ArticlePDF Available

Creative industries in Serbia: Methodological approaches and economic contribution

Abstract and Figures

This paper examines the relative importance of Creative Industries in Serbia and provides a critical review of the existing methodological approaches that may be used in order to determine the economic contribution of these industries. We also present results for the period from 2014 to 2017. To show relative contribution of Creative Industries, we use the narrow DCMS approach that focuses only on core Creative Industries. We also provide additional results for what we reffer to as the „broad approach”. In 2017, narrowly defined CIs contributed 3.9 percent to the total GVA and 3.7 percent to the total GDP, and the broadly defined CIs contributed 7.8 percent and 7.5 percent, respectively. Other indicators provide additional support regarding the importance of CIs in Serbia. The average annual growth rate of the number of narrowly defined CIs entities amounts to 5.6 percent (8.4 percent for broadly defined CIs which was 6 percentage points higher than the average growth rate in the national economy - 2.01 percent). Employees engaged in narrowly defined CIs represent 3.3 percent of the total number of employees in Serbia (5.6 percent in the broadly defined CIs). IT, software and computer services sub-sector has the largest share of the CIs contribution to the economy. In 2017, this sub-sector contributed more than 60 percent of the total narrowly defined CIs GVA, (more than 55 percent of broadly defined CIs GVA).
Content may be subject to copyright.
MAY - JUNE 2020YEAR LXVIII
ISSN 0353-443XUDC 65
Serbian Association of Economists
Journal of Business Economics and Management
Ekonomika
Edvard Jakopin
ECONOMIC PERFORMANCE OF THE MIDDLE-CLASS TRANSITION IN SERBIA
Goran Petković, Zoran Bogetić, Dragan Stojković and Aleksa Dokić
SUSTAINABLE SUPPLIER EVALUATION: FROM A THEORETICAL CONCEPT TO
A STRATEGIC AND OPERATIONAL ASSET IN SUSTAINABLE SUPPLY CHAIN
MANAGEMENT
Hristina Mikić, Branko Radulović and Miljan Savić
CREATIVE INDUSTRIES IN SERBIA:
METHODOLOGICAL APPROACHES AND ECONOMIC CONTRIBUTION
Srđan Šapić, Milena Jakšić and Dragan Stojković
THE RASPBERRY COMMODITY EXCHANGE IN SERBIA: AN EXPLORATORY
RESEARCH OF PRODUCERS’ ATTITUDES
Ernad Kahrović
ENTREPRENEURIAL UNIVERSITIES AND INTERMEDIARY ORGANIZATIONS
AS A SUCCESS FACTOR IN SMES: LITERATURE REVIEW
Vojislav Babić and Siniša Zarić
DOES KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT BOOST WAGES IN LARGE AND
MEDIUMD-SIZED SERBIAN COMPANIES?
Aleksandar Đorđević, Zoran Kalinić and Veljko Marinković
EFFECTS OF THE SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT ON CONSUMERS
INTENTION TO USE MOBILE COMMERCE
Boško Mekinjić, Miloš Grujić and Dragana Vujičić Stefanović
INFLUENCE OF DIGITALISATION AND TECHNOLOGICAL
INNOVATIONS IN THE FINANCIAL MARKET ON THE DEVELOPMENT
OF THE FINANCIAL MARKET
Slobodan Adžić
COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE LEARNING ORGANIZATION
ARTICLES IN SERBIAN AND AUSTRIAN ACADEMIC JOURNALS
Bojan Savić, Zorica Vasiljević and Ivan Milojević
COSTING SYSTEM AS AN INSTRUMENT FOR ENHANCING
ENVIRONMENTAL PERFORMANCE OF ENTITIES IN AGRIBUSINESS
163
180
201
215
229
248
259
269
280
294
201
ORIGINAL SCIENTIFIC PAPER
UD K : 33 8.46:7.05(497.11)
DOI: 10.5937/EKOPRE2004201M
Date of Receipt: September 11, 2019
Sažetak
Rad razmatra relativni značaj kreativnih industrija u Srbiji i pruža kritički
pregled postojećih metodoloških pristupa koji mogu biti korišćeni radi
određivanja doprinosa ovih industrija. Takođe, prikazujemo rezultate
doprinosa kreativnih industrija u Srbiji u periodu od 2014. do 2017.
godine korišćenjem „užeg” DCMS pristupa ograničenog samo na osnovne
kreativne industrije (uži pristup). U radu prikazujemo i dodatna merenja
doprinosa kreativnih industrija na osnovu pristupa koji denišemo kao
„širi pristup”. U 2017. godini uže denisane kreativne industrije doprinele
su 3,9 procenata ukupne BDV i 3,7 procenata ukupnog BDP-a, a šire
denisane industrije 7,8 procenata i 7,5 procenata, respektivno. Drugi
indikatori takođe ukazuju na značaj kreativnih industrija u Srbiji. Prosečna
godišnja stopa rasta broja privrednih subjekata u okviru užeg pristupa
merenju kreativnih industrija iznosi 5,6 procenata (8,4 procenta za širi
pristup, što je za 6 procentnih poena više od prosečne stope rasta u celoj
ekonomiji - 2,01 procenat). Lica zaposlena u uže denisanim kreativnim
industrijama čine 3,3 procenta ukupnog broja zaposlenih lica u Srbiji (šire
denisne kreativne industrije doprinose ukupnom nivou zaposlenosti sa
5,6 procenata). Podsektor IT, softverskih i računarskih usluga ima najveći
udeo kada je u pitanju doprinos pojedinačnih sektora kreativnih industrija
srpskoj privredi. U 2017. godini, ovaj podsektor generisao je više od 60
procenata ukupne BDV uže denisanih kreativnih industrija (više od 55
procenata kada je u pitanju širi pristup klasikaciji).
Ključne reči: kreativne industrije, Srbija, bruto dodata vrednost,
metodološki pristupi, ekonomski doprinos.
Abstract
*
This paper examines the relative importance of creative industries (CI)
in Serbia and provides a critical review of the existing methodological
approaches that may be used in order to determine the economic
contribution of these industries. We also present the results for the period
from 2014 to 2017. To show the relative contribution of creative industries,
we used the narrow DCMS approach that focuses only on core creative
industries. We also provide additional results for what we refer to as the
“broad approach”. In 2017, narrowly dened CIs contributed 3.9 percent to
the total GVA and 3.7 percent to the total GDP, while the broadly dened
CIs contributed 7.8 percent and 7.5 percent, respectively. Other indicators
provide additional support regarding the importance of CIs in Serbia. The
average annual growth rate of the number of narrowly dened CI entities
amounts to 5.6 percent (8.4 percent for broadly dened CIs which is 6
percentage points higher than the average growth rate in the national
economy – 2.01 percent). Employees engaged in narrowly dened CIs
represent 3.3 percent of the total number of employees in Serbia (5.6
percent in the broadly dened CIs). IT, software and computer services
subsector contributes the most of all CIs to the economy. In 2017, this
subsector contributed more than 60 percent to the total narrowly dened
CI GVA, (more than 55 percent to broadly dened CI GVA).
Keywords: creative industries, Serbia, gross value added,
methodological approaches, economic contribution.
* The authors would like to thank Lazar Šestović and Kornel Dražilov for
their comments and valuable support. The results presented in this paper
are partly based on the World Bank’s project of technical assistance to
the Government of Serbia, focused on the introduction of the results-
based policy decision-making. Branko Radulović wishes to acknowl-
edge the support of the Identity Transformation of Serbia for 2019 proj-
ect carried out by the Faculty of Law, University of Belgrade.
Hristina Mik
Institute for Creative Entrepreneurship
and Innovation
Paraćin
Branko Radulović
University of Belgrade
Faculty of Law
Department of Economics
Miljan Savić
Balkan Center for Regulatory Reform
Belgrade
CREATIVE INDUSTRIES IN SERBIA:
METHODOLOGICAL APPROACHES AND
ECONOMIC CONTRIBUTION*
Kreativne industrije u Srbiji –
metodološki pristupi i ekonomski doprinos
EKONOMIKA PREDUZEĆA
202
Introduction
Recent years have witnessed a growing interest in the
economic literature on creative industries (CIs) as an
important contributor to the economic growth and
development [1], [3]. is was accompanied by increasing
economic evidence on t he size and relative impor tance of
creative industries, as well as discussions on CI impact
and spillovers to the rest of economy. In Serbia, as in
other countries, creative industries have raised increasing
interest in academia. e economic signicance of CIs
in Serbia has been extensively researched by Jovičić and
Mikić [13], Mikić [16], [17], [18] and Radulović et al. [20].
ese studies applied dierent concepts, methodologies
and measures to assess and compare Serbia to other
countries. is paper critically reviews the existing
literature and methodological approaches and provides
new results regarding the economic contribution of
creative industries in Serbia for the period from 2014 to
2017. Having in mind the lack of a unied approach to
the analysis of CIs, one of the main goals of this paper
is to provide a better understanding of the existing
methodological nuances.
Methodological approaches
e denition of creative industries is the subject of much
debate [21]. e term “creative industries” originated from t he
Australia n Government’s adoption of the national strategy
“Creative Nation” in 1990s, yet it gained attention aer it
was popularized by the British Department for Digital,
Culture, Media and Sport (DCMS). DCMS denes CIs as
“industries wh ich have their origin in i ndividual creativ ity,
skill and talent and which have a potential for wealth and
job creation through the generation and exploitation of
intellectual property” [25, p. 4], [26]. e DCMS approach
emphasizes the importance of technological CIs (in
contrast to industries that may be viewed as traditional
cultura l industries) [1, p. 21]. ough most commonly used
in literature, the denition was the subject of extensive
academic debate, primarily having in mind its potential
practical and theoretical limitations, including but not
limited to the problems of accurate measurement, the
conation of culture and cultural policy with economy
and the coherence of the umbrella term and category
itself [14, pp. 4-5].
Several other institutions also provided their
perspective on how creative industries may be dened.
e EU denition is more comprehensive having in mind
that it includes both cultural and creative industries
(CCIs). ey are dened as “industries that are based
on cultural values, cultural diversity, individual and/or
collective creativity, skills and talent with the potential
to generate innovation, wealth and jobs through the
creation of social and economic value, in particular from
intellectual property” [9]. Previously, several documents
adopted a prescriptive denition of cultural and creative
industries with the list of activities included in this
concept. In other EU policy documents, CCIs are mostly
dened as “industries which use culture as an input and
have a cultural dimension, although their outputs are
mainly f unctional” [6, p. 6], [5], [7], [8]. UNCTAD denes
creative industries as cycles of creation, production and
distribution of goods and services that use creativity and
intellectua l capital as t heir primary inputs. ey constitute
a set of knowledge-based activities and are focused on, but
are necessarily not limited to, arts, and they potentially
generate revenues from trade and IPR. ese industries
comprise tangible products and intangible intellect ual or
artist ic services with creative content, economic value and
market objectives, they are at the crossroad among the
artisan, services and industrial sectors and constitute a
new dynamic sector in the world trade [27, p. 13].
Substantial eort has been made to classify and
categorize creative industries in literature. However, there
are several closely related concepts. While both cultural
and copyright-based industries are oen (and mistakenly)
used as synonyms to creative industries, there are subtle
dierences that should be taken into account [24], [30].
Multiple supranational organizations as well as several
national bodies have recognized dierent activities as
“cultural and/or creative industries”. For example, there
are studies done by UNESCO [28] and Mikić [18] that
were focused on the classication of creative and cultural
industries. e term “cultur al industries” may be dened as
a set of activities t hat produce and distribute cultura l goods
Economics of Organizations and Industries
203
or services and embody or convey cultural expressions,
irrespective of their potential commercial value [18, p. 8].
Similar distinction exists between creative and
copyright-based industries. WIPO approach regarding
conceptu alizing and measuri ng the economic cont ribution
of CIs comes from the perspective of copyright value. e
WIPO model is based on the copyright chain that covers
creation of content that represents intellectual property
and distinguishes between core and non-core copyright
industries (interdependent, partial and non-dedicated
industries) [29], [30].
During the last decade, great eort has been made
to resolve these methodological issues and dene specic
activities to be treated as creative (or cultural or copyr ight-
based) industries [24], [30]. While some authors merge
cultural and creative industries and perceive them as a
single phenomenon [19], it is now well recognized that
cultural, creative and copyright-based industries cover
similar but somewhat dierent domains. Figure 1 shows
those dierent concepts and their intersections [30, p. 44].
Industries related to national heritage are not considered
to be creative, yet cultural i ndustries. Similarly, industries
related to de sign are considered both c reative and cu ltural,
but not core copyright industries.
e dierences arising from the usage of dierent
concepts may not necessarily be moderate. Single approach
does not t all countries. For example, the concept of cultura l
industries is much more suitable for countries where the
state has a key role in the promotion and governance of
diversity of cultura l expressions, while creative industries are
more appropriate to the countries focused on interrelation
between IT and cultural content. Comparative research
studies on this topic show that there is no unique approach
to the measurement of CIs and that each new study has
brought a new way of measuring [16, p. 61].
ere are three methodologica l approaches regarding
the measurement of CIs. e rst, industry-based approach
determines industries that use creativity as a major
input in the production process [4, pp. 2-3]. e second,
occupational-based approach determines occupations
that can be categorized as creative [10], [11]. e third,
combined approach represents a combination of the rst
two approaches, adding economic contribution of creative
occupat ions from non-creat ive industrie s to the indust ry-
based approach [12], [22].
In this paper, we will apply the narrow industry-
based DCMS approach that focuses only on core CIs. To
show the impact of broader interpretation of CIs and for
the sake of comparison wit h several EU countries, we will
also provide a measurement based on what we refer to as
the “broad” approach. is approach is partially based
on the methodology adopted by TERA for selected EU
member states and expands the li st of CIs as industries t hat
“produce and distribute creative products aimed at mass
reproduction, mass dissemination and exports” [23, p. 14].
Hence, it also considers industries such as printing, retail
Figure 1: Mapping of the core copyright (WIPO, 2015), cultural (UNESCO, 2009)
and creative (DCMS, 2001) industries
Press and literature,
music, theater, opera
Design
Heritage
Soware, databases,
computer games
Core copyright industries
Creative industries Cultural industries
Source: The chart is adapted from [30, p. 44].
EKONOMIKA PREDUZEĆA
204
trade of specic goods and telecommunication activities
to be creative industries. However, when using the broad
approach our estimates are limited only to t he core segment
of CIs and exclude economic contribution of non–core
creative industries (interdependent industries and non-
dedicated support industries). TERA study mimics the
WIPO methodology that also provides estimates of the
economic contribution of non–core creative industries.
ese non-core creative industries are to a lesser extent
related to copyright-protected materials. Interdependent
industries are industr ies engaged in the production and sale
of equipment whose function is to facilitate the creation,
production or consumption of cultural products, while
non-dedic ated support industries a re industries engaged
in the broadcast, communication, distribution or sales of
the cultural products. e inclusion of non-core industries
creates substantial methodologica l diculties with respect
to attribution, decisions on selection of industries that are
dened as non-core industries, data availability, etc. As
a consequence, adding the non-core CIs may be a rather
vague exercise that heavily relies on imputations and
approximations. eir inclusion may bias the results and
inate the impact of core creative industries [2]. Hence,
the broad approach of core CIs in our paper provides for
estimates that are only directly attributable to creative
industries. Even these estimates, based on the broad
approach by including borderline industries, inate the
contribution of CIs.
Data and methodology
To measure the economic contribution of CIs in Serbia,
we have used the data from the Serbian Business Registers
Agency (SBRA) obtained from nancial statements
of registered entities (companies and entrepreneurs)
in creative industries for the 2014-2017 period. e
calculation of economic indicators for public entities
(that are not registered in SBRA) was based on budget
users’ reports collected by the Statistical Oce of the
Republic of Serbia (SORS). e baseline data from 2010
were extrapolated by yearly change of the number of
employees in those activities. For specic industries,
corrections were made by including partial nancial
records for the entities registered under a business
activity code that is not covered by our classication,
but are nevertheless operating and providing services
in creative industries. e most common example may
be found in media industries. For example, very oen
the core registered activity of media companies may be
cable communication or telecommunications services
and cable distribution, even though they conduct main
business activities in the eld of broadcasting. Table 1
Table 1: Baseline economic indicators for measuring the economic contribution of CIs
Indicator Description Sourc e of data
Business
activity
No. of businesses in CIs by size SBRA
No. of businesses in CI subsectors by size SBRA
No. of new businesses in CIs SBRA
GVA
GVA of CIs or CI subsectors in absolute terms SBRA; SORS
Share of CI value added in the GVA of total economy (%) SBRA; SORS
Share of CI subsectors in total GVA of CIs in absolute and relative terms SBRA; SORS
GDP GDP of CIs in absolute terms SBRA; SORS
Share of CI GDP in the GDP of total economy (%) SBRA; SORS
Employment Share of CI employees in total employment (%) SBRA; SORS
Share of CI subsec tors’ employment in total employ ment in CIs in absolute and relat ive terms
SBRA; SORS
Export value
Value of export of creative goods in absolute terms UNCTAD data on international trade
Share of CI export in total country/regional export (%) UNCTAD data on international trade
Increase of export value of CIs (%) UNCTAD data on international trade
Business
performance
indicators
Productivity (in EUR) SBRA
Total R&D expenses (in EUR million) SBRA
Total R&D expenses (in EUR) as % of total business revenues SBRA
Export revenue in total business revenue (%) SBRA
Value of intangible assets (in EUR) SBRA
Source: Adapted from [18, p. 19].
Economics of Organizations and Industries
205
provides an overview of indicators for measuring the
economic contribution of CIs in Serbia.
Gross value added (GVA) is calculated at current
prices by using the income approach. Export value of
creative goods is calcu lated based on the international tr ade
data. is approach was chosen due to the possibility of
precise identication of creative goods by sub-analytical
product codes.
Narrowly dened CIs include 30, while broadly
dened CIs include 51 SIC industry codes (based on the
KD 2010 classication). Fol lowing the UK DCMS approach,
the narrowly dened industries are classied in nine CI
groups: 1) advertising and marketing, 2) architecture, 3)
cras, 4) design, 5) lm, TV, video, radio and photography,
6) IT, soware and computer services, 7) publishing, 8)
museums, galleries a nd libraries and 9) music, performing
and visual arts. Based on the classication adopted by
TERA, in addition to including most (though not all)
SIC codes of the narrow approach, the broader approach
comprises codes that are related to printing and related
services, retail sale of CI-related products, and most
importantly telecommunications ser vices. Table 2 provides
an overview of groups and industries t hat constitute both
the narrowly and broadly dened CI sector.
Economic contribution of creative industries in
Serbia
e share of CI businesses in Serbian economy may be
considered relatively signicant. Narrowly dened CI
estimates in 2017 are based on 24,089 registered business
entities (enterprises and entrepreneurs), including
8,001 enterprises, 16,088 entrepreneurs and 362 public
institutions. Broadly dened CI estimates in Serbia are
based on 32,908 registered business entities (enterprises
and entrepreneurs), including 10,832 active enterprises
(approximately 10.1 percent of total number of enterprises),
22,076 entrepreneurs (approximately 9.93 percent of total
number of entrepreneur s) a nd 541 public institutions. e
number of CI businesses demonstrates a rising tendency
during the 2014-2017 period compared to the rest of
Serbian economy. e average annual growth rate of
the number of CI enterprises and entrepreneurs was 5.6
percent (broadly dened CIs – 8.4 percent, 6 percentage
points higher than the average growth rate of business
formation in the national economy – 2.01 percent).
Broadly dened CI sector is predominantly composed
of small and microenterprises (23.8 percent of the total
number) and entrepreneurs (67.5 percent). e analysis
shows that CIs are characterized by a large number of
micro organizations with less than 3 employees. ere is
a high level of sectoral fragmentation in CIs compared to
the national economy. However, these overall indicators
hide a strong heterogeneity within dierent subgroups.
ere is a rather low number of registered enterprises and
entrepreneurs in certain branches of CI, which demonstrates
underdeveloped value chains, major barriers to entry
(human resources, nancial, technical, etc.) and non-
protability or instability of particular CI markets (e.g.
video gaming, trade in music records and video, renting
music and video records, printing newspapers, museum,
galleries and libraries).
Almost 14.1 percent of total start-ups in the last 4 years
in Republic of Serbia belonged to the creative industries
domain. New enterprises in creative industries achieved
an average annual growth rate of 3.25 percent, while the
same indicator for the whole economy was 2.1 percent.
With respect to sectoral dist ribution of new entrepreneurs,
the leading domain is design and creative services, such
as graphic design, followed by lm and video production.
ose activities comprise approximately 50 percent of the
total number of new CI entrepreneurial start-ups. New
entrepreneurs in creative industries had an average yearly
growth rate of 22 percent, while the same indicator for
the whole economy was 5.8 percent.
Gross value added (GVA) of the narrowly dened
CIs in total GVA was 3.91 percent in 2017, while the
broadly dened CI GVA contribution in total GVA was
signicantly higher, at 7.83 percent. However, in the
beginning of the analyzed period, the GVA contribution
of the broadly dened CIs was 6.7 percent. erefore, the
increase of the CI share in the total GVA in the economy
was about 1.17 percentage points in a short period of only
three years. Table 3 provides an assessment of GVA and
GDP for the 2014-2017 period, using both narrow and
broad approaches.
EKONOMIKA PREDUZEĆA
206
Table 2: CIs (narrow and broad denition) – division and classication according to SIC 2010 (NACE Rev. 2)
Creative industries group Activity SIC code
Narrow
Broad
Advertising and marketing
Public relations and communication activities 70.21 +
Advertising agencies 73.11 + +
Media representation 73.12 + +
Market research and public opinion polling 73.20 +
Other information service activities n.e.c. 63.99 +
Architecture
Architectural activities 71.11 + +
Engineering activities and related technical consultancy 71.12 +
Technical testing and analysis 71.20 +
Cras Manufacturing of jewelry and related articles 32.12 +
Design Specialized design activities 74.10 + +
Film, TV, video, radio
and photography
Retail sale of telecommunications equipment in specialized stores 47.42 +
Motion picture, video and television programme production activities 59.11 + +
Motion picture, video and television programme post-production activities 59.12 + +
Motion picture, video and television programme distribution activities 59.13 + +
Motion picture projection activities 59.14 + +
Radio broadcasting 60.10 + +
Television programming and broadcasting activities 60.20 + +
Wired telecommunications activities 61.20 +
Wireless telecommunications activities 61.30 +
Satellite telecommunications activities 61.90 +
Photographic activities 74.20 + +
IT, soware
and computer services
Publishing of computer games 58.21 + +
Other soware publishing 58.29 + +
Other telecommunications activities 62.01 +
Computer programming activities 62.02 + +
Computer consultancy activities 62.03 + +
Other information technolog y and computer service activities 62.09 +
Data processing, hosting and related activities 63.11 +
Web port als 63.12 +
Retail sale of computers, peripheral units and soware in specialized stores 47.41 +
Repair of computers and peripheral equipment 95.11 +
Publishing
and printing
Printing of newspapers 18.11 +
Other printing 18.12 +
Pre-press and pre-media services 18.13 +
Binding and related services 18.14 +
Retail sale of books in specialized stores 47.61 +
Retail sale of newspapers and stationery in specialized stores 47. 62 +
Book publishing 58.11 + +
Publishing of directories and mailing lists 58.12 + +
Publishing of newspapers 58.13 + +
Publishing of journals and periodicals 58.14 + +
Other publishing activities 58.19 + +
News agency activities 63.91 +
Translation and interpretation activities 74.30 + +
Museums, galleries
and libraries
Library and archive activities 91.01 + +
Museum activities 91.02 + +
Operation of historical sites and buildings and similar visitor attractions 91.03 +
Music, performing
and visual arts
Reproduction of recorded media 18.20 +
Sound recording and music publishing activities 59.20 + +
Performing arts 90.01 + +
Support activities to performing arts 90.02 + +
Artistic creation 90.03 + +
Operation of art facilities 90.04 + +
Economics of Organizations and Industries
207
Using the narrow approach, advertising and marketing ,
publishing, lm, TV, video, radio and photography and
IT, soware and computer services subsectors have the
largest share of total CI GVA in the 2014-2017 period.
However, t he dynamics of the a forementioned subsectors
is signicantly dierent. In 2014, at the beginning of the
analyzed period, the shares of the total CI GVA of the
rst two subsectors were 12.7 percent and 17.5 percent,
respectively. Both of these subsectors recorded a signica nt
decline of their share of the total CI GVA in 2017. Namely,
in 2017, that share declined by more than 50 percent,
amounting to 5.77 percent and 8.87 percent, respectively.
e third subsector retained its share in the total CI GVA
in 2017 and also recorded a small uptick. On the other
hand, IT, soware and computer services subsector
captured approximately 37 percent of the total CI GVA in
2014, but showed a signicant increase in the meantime
and more than doubled its share in 2017, reaching 62.75
percent of the total CI GVA. is is consistent with the
ndings from other studies that also conclude that the
ICT sector has become one of the most propulsive sectors
of the economy, with high growth rate of operations
which came from outsourcing and entering into license
agreements with international par tners [31, p. 227]. Table
4 provides a detailed assessment of the structure of CIs by
distribution of GVA during the period from 2014 to 2017,
using the narrow concept.
Table 5 provides the same sort of analysis, but focuses
on the broad approach, thus allowing more businesses to
qualif y as part of the CI. Using this approach, the advertisi ng
and marketing subsector recorded a signicantly smaller
share in the total CI GVA. Other subsectors labeled as
Table 3: GVA and GDP – total, narrowly and broadly dened CIs, 2014-2017
2014 2015 2016 2017
Total GVA (current price, bn RSD) 3, 257.17 7 3,346.183 3,749.021 3,946.351
CI GVA (current price, bn RSD) (narrow) 82.4 88.4 119.3 156.5
CI GVA (current price, bn RSD) (broad) 216.8 237.5 266.1 309.2
CI GVA (current price, bn EUR) (narrow) 0.7 0.7 0.9 1.2
CI GVA (current price, bn EUR) (broad) 1,8 2.0 2.1 2.5
Exchange rate EUR 117. 31 120.73 123.67 120.80
Contribution of GVA in total GVA - % (narrow) 2.53% 2.64% 3.18% 3.91%
Contribution of GVA in total GVA - % (broad) 6.66% 7.10 % 7.09% 7.83%
Total GDP (current price, bn RSD) 3,908.469 4,043.467 4,521.264 4,754.368
CI GDP (current price, bn RSD) (narrow) 98.1 105.3 142.1 178.7
CI GDP (current price, bn RSD) (broad) 258.1 282.5 304.3 358.7
% of total GDP (narrow) 2.51% 2. 61% 3.14% 3.76%
% of total GDP (broad) 6.60% 6.99% 6.73% 7.53%
Source: Authors’ calculations.
Table 4: Structure of CIs (narrow concept) by distribution of GVA, 2014-2017
2014 2015 2016 2017
Current prices, bn
RSD
As a % of total CI
GVA
Current prices, bn
RSD
As a % of total CI
GVA
Current prices, bn
RSD
As a % of total CI
GVA
Current prices, bn
RSD
As a % of total CI
GVA
Advertising and marketing 10.5
12.7%
10.3 11.6% 11.1 9.3% 9.03 5.77%
Architecture 2.9 3.6% 3.5 4.0% 4.7 4.0% 2.7 1.73%
Cras 0.58 0.7% 0.42 0.5% 0.43 0.4% 0.49 0 .31%
Film, TV, video, radio, photography 11.3
13.8%
16.1 18.1% 16.4
13.7%
19.6 12.55%
Design 1.7 2.1% 1.3 1.5% 0.89 0.7% 1.03 0.66%
IT, soware and computer services 30.2
36.7%
31.6
35.7%
60.5
50.7%
98.2 62.75%
Publishing 14.4 17.5% 14.6
16.5%
14.1 11.8% 13.9 8.87%
Museums, galleries and libraries 4.04 4.9% 4.5 5.1% 4.4 3.7% 5.6 3.57%
Music, performing and visual arts 6.6 8.0% 6.2 7.0% 6.7 5.6% 5.9 3.78%
Source: Authors’ calculation.
EKONOMIKA PREDUZEĆA
208
signicant in the narrow approach exhibited similar
results, with t he exception of the IT, soware and computer
services subsector which had a dominant share of the total
CI GVA in 2014 (50.9 percent) and consequently showed
a signicantly smaller increase in share in 2017 (57.37
percent). Table 5 provides a detailed assessment of the
structure of CIs by distribution of GVA during the 2014-
2017 period using the broad concept.
Importance of the CI sector for employment
In 2017, a total of 69,139 persons were employed in narrowly
dened CIs, while in broadly dened CIs there were
115,899 employees in total. is represents 3.3 percent of
the total number of employees in Serbia (broadly dened
CIs contributed to the total employment with 5.6 percent).
However, CI employment is mostly exible and project-
oriented (preformed under outsourcing, service or copyr ight
agreement), hence “invisible” in registered employment
data. Temporary employment accounts for about 11 percent
of total employment, as opposed to the economy average
where this form of employment accounts for 5.8 percent.
e need for permanent hiring of employees in CIs is
comparatively small as CIs oen hire f reelancers or resort
to outsourcing to creative entrepreneurs. Nevertheless,
the total increase in CI employment is 14.17 percent from
the aspect of narrow approach, and 12.7 percent from the
aspect of broad approach. Table 6 presents the comparison
of employment gures in narrowly and broadly dened
CIs from 2014 to 2017.
Employment in CIs is quite specic and this sector
mainly employs highly educated temporary workers (about
15 percent of total employment). More than half of the
employees are highly educated people, which indicates strong
cultura l capital within these industries. A lso noteworthy
is the fact that less than 1 percent of the total employees
in CIs represent unqualied and low-skilled workforce.
Again, this is in contrast to the economy average where
their share is approximately 20 percent.
e IT and soware and lm and video subsectors
represent the most important employment group with
about one third of the total number of employees in CIs
Table 5: Structure of CIs (broad concept) by distribution of GVA, 2014-2017
2014 2015 2016 2017
In current price, bn
RSD
As a % of total CI
GVA
In current price, bn
RSD
As a % of total CI
GVA
In current price, bn
RSD
As a % of total CI
GVA
In current price, bn
RSD
As a % of total CI
GVA
Advertising and marketing 12.1 5.6% 11.9 5.3% 13.1 4.9% 12.5 4.05%
Architecture 19.8 9.1% 24.4 10.9% 28.9 10.9% 32,1
10.37%
Film, TV, video, radio, photography 33.5 15.5% 37.7 16.8% 38.5 14.5% 4 7.9
15.45%
Design 1.7 0.8% 1.3 0.6% 0.89 0.3% 1.03 0.33%
IT, soware and computer services 110.1 50.9% 111.1 49.4% 144 .2 54.3% 177. 8
57. 37%
Publishing and printing 28.1 13.0% 27.4 12.2% 28.4 10.7% 25.9 8.35%
Museums, galleries and libraries 4.3 2.0% 4.6 2.0% 4.6 1.7% 6.5 2.10%
Music, performing and visual arts 6.6 3.1% 6.3 2.8% 6.8 2.6% 6.2 2.00%
Source: Authors’ calculation.
Table 6: Employment in CIs, 2014-2017
2014 2015 2016 2017
Total employment 1,698,000 1,896,295 1,920,679 2,062,588
CI employment (narrow) 60,557 63,889 65,314 69,139
CI employment (broad) 102,839 106,768 110, 574 115,899
% of total employment (narrow) 3.57 3.37 3.40 3.35
% of total employment (broad) 6.06 5.63 5.71 5.61
Growth rate of CI employment (narrow) 1.5% 5.50% 2.23% 5.85%
Growth rate of CI employment (broad) 4.23% 3.82% 3.56% 4.81%
Source: Authors’ calculation based on administrative employment data from SBRA and the Statistical Ofce of the Republic of Serbia.
Economics of Organizations and Industries
209
(narrow denition). e cras and architecture subsectors
have the smallest number of employees and those sectors
only represent approximately 1.2 percent and 3.2 percent
of the total number of employees in CIs, respectively. e
shares of dierent domains of CIs between 2014 and 2017
remained quite stable, with the notable exception of the
IT sector whose share nearly doubled during this period,
which corresponds with the rise i n its share of the total CI
GVA. e public sector accounts for about 42 percent of
total employees in narrowly dened CIs (about 33 percent
for broadly dened CIs). More than 65 percent of personnel
in all public CIs were employed in museums, galleries and
libraries, music, performing and visual art s and television
programming and broadcasting. Tables 7 and 8 show the
comparison of employment gures between narrowly and
broadly dened CIs during the 2014-2017 period.
e average annual growth of employment in the
narrowly dened CI sectors was 4.7 percent in the observed
period, while the annual growth in the broadly dened
sectors was 4.23 percent. is growth could have been
even higher had it not been for the decline in the levels of
employment in the lm, TV, video, radio and photography
subsector. e reduction of employment in radio and
TV activities was mainly caused by the transformation
of state-owned broadcasting services since they employ
more than 45 percent of the total number of employees
in this subsector.
e concentr ation of employment is propor tional to
the market share of leading companies i n several branches.
For instance, the top-ranking media companies employ
approximately 55.6 percent of employees in the branch; in
the lm industry, the three biggest telecommunications
companies (Telekom, SBB and VIP) absorb approximately
75 percent of employees in the branch, etc.
Exports of the CI sectors
e creative goods are dened as goods conveying ideas,
symbols, ways of life, dierent cultural values and other
creative expressions and whose production requires
a reasonably signicant level of creativity. UNCTAD
classication of creative goods covers 6 creative goods
Table 7: Employment distribution by CI groups, narrow approach (number of persons vs. share %)
Creative industr ies group 2014 2015 2016 2 017 2014 2015 2016 2017
Narrow CI conc ept No. of persons % of total
Architecture 1,437 1,543 2,105 2,235 2.37 2.42 3.22 3.23
Advertising and marketing 5,228 5,222 5,340 5,590 8.63 8.17 8.18 8.08
Design 1,773 1,876 1,959 2,167 2.93 2.94 3.00 3.13
Cras 1,037 1,020 800 830 1.71 1.60 1.22 1.20
Film, TV, video, radio, and photography 12,587 12,597 11, 897 11,934 20.79 19.72 18.22 17.2 5
IT, soware 18,944 20,571 22,149 24,567 31.28 32.20 33.91 35.52
Publishing 7,4 96 8,484 8,216 8,345 12.38 13.28 12.58 12.06
Museums, galleries and libraries 6,344 6,616 6,711 6,970 10.48 10.36 10.27 10.08
Music, performing arts and visual arts 5,711 5,960 6,137 6,530 9.43 9.33 9.40 9.44
TOTAL 60,557 63,889 65,314 69,168 10 0 100 10 0 100
Source: Authors’ calculation based on administrative employment data from SBRA and the Statistical Ofce of the Republic of Serbia.
Table 8: Employment distribution by CI groups, broad approach (number of persons vs. share %)
Creative industr ies group 2014 2015 2016 2 017 2014 2015 2016 2017
Broad CI concept No. of persons % of total
Architecture 15,065 16,381 17, 625 21,670 14.65 15.34 15.94 18.70
Advertising and marketing 5,766 5,929 4,902 4,860 5.61 5.55 4.43 4.19
Design 1,773 1,876 1,959 2,167 1.72 1.76 1.77 1.69
Film, TV, video, radio, and photography 28,339 28,886 30,142 25,579 27.56 27.0 5 2 7.26 22.38
IT, soware 31,926 32223 34437 41,075 31.04 30.18 31.14 35.44
Publishing 7,529 8,484 8,216 6,838 7.32 7.95 7.43 5.90
Museums, galleries and libraries 6,694 6,986 7109 7133 6.51 6.54 6.43 6.15
Music, performing arts and visual arts 5,747 6,003 6,184 6,577 5.59 5.62 5.59 5.54
TOTAL 102, 839 10 6,768 110,574 115,899 100 100 10 0 100
Source: Authors’ calculation based on administrative employment data from SBRA and the Statistical Ofce of the Republic Serbia.
EKONOMIKA PREDUZEĆA
210
groups: 1) cultural and natural heritage, 2) performance
and celebration, 3) visual arts and cras, 4) books and
press, 5) audiovisual and interactive media and 6) design
and creative services.
One-seventh of all revenues of CI business comes
from abroad. Exports accounted for about 12 percent of
all revenues of Serbian CI businesses in 2017. An average
company operating in this sector in Serbia earned about
EUR 45,000 from exports, which is 15 percent more than
the average for the Serbian economy overall. e annual
growth rate of CI export revenue was 8.7 percent over
the 2014-2017 period. e main exporting CI sectors
(that generated more than 70 percent of total CI export
revenues) are printing services, telecommunications,
programming, and advertising. e average growth rate
of Serbian creative goods export was 8.9 percent per year,
but there were dierences across subsectors. e most
dynamic average annual export growth occurred in the
area of new media and cras and publishing. Despite
high average value of export growt h rates, as well as rapid
market penetration of certain CI subsectors, Serbia is still
a net importer of creative goods.
For SEE countries, creative goods represent approximately
3.02 percent of the overall export. During the observed
period, Croatia participated with 2.74 percent in the
regional export of creative goods, Serbia with 2 .1 percent,
Bosnia and Herzegovina with 1.45 percent, Albania with
0.39 percent and Montenegro with 0.15 percent. Serbian CI
businesses mainly export their goods and services to the
former Yugoslav republics. Key markets vary for specic
CIs. In case of lm, TV, video, i.e. audiovisual services,
the key markets are Italy, France and the UK, while
for publishing activities these are the former Yugoslav
republics. Exports of creative goods (covered by UNCTAD
classication) in SEE and selected countries are presented
in Table 9 bellow.
International comparisons
Making comparisons with global champions can be
inspirational. Narrowly dened CIs ca n only be compared
with the UK . e UK is one of the global leaders in providi ng
CI goods and services and it is useful to see how large
this sector can be. e table below summarizes some of
the main information and provides comparison between
Serbia and the UK for the year 2016. As expected, Serbia
signicantly lagged behind the UK.
Table 10: Contribution of CI GVA and employment in
Serbia and the UK (narrow CI denition) in 2016
Countries
CI employment Creative
occupation
GVA
No. of
persons %No. of
persons % In M EUR % of total
economy
Serbia 65,314 3.4 74,272 3.9 965 3.4
UK
1,808,000
5.8
1,915,000
6.1 66,648 5.2
Note: CI data for the UK are extracted from [26].
Interestingly, when the broad approach is used, the
results show that in Serbia CIs are more important than i n
other countries for which results are available. CIs have the
highest share in Serbia both in terms of employment and
creation of value added. Compared to France, Germany,
Italy and Spain, the share of CIs in Serbian economy is
almost two times higher, while the dierence in share in
total employment is somewhat smaller. However, certain
warnings are necessary. Having in mind that this is a
Table 9: Export of creative goods in SEE countries, 2014-2017, in 000 USD
Expor ter 2014 2015 2016 2017
World 612,923,593 546,164,424 522,054,222 521,275,796
Southeastern Europe (SEE) 16,291,727 15,178,942 16,692,291 17,992 , 391
Croatia 448,723 430,041 449,669 482,584
BIH 223,120 218,145 240,871 282,782
Montenegro 6,524 5,289 5,760 6,968
Albania 45,017 75,937 95,484 45,090
Serbia 31 7,79 6 299,337 356,328 3 97,2 52
% contribution of SEE CIs in total SEE export 2.66 2.78 3.20 3.45
% contribution of Serbian CIs in SEE export 1.95 1.97 2.13 2.21
Growth rate of SEE CIs 7.56 -6.83 9.97 7.79
Growth rate of Serbian CI export 11.18 -5.81 19.04 11.48
Source: Author’s calculation based on the Trade Map data retrieved from www.trademap.org (accessed on 10 November 2018).
Economics of Organizations and Industries
211
dynamic sector worldwide, some of the data presented
might be obsolete i.e. the share of CIs has probably increased
by now in all of these countries. is comparison puts
Serbia in the context of high-income countries where
other sectors are developed as well; thus, the share of CIs
is smaller. However, i n Serbia, being a transition economy,
many other sectors are still recovering.
Table 11: Contribution of CIs in GVA and total
employment, 2014-2016 (broad CI denition)
Countries GVA ( %) Jobs (%)
Serbia (2016) 7.5 5.8
France (2011) 5.1 3.7
Ge rma ny (2011) 3.9 4.1
Italy (2011) 3.9 3.7
Spain (2011) 3.4 3.4
Note: CI data for the selected EU countries are obtained from [23].
Due to inclusion of a signicantly larger number of
subsectors than in the narrow approach, the results are
inated and the signicance of CIs is magnied. Hence,
one should be very careful when drawing conclusions,
especially in the case of emerging economies, and we
believe that the proper approach would be to use the
narrow concept.
Comparisons with the rest of the Serbian economy
Both narrowly and broadly dened, Serbian CI sectors
are gaining in importance in Serbian economy and are
showing much faster development than the rest of the
Serbian economy. e number of newly established start-
ups in CI sectors is also growi ng much faster than in other
sectors of the economy.
Table 12: Contribution of sectoral GVA in total GVA –
CIs compared to other sectors of the economy
(in current prices, %)
Sectors 2 014 2017
Creative industries (narrow concept) 2.5% 3.9%
Creative industries (broad concept) 6.7% 7.8%
Construction 5.1% 5.0%
Tou ris m 1.3% 1.6%
Agriculture, forestry and shing 9.3% 7.3%
Mining 1.3% 2.6%
Source: Authors’ calculation, the Statistical Ofce of the Republic of Serbia,
Statistical Yearbooks 2015 and 2018.
Businesses which fal l under CIs are more productive
than other Serbian enterprises. Productivity in narrowly
dened CIs amounts to EUR 18,738 (EUR 22,077 for
broadly dened CIs, 35.01 percent higher than the economy
average, which was 15,838 EUR in 2017 as represented in
more detail in Table 13). e high productivity of broadly
dened CIs is to some extent explained by spending on
Research and Development (R&D) and by high value of
intangible assets. R&D spending in the CI sector accounts
for 9 percent of total national R&D investment. R&D
investment among CI enterprises presents 0.12 percent
of total business revenue per year compared to the
economy average where the share of R&D investment in
total business revenue is around 0.08 percent. Intangible
assets in CIs represent about 42 percent of total intangible
assets generated in national economy.
Table 13: Business performance indicators of CIs
(broad concept) compared to the rest of the Serbian
economy (2017)
Sectors CIs National average
Productivity
(in EUR) 22,077 15,838
R&D expenses total
(in EUR million) 5.6 57.1
R&D expenses total (in EUR)
as % of total business revenues 0.12 0.07
Export revenue in total
business revenue % 10.9 12.3
Intangible assets
(in EUR) 901,245,687 2,449,588,568
Source: Authors’ calculation.
Note: Only enterprises are included in the calculation of business performance
indicators.
Conclusions
is paper reviews methods for assessing the economic
contribution of creative industries and presents the
dierences with respect to t heir scope and data limitations.
It also provides a detailed mapping according to the most
relevant industry-based approach and DCMS categorization
of CIs. e presented indicators represent a baseline source
of information about several economic dimensions of the
development of creative industries and provide possibility
for international benchmarking comparison and a “big-
picture” perspective on the state and prospects of creative
industries in Serbia.
EKONOMIKA PREDUZEĆA
212
Based on the presented data, Serbia exhibits considerable
potential for the development of its creative economy. e
results show that CIs were among key contributors to the
growth of Serbian economy in the observed period, with
the average annual growt h rate of the number of narrowly
dened CI entities of 5.6 percent (8.4 percent for broadly
dened CIs; this growth was more than 6 percentage
points higher tha n the average growth rate in t he national
economy – 2.01 percent). is conrms that creative
indust ries attra cted increasing volume of e ntrepreneu rial
skills and resources. However, the paper also shows that
it is crucial to adequately categorize creative industries.
eir economic contribution varies dramatical ly depending
on the initia l selection criteria and adopted methodology.
In the case of narrow approach, the contribution of
creative industries is almost completely driven by the IT,
soware and computer services subsector. is subsector’s
contribution increased from 37 to close to 63 percent of
the total narrowly dened CI GVA (or by 26 percentage
points). is increase was relatively less signicant in
case of the broad approach where it was just 7 percentage
points. However, IT, soware and computer services in
Serbia have somewhat dierent structure compared to this
eld in the developed countries. Usually, the IT-oriented
sector, as part of creative industries, is mostly focused
on the production of digital creative contents. In Serbia,
this sector predominantly depends on outsourcing or
licensing contracts with lower levels of creativity and oen
without potential for intellectual property protection.
Currently, the majority of this sector can be described as
a pseudocreative activity.
e limitations of the industry-based approach in
measuring economic contribution of creative industries
in this paper mainly refer to the lack of data related to the
cra sector, social ent repreneurship i n creative industries,
nonprot organizat ions, as well fashion, urban a nd product
design. ese activities remained out of the scope of
our research. Further assessments of the characteristics
of creative industries in Serbia should consider these
limitations, as well as provide better understanding of
regional aspects a nd impacts of creative industries through
spillover. e second limitation of our results is related
to the fact that we applied the industry-based method.
Hence, we did not take into account creative employment
in other industries. e criticism of the industry-based
approach has been emphasized by several authors. For
example, Markusen et al. show that considerations of
the total number of employees working within creative
industries may lead to inaccurate estimations since only
a part of them may actually be involved in the creative
contents production [15, p. 36].
e use of a combined industry and occupation-
based approach could provide additional insights and a
more detailed assessment and understanding of Serbian
creative economy.
e impact of the creative industries in Serbia is
not limited only to economic indicators presented in this
paper. Serbian creative industries are one of the key drivers
of technological progress and long-term development.
We believe that this paper provides sucient basis for
further research and sheds light that will contribute to
the design of evidence-based policies promoting creative
economy in Serbia.
References
1.
Boix-Domènech, R., & Rausell-Köster, P. (2018). The economic
impact of the creative industry in the European Union. In
V. Santamarina-Campos, & M. Segarra-Oña (Eds.), Drones
and the creative industry (pp. 19-36). Switzerland: Springer.
2.
Boix, R., & Soler, V. (2017). Creative service industries and
regional productivity. Pap Reg Sci, 96(2), 261–279.
3.
Campbell, P. (2019). Persistent creativity: Making the case
for art, culture, and the creative industries. London: Palgrave
Macmillan.
4. Carvalho, L., & Santos Cruz, S.C. (2017). Creative industries
in Brazil: On the measurement of their size and relative
importance. Creative Industries Journal, 10(3) , 23 8-257.
5.
European Commission. (2008). Future evolution of the
creative content industries. Three Discussion Papers. Brussels:
European Commission.
6.
European Commission. (2010). Unlocking the potential of cultural
and creative industries. Green paper, COM (2010)183. Brussels:
European Commission, Retrieved from http://ec.europa.eu/
culture/our-policy-development/doc/GreenPaper_creative_
industries_en.pdf.
7.
European Economic and Social Committee. (2004). Opinion of
the European Economic and Social Committee on ‘Europe’s
Creative Industries’. Ofcial Journal of the European Union,
No: 2004/C, 108/14, C 108/68.
8. European Economic and Social Committee. (2012). Opinion
of the European Economic and Social Committee on the
‘Proposal for a Regulation of the European Parliament and of
Economics of Organizations and Industries
213
the Council on establishing the Creative Europe Programme’.
Ofcial Journal of European Union, No: 2012/C 181/07, C 181/35.
9.
European Parliament. (2016). Report on a coherent EU policy
for cultural and creative industries (2016/2072(INI)). European
Parliament, Brussels.
10.
Florida, R. (2005). The ight of the creative class: The new
global competition for talent. London: Harper Collins.
11.
Florida, R., Mellander, C., & Stolarick, K. (2008). Inside the
black box of regional development - Human capital, the
creative class and tolerance. Journal of Economic Geography,
8(5), 615– 649.
12. Higgs, P., Cunningham, S., & Bakhshi, H. (2008). Beyond the
creative industries: Mapping the creative economy in the
United Kingdom. London: Nesta.
13.
Jovičić, S., & Mikić, H. (2006). Kreativne industrije u Srbiji:
Preporuke za razvoj kreativnih industrija. Beograd: Britanski
savet.
14.
Kemeny, T., Nathan M., & O’Brien, D. (2019). Creative
differences? Measuring creative economy employment in
the United States and the UK. Regional Studies, 4-5.
15. Markusen, A., Wassall, G., DeNatale, D., & Cohen, R. (2008).
Dening the creative economy: Industry and occupational
approaches. Economic Development Quarterly, 22(1), 24-45.
16.
Мikić, H. (2012). Measuring the economic contribution of
cultural industries: Review and assessment of methodological
approaches. Montreal: UNESCO-Institute for statistics.
17.
Mikić, H. (2013) Cultural industries and the diversity of cultural
expressions: International institutional framework and the
current conditions in Serbia. Interkulturalnost, 6, 6 0 -87.
18.
Мikić, H. (2015). Case study Serbia: Measuring economic
contribution of cultural industries. Montreal: UNESCO-Institute
for statistics.
19. Radulović, B., Popović D., & Aleksić D. (2014). The economic
contribution of copyright-based industries in Serbia. National
Studies on Assessing the Economic Contribution of the Copyright-
Based Industries, 8, 363-467. World Intellectual Property
Organization. Retrieved from https://www.wipo.int/edocs/
pubdocs/en/wipo_pub_1044.pdf#page=364.
20.
Peris-Ortiz, M., Gomez, J.A., & López-Sieben, M. (2019).
Cultural and creative industries: An overview. In M. Peris-
Ortiz, M. Cabrera-Flores, & A. Serrano-Santoyo (Eds.), Cultural
and creative industries. Innovation, technology, and knowledge
management (pp. 1-13). Switzerland: Springer.
21. Ross, A. (2007). Nice work if you can get it: The mercurial
career of creative industries policy. In G. Lovink & N. Rossiter
(Eds.), My creativity reader: A critique of creative industries (pp.
17–39). Amsterdam: Institute of Network Cultures.
22. Santos Cruz, S., & Teixeira A.C., A. (2015). The magnitude of
creative industries in Portugal: What do the distinct industry-
based approaches tell us?. Creative Industries Journal, 8(1),
85-102.
23.
TERA. (2014). The economic contribution of the creative
industries to EU GDP and employment. Evolution 20 08–2011.
Retrieved from http://www.teraconsultants.fr/en/issues/The-
Economic-Contributionof-the-Creative-Industries-to-EU-in-
GDP-and-Employment.
24.
Towse, R. (2010). Creativity, copyright and the creative
industries paradigm. KYKLOS, 63, 461-478.
25. UK DCMS. (2015). Creative Industries Economic Estimates -
January 2015. Retrieved from https://www.thecreativeindustries.
co.uk/media/281787/Creative_Industries_Economic_Estimates_-_
January_2015.pdf.
26. UK DCMS. (2016). Creative Industries Economic Estimates -
January 2016. Retrieved from https://assets.publishing.service.
gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_
data/le/523024/Creative_Industries_Economic_Estimates_
January_2016_Updated_201605.pdf.
27.
UNCTAD. (2008). Creative Economy Report 2008. Geneva:
UNCTAD.
28. UNESCO. (2009). UNESCO Framework for cultural statistics.
Montreal: UNESCO – Institute for statistics.
29.
World Intellectual Property Organization. (WIPO). (2003).
Guide on surveying the economic contribution of the copyright-
based industries. Geneva: WIPO.
30.
World Intellectual Property Organization. (WIPO). (2015).
Guide on surveying the economic contribution of the copyright-
based industries, 2015 Revised edition. Geneva: WIPO.
31.
Živković, L., Kutlača, Đ., Kleibrink, A., & Štrbac, D. (2018).
Characteristics of the software industry in Serbia. Ekonomika
preduzeća, 66, 226-236.
Hristina Mikić
is Head of the Research Department in the Institute for Creative Entrepreneurship and Innovation and lecturer
at the UNESCO Chair in Cultural Policy and Management, University of Arts in Belgrade. Ms. Mikić holds a
PhD in Economics from the Faculty of Economics in Belgrade in the eld of creative economy. She has been
engaged as a consultant and advisor in numerous national and international organizations in the area of
cultural and creative industries. These include UNESCO, the Council of Europe, UNDP, World Bank, ministries
of cultural affairs in Serbia, Macedonia and Montenegro, Serbian Chamber of Commerce and many others.
EKONOMIKA PREDUZEĆA
214
Branko Radulović
is Associate Professor of Economics and Economic Analysis of Law at the Faculty of Law, University of Belgrade.
Mr. Radulović holds a bachelor’s degree from the Faculty of Economics in Belgrade, a Master’s degree in
International Economics from the University of Birmingham, and a PhD in Economics, Law and Institutions
from the University of Turin. He was also visiting scholar at the Cornell Law School. His areas of expertise
include economic analysis of law, institutional economics and applied econometrics.
Miljan Savić
is a PhD student of Economic Analysis of Law at the Faculty of Law, University of Belgrade. His main interests
include empirical research in the eld of behavioral law and economics and economic analysis of intellectual
property with the emphasis on economic analysis of piracy. He started his professional career as a legal
associate in a law rm in Belgrade. Since 2018 he has been Associate at the Balkan Center for Regulatory
Reform and is engaged in multiple projects as Regulatory Reform Expert.
... Creative industries in Serbia and the influence they have on the local economy have been topics of various studies in the previous years, some of which were pioneer steps in understanding this valuable sector from the economic point of view, but also as a part of social development [11], [15]. At the same time, one of the first tangible pieces of data that helped understand the creative sector in Serbia and made it more visible in the eyes of the decision-makers and public stakeholders resulted from the World Bank's technical assistance support project to the Government of Serbia [16], and it used the "narrow" DCMS definitional approach [25] and the additional "broad" approach, as the variation of WIPO [22], when defining the scope of creative industries. ...
... In order to have a permanent understanding of the creative industries in Serbia, and to secure continued scientific research over the sector, this paper follows the proposed approaches of using the "narrow" and the "broad" classification of the involved industries. However, this paper is based on a different methodology of calculating GVA and contribution to GDP, different analysis of the structure of the sector and different analysis of the employment structure and the sector's contribution to overall employment, compared to the methodology employed by Mikić, Radulović and Savić in their paper [16], which showed that this sector contributed with 3.7% to the total GDP of Serbia, and with 3.3% to the total number of employees. ...
... According to the age categories, the highest share of employees was recorded in the age category 30-34. The distribution according to the age intervals is as expected, since the medium age group has the highest share, and the lowest shares are taken up by the youth (15)(16)(17)(18)(19)(20)(21)(22)(23)(24)(25) and elderly (65+). The share of male employees is higher than that of female ones and the males' share is higher according to the broad definition. ...
Article
Full-text available
The creative industry plays an important role in the economic development of countries. Its role has been the topic of various studies, confirming not just the importance, but also the specifics of its operations and characteristics. Creative industry in Serbia is an important part of the economy. This paper creates additional value in terms of understanding its economic impact and shows that this sector in Serbia demonstrated evident growth in the analysed period, with the average increment rate of the number of entities being 6.2% when observing the narrow classification and 7.8% when observing the broad one. Having in mind the structure of the sector in Serbia, 73.8-77% of its participants are entrepreneurs, and 92-93% of the companies are micro firms. In addition to this, most of the creative industry firms are registered in the capital city. In the observed period, GVA of the creative industry's private sector increased by 64.9% in terms of the narrow classification, with average annual growth rate of 18.1%. The share of GVA in GDP of the creative industry when taking into account the broad classification is higher compared to certain traditional industries in Serbia, such as construction, and somewhat lower than the share the agriculture. This paper also analyses the employment structure in this sector and its impact on overall employment.
... Creative industries in Serbia do not have an umbrella Strategy that regulates their development and Statistical Yearbook of the Republic of Serbia 2020 https://publikacije.stat.gov.rs/G2020/Pdf/G20202053.pdf growing, which is determined by a significantly stronger infrastructure and distribution network and the supply of creative workforce that dominates in larger cities. Creative industries in their narrower classification achieve an average growth of 5.6%, which is a significantly higher growth compared to the average in the entire economy (Mikić, Radulović, & Savić, 2020). The cities in which these areas are most represented are Belgrade and Novi Sad, which received the title of European Capital of Culture in 2021. ...
... The IT, software and computer services sub-sector has the largest share when it comes to the contribution of individual sectors of the creative industries to the Serbian economy. In 2017, this sub-sector generated more than 60% of total GVA (Mikić, Radulović, & Savić, 2020). ...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this paper is to analyse the Serbian creative industries sector, which is becoming an increasingly important component of technological progress and long-term development. We performed the initial mapping study method which offers a display and analysis of existing data. The main task was to identify priority areas in creative industries and assess their potential for optimal growth. The largest exports of the domestic creative industry are recorded in the software industry, followed by the film industry, multimedia, video advertising as well as the printing industry. Serbian creative industries have the ability to strengthen the local identity and change the image of cities and the whole country, increase attractiveness for investments and business and creative class of workers.
... Poglavlje ima za cilj da demistifikuje osnovne termine i komponente kreativne ekonomije, kao i da podstakne čitaoce na bolje razumevanje aktuelne stvarnosti u kojoj se ona razvija i pravce stvaranja njene nove paradigme u nadolazećem "dobu imaginacije". izjednačava sa kreativnim industrijama, ponekad obuhvata i telekomunikacije, turizam, sport i rekreaciju, pa čak i trgovinu patentima, žigovima i industrijskim dizajnom (Mikić et al. 2020). To zavisi od toga da li na nju gledamo u širem ili užem smislu, i u kojoj fazi razvoja se ona nalazi. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Ovo poglavlje se bavi genezom koncepta kreativne ekonomije, relacijama između njene ekonomske i kulturne dimenzije, izazovima sa kojima se suočava i mogućim perspektivama razvoja u budućnosti. U prvom delu poglavlja diskutuje se predistorija termina i fenomena kreativne ekonomije. U drugom delu prikazana je retrospektiva ekonomskog tretmana kulture i kreativnosti u različitim društveno-ekonomskim periodima, dok se u trećem delu razmatraju izazovi i mogući pravci njenog daljeg razvoja. Poglavlje ima za cilj da demistifikuje osnovne termine i komponente kreativne ekonomije, kao i da podstakne čitaoce na bolje razumevanje aktuelne stvarnosti u kojoj se ona razvija i pravce stvaranja njene nove paradigme u nadolazećem „dobu imaginacije“.
... Creative industries are usually highly concentrated in local urban areas and have a significant role in urban dynamics (Cooke & Lazzeretti, 2008;Boix et al., 2016). Creative industries have a decisive impact on employment growth (Kemeny et al., 2020), especially on youth employment (EY, 2014), increase entrepreneurial skills (Mikić et al., 2020), generate creative spillovers, form regional clusters (Chapain et al., 2010), have high innovation potential especially in urban areas (Stam et al., 2008), and contribute to technological development and long-term growth. Their positive direct and indirect impact on regional innovation systems is proven (Boix-Domènech & Rausell-Köster, 2018). ...
Article
Full-text available
The window of opportunity has opened for the creative industries in Central Europe in the decades following the fall of the communist regime and the transition to a decentralised market economy. Creative industries with symbolic knowledge base are crucial for regional resilience, and regional synergies established by these economic activities highly influence the long-term ability of innovation systems to develop. The question is whether creative industries have started to grow and can contribute to the development of post-socialist knowledge-based economies in Central Europe, if so, at what territorial level. By distinguishing three dimensions (geography, technology, organisation) that operate in innovation systems and by measuring their interactions using entropy statistics in two post-socialist countries, Slovakia and Hungary, the paper reveals that the most significant part of the synergy in creative industries emerges at the local level of innovation systems. However, benefits are realised not only locally but also globally due to the deterritorialised nature of the end-products and their integration into other industrial products on the global market.
Article
Full-text available
The creative industries in the Republic of Serbia have a share in the GDP between 3.4% and 7.1%, depending on the concept of observation, with faster growth than the rest of the economy, so they represent an important sector in both a number of economies of developed countries and the Republic of Serbia. According to official data, more than 115,000 employees are employed in the creative industries sector of Serbia within more than 30,000 registered enterprises. Using the available data, there is perception that the employees in the creative industries are between the ages of 25 and 44, half of them with a university degree. Also, the share of women in the creative industries of Serbia is evident. These industries provide numerous opportunities for the development of women's entrepreneurship. Their better understanding is needed, which is the purpose of this paper. The original contribution of the paper is reflected in its systematicity and analytical and practical implications. Comparing the results in the field of innovation implementation in the Republic of Serbia has led to concrete results, which could be a positive signal for the participation of even more female entrepreneurs in the field of creative business.
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this paper is to assess the level of agricultural insurance development for family agricultural farms in Serbia and Croatia. To that end, a comparative analysis of the characteristics of agricultural insurance and of the level of its development for family agricultural farms was conducted for these two countries, which were taken as comparative examples due to significant similarities relevant for the subject of research. According to the categorization of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), the territories of both countries are dominated by rural areas which are, according to the structure of the agricultural entities, dominated by family agricultural farms, while agriculture has approximately the same share in gross domestic product (GDP) of both countries. The author analyzes the development of agricultural insurance from 2006 to 2018, with family agricultural farms that can be considered micro enterprises important for the growth of the insurance industry in the observed countries. Based on the conducted research, the author concludes that in both Serbia and Croatia, agricultural insurance of family agricultural farms is underdeveloped and that there are significant opportunities for the growth of the insurance industry in this market segment. In 2018, only 3.99% of all family agricultural farms in Serbia were insured, with this percentage being 4.26% in Croatia. Bearing in mind that supply is satisfactory, that solvency should not be viewed as a problem, as is often done, given there is significant subsidization of agricultural insurance premiums, it will be necessary, before all, to develop demand.
Article
Full-text available
Kreativne industrije, kao privredne delatnosti koje se zasnivaju na kreativnosti, idejama, znanjima i informacijama, beleže intenzivan rast u 21.veku, ostvarujući direktan uticaj na mnoge makroekonomske varijable. Na taj način, ove delatnosti se smatraju novim pokretačem ekonomskog rasta i razvoja iz čega proizilazi značaj njihovog analiziranja. U cilju sveobuhvatnog razumevanja sektora kreativnih industrija, u ovom radu su razmatrani različiti pristupi njegovog definisanja, modeli klasifikacije delatnosti koje njemu pripadaju, kao i karakteristike ovog sektora, što ukazuje na njegove specifičnosti kao novog izvora rasta. Isticanje preporuka literature za vođenje ekonomske politike koja uzima u obzir značaj sektora kreativnih industrija za rast i razvoj zemlje, kao i određivanje obuhvata kreativnih industrija u Srbiji, predstavlja poseban doprinos ovog rada.
Article
Full-text available
This paper compares the creative economies of the US and the UK regions and nations using high-quality administrative microdata spanning the period 2011–13. The creative industries are highly urbanized in both countries. However, important differences are found in the size, density and diversity of creative activity between the two countries, which reflect differences in both urban systems and industrial organization. By testing the ‘Creative Trident’ approach in a comparative international context, the analysis adds to the literature on definition and classification of creative economies, as well as to discussions of regional economic development through the creative economy.
Chapter
Full-text available
This work analyses the economic impact of the creative industry in the European Union. The paper quantifies the direct and indirect impacts of the creative industry, concluding that they not only have a direct impact on the employment and the production, but also contributes to the technological progress and long-term development of the European Union. Most of this contribution is due to the creative service industries, whereas the direct contribution of the creative manufacturing industries is smaller.
Book
Full-text available
This case study of cultural industries in Serbia applies Handbook No. 1 by presenting the results of using the UIS-recommended methodology for measuring the economic contribution of cultural industries at a national level. The report details the data used, describes the results obtained and analyses the results. In addition, the benefits and limitations of the current approach are discussed. This handbook offers a practical guide for practitioners interested in assessing the economic contribution of their cultural industries.
Chapter
This chapter traces the roots of the dominant discourse regarding creativity that comes to prominence in the early twenty-first century, demonstrating that this prominence is not so much a result of strictly new developments as an intensification of prior patterns. It considers the development of cultural policy and statistical evidence, the emergence of neoliberal ideology and the notion of a ‘new’ economy, and the development of the idea that culture may play a role in the ‘regeneration’ of cities. These developments intertwine and overlap to provide the conditions in which a discourse around the value of creativity can thrive.
Chapter
The aim of this chapter is to describe the basic theoretical aspects of cultural and creative industries and to present the remaining ten chapters which comprise this book. As essential characteristics of these industries, this book highlights their diversity and symbolic nature. With regards to their diversity, they range from companies or activities which are founded on arts or handicrafts to companies founded on technology; they may be capital-intensive or knowledge-intensive organizations, where the symbolic nature of their products is what undoubtedly characterizes these industries as cultural in all cases. A final issue to be highlighted is the way in which, based on intangible ideas and emotions, the tangible aspect of the products is sought in the cultural companies or on the contrary, the way in which inputs and tangible technology are used to search for the intangible aspect of the symbolic and cultural nature of the product.
Article
Creative industries have raised increasing interest in political and academic fields, with greater necessity of universal measures and methodologies to assess and compare their dimension across countries and regions. This paper critically reviews the existing measurement models of creative industries in literature, presenting a thorough mapping according to relevant worldwide industry-based approaches: DCMS, WIPO, Concentric Circles and UNCTAD. Then a measurement analysis is undertaken on the creative industries’ employment in Brazil and for each Brazilian state, with the latest data available (year 2013). These estimates are confronted with results from other countries that used comparable approaches, in order to provide a critical assessment of methodologies and results. The outcomes for the creative industries’ employment revealed to be contrasting, depending on the emphasis of each approach, varying from 0.82% of total Brazilian employment (DCMS approach) to 2.80% (WIPO model). According to the Concentric Circles model, the estimates achieved 2.20% of the national employment, while using the UNCTAD model, a more modest outcome of 1.46% was obtained. These variations suggest the importance of pondering which model(s) can better describe the creative economy of each country, region or state, taking into account the specificities of regions and the focus of each approach.