture, dislocation, or laceration requiring suture), but over half (55%) resulted in minor soft tissue injury. One in ten falls left the faller unable to get up for at least 5 minutes, and one in four falls caused subjects to limit their activities. The risk of injury per fall was about the same regardless of the number of falls a person had during follow-up. The risk of major injury was increased (age- and sex-adjusted odds ratio: 5.9, 95% confidence interval: 2.3-14.9) in falls associated with loss of consciousness compared to nonsyncopal falls. In multivariate analyses of nonsyncopal falls, the risk of major injury per fall was higher in persons having a previous fall with fracture (6.7; 2.1-21.5), a slower Trail Making B time (1.9; 1.1-3.2), and in Whites (18.4; 7.5-44.6). The risk that a nonsyncopal fall would result in minor injury (versus no injury) was increased in persons with a slower hand reaction time (1.8; 1.0-3.2) decreased grip strength (1.5; 1.0-2.3), in Whites (2.0; 1.0-3.7), in falls while using stairs and steps (2.2; 1.0-5.0), and turning around or reaching (3.5; 1.7-7.3). Our findings suggest that neuromuscular and cognitive impairment, as well as the circumstances of falls, affect the risk of injury when a fall occurs.
Article
Falls are a leading cause of death from injury among older persons in the United States, and about one in three older persons falls each year. Yet, reliable estimates of the incidence of fall injury events in a population-based setting are not readily available. Therefore, the authors analyzed population-based surveillance data, between July 1985 and June 1987, from the Study to Assess Falls Among the Elderly, Miami Beach, Florida. The rate of fall injury events coming to acute medical attention increased exponentially with age for both elderly men and women (predominantly white), reaching a high for those aged 85 years or more of 138.5 per 1,000 for males and 158.8 per 1,000 for females. Compared with males, females had a higher incidence of fractures other than skull. Males were nearly twice as likely to die, however, following a fall injury event than were females. Of those fall injury events identified through the surveillance system, about 42% resulted in hospital admission. The mean length of hospital stay was 11.6 days overall and was 15.5 days for hip fracture, 9.8 days for skull fracture/intracranial injury, 11.2 days for all other fractures, and 9.1 days for all other injuries. About 50% of fall injury events that occurred at home and required hospital admission resulted in a person being discharged to a nursing home.
Article
To study risk factors for falling, we conducted a one-year prospective investigation, using a sample of 336 persons at least 75 years of age who were living in the community. All subjects underwent detailed clinical evaluation, including standardized measures of mental status, strength, reflexes, balance, and gait; in addition, we inspected their homes for environmental hazards. Falls and their circumstances were identified during bimonthly telephone calls. During one year of follow-up, 108 subjects (32 percent) fell at least once; 24 percent of those who fell had serious injuries and 6 percent had fractures. Predisposing factors for falls were identified in linear-logistic models. The adjusted odds ratio for sedative use was 28.3; for cognitive impairment, 5.0; for disability of the lower extremities, 3.8; for palmomental reflex, 3.0; for abnormalities of balance and gait, 1.9; and for foot problems, 1.8; the lower bounds of the 95 percent confidence intervals were 1 or more for all variables. The risk of falling increased linearly with the number of risk factors, from 8 percent with none to 78 percent with four or more risk factors (P less than 0.0001). About 10 percent of the falls occurred during acute illness, 5 percent during hazardous activity, and 44 percent in the presence of environmental hazards. We conclude that falls among older persons living in the community are common and that a simple clinical assessment can identify the elderly persons who are at the greatest risk of falling.
Article
The Index of Independence in Activities of Daily Living (ADL), now in frequent use in rehabilitation settings, has application for prevention of disability and maintenance of rehabilitation gains in the aging person in all settings. Since the Index is sensitive to changes in meaningful self-care functions, uses well-defined criteria, and can be broadly taught to non-professionals, it has considerable practical value as a longitudinal measure of change and predictor of adaptive capacity in terms of community residences and congregate living facilities.
Article
Serious fall injury represents a little studied, yet common and potentially preventable, cause of morbidity and mortality among older persons. We determined the frequency of, and risk factors for, experiencing serious fall injury events among older persons in the community. A representative sample of 1103 community-living persons aged 72 years and older underwent comprehensive baseline and 1-year evaluations. During a median 31 months of follow-up, fall data were obtained using fall calendars. Injury data were obtained from telephone interviews and from surveillance of emergency room and hospital records. At least one fall was experienced by 546 (49%) participants. A total of 123 participants, representing 23% of fallers and 12% of the cohort, experienced 183 serious fall injury events. The factors independently associated with experiencing a serious injury during a fall included cognitive impairment (adjusted odds ratios 2.2; 95% confidence interval 1.5, 3.2); presence of at least two chronic conditions (2.0; 1.4, 2.9); balance and gait impairment (1.8; 1.3, 2.7); and low body mass index (1.8; 1.2, 2.5). In a separate analysis, including only subjects who fell, female gender (1.8; 1.1, 2.9) as well as most of the above factors were associated with experiencing a fall injury. Several readily identifiable factors appeared to distinguish the subgroup of older fallers at risk for suffering a serious fall injury. These factors should help guide who and what to target in prevention efforts.