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The differing behavior of loanwords in the Spanish of technology and of fashion and beauty

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Many works have already dealt with anglicisms in Spanish, especially in science and information technologies. However, despite the high and growing number of English terms incorporated daily by the language of fashion, it has received comparative less attention in lexicographic and terminological studies than that of other areas, such as science or business. For several reasons, which include prestige or peer pressure, Spanish has not only adopted English words with new meanings and usage, but also contains other forms based on English patterns which users seem to consider more accurate or expressive. This paper concentrates on false anglicisms as indicators of some of the special relationships and influences between languages arising from the pervasive presence of English. We shall look at the Spanish language of fashion, which, in addition to genuine anglicisms, has for some time been using English words with different meanings, or even created items of its own (or imported them from other languages) with the appearance of English words. These false anglicisms, which have proven extremely popular in receiving languages (not only in Spanish) have frequently been disseminated by youth magazines and the new digital media, both in general spheres and in fashion-specific contexts.
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Contact with the English language, especially from the 20th century onwards, has had as a consequence an increase in the number of words that are borrowed from English into Spanish. This process is particularly noticeable in Spanish for Specific Purposes, and, more specifically, in the case of Spanish computer language. Although sociocultural and linguistic studies can be found in the literature, there are few systematic works on this type of borrowing; thus, the purpose of this paper is to shed some light on the use of English loanwords in Spanish computer language. With that aim, we have carried out a quantitative and qualitative analysis of actual corpus-based data from four different publications addressed at experienced computer users. The main objective is to study the adaptation of loanwords to the Spanish system in terms of gender assignment and plural formation in order to determine whether borrowings in Spanish are governed by the usual criteria regarding gender assignment and check if, in the case of plural formation, the English pattern prevails over the Spanish one or if there is a mixture of both procedures.
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This paper reports on a collaborative quantitative study of loanwords in 41 languages, aimed at identifying meanings and groups of meanings that are borrowing-resistant. We find that nouns are more borrowable than adjectives or verbs, that content words are more borrowable than function words, and that different semantic fields also show different proportions of loanwords. Several issues arise when one tries to establish a list of the most borrowing-resistant meanings: Our data include degrees of likelihood of borrowing, not all meanings have counterparts in all languages, many words are compounds or derivatives and hence almost by definition non-loanwords. We also have data on the age of words. There are thus multiple factors that play a role, and we propose a way of combining the factors to yield a new 100-item list of basic vocabulary, called the Leipzig-Jakarta list.
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This paper analyses the use of English in Spanish television commercials, since no scientific studies have been carried out so far in this field. Although there are a few similar studies of print media, our review of the literature has shown some gaps in the research on Anglicisms used in advertising. English seems to be widely present in television commercials in Spain for different reasons. Marketing and cost-saving strategies of multinational companies together with the prestige of the English language and Anglo-American culture in Spain are some of the primary causes. In our study, we have focused on a corpus of pure Anglicisms (English words which have not been adapted to Spanish) and pseudo-Anglicisms (terms that do not exist in English, though they are similar to English words), found in commercials related to cosmetics, hygiene and personal care products, as part of the research project “Globalisation and Impact of the Anglo-American Culture on Spain”. Five hundred and thirty one commercials of the three main private national television channels in Spain (Tele5, Antena3, LaSexta) and children’s Disney Channel (Spain) were compiled in 2013. The results confirm a considerable presence of pure Anglicisms, English-Spanish code switching, pseudo-Anglicisms and Anglo-American imagery and music in the advertising of products related to cosmetics, hygiene and personal care on Spanish television. Consequently, the link of these products to the prestige of the English-speaking world is reinforced.
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The creation of neologisms through linguistic borrowing is a complex process. For donor language models to be transformed into host language replicas, phonological and morphological adaptation must take place. Part and parcel of that adaptation is the assignment of gender to loanwords in a host language like Spanish. The present article examines gender assignment in two corpora of loan-words (New Mexican and Southern Colorado Spanish: N=212 and General Chicano Spanish: N=595). Through the application of variable rule methodology (GoldVarb 2), five factors are posited as significant. Two of these categorically determine gender assignment when present: (1) the biological sex of the referent and (2) the presence of a derivational suffix (or a sequence which can be interpreted as such), additionally, gender assignment for these Anglicisms responds variably to three other factors: (3) the terminal phoneme(s) of the loanword, (4) the gender of a common Spanish synonym, and (5) the gender of the Spanish hyperonym.
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Many modern societies produce a form of visual and narrative art that contains a series of printed pictures, usually though not always with text.1 In English, readers may call it sequential art, comics, comic books, cartoons, cartoon strips, or graphic novels. The French term is bande dessinée (BD), literally, "strip drawing." In Chinese, commonly used terms are manhua, lianhuantu, and car-ton. The written Chinese characters for manhua are the basis for both the Japanese and the Korean terms for comics, which are, respectively, manga and manhwa. No matter what it is called, this visual art form in various countries and languages has similarities and differences. Scott McCloud points out that this art form is a communication medium able to convey information and to produce aesthetic pleasure for readers.2 As a part of the globalization of media, American comics and animation have a long history of exporting such works. Studies find that American comics played an important role in introducing modern comics to Asia, as in Hong Kong in the 1950s and 1960s.3 In Japan, the great comics artist Tezuka Osamu openly acknowledged the influence of early Walt Disney and Max Fleisher animation in his work.4 Japan's comics and animation industry was the most developed among countries in Asia in the early 1960s. John Lent's study of the American animation industry and its offshore factory development in East and Southeast Asia confirmed that Japan was the pioneer in the field in the region at that time.5 Indeed, when comics started to take off in Japan in the early 1960s, the influences of manga began to spread to its neighbors, and American influence started to wane in the region. Manga is "one of the features of mass culture in present-day Japan. In 1994, 2.27 billion manga books and magazines were published, making up 35 percent of all material published."6 The manga market in Japan is big, and genres are highly diversified. However, when examining the exportation of Japanese cultural products, including comics, the cultural economist Dal Yong Jin points out that these products "have hardly penetrated worldwide to the same degree as its [Japan's] economic power and the domestic culture market."7 It was not until approximately fifteen years ago, partly because of Japan's economic recession, that the Japanese manga industry began to grant copyrights to overseas publishers in Asia and to explore the transnational development of its cultural products. The influence of manga in Southeast Asian societies is obvious. Outside Japan and Asia, the visibility of manga is clearly emerging into the mainstream media.8 Comics scholars and cultural studies scholars are optimistic that Japan can be "consider[ed] as another centre of globalization" because of the current global development of manga and anime.9 This chapter aims to investigate the flow of manga as a cultural product in the global market, from its country of origin, Japan, to the neighboring region and then to the rest of the world. Because of the influence of American and Western comics in manga, one may find that Japanese manga are undoubtedly deeply imbricated in U.S. cultural imaginaries, but they dynamically rework the meanings of being modern in Asian contexts at the site of production and consumption. In this sense, they are neither "Asian" in any essentialist meaning nor second-rate copies of "American originals." They are inescapably "global" and "Asian" at the same time, lucidly representing the intertwined composition of global homogenization and heterogenization, and thus they well articulate the juxtaposed sameness and difference.10 I am interested in exploring these globalization flows by focusing on manga. To begin the inquiry, I open with a brief review of the concept of globalization. Globalization is one of today's hottest buzzwords. Stuart Hall reminds us that this phenomenon is nothing new and can be traced back through the long history of Western imperialism.11; Following this Western imperialism, many people in non-Western countries had experienced different degrees of colonialization over the past few centuries. Anthony Giddens sees globalization as the consequence of modernity in which European nations employed their military and economic power to...
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With the rise of the Internet, English has become a source of borrowing of computer terms in many languages, including Spanish. Many of these borrowings are rapidly making their way into the Spanish language press. A survey of newspapers from eight Latin American countries yielded a total of 231 lexical borrowings of different types, all related to broad fields, such as software, hardware, data, and Internet-related terms. These borrowings can be classified as loanwords, calques of various kinds, including loan translations and semantic extensions, and loanblends. Many have already appeared in monolingual Spanish dictionaries, such as the Diccionario de la Real Academia , and in a number of dictionaries of Hispanic Anglicisms.
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  This research report focuses on the use of English loanwords related to the Internet and computer technology. A corpus-based approach was used to analyze a total of 33,193 words including 11,063 tokens found on 10 Macedonian business websites. Type/token ratios were obtained for 4 different types of lexical item found in the data: Macedonian items, English loanwords, English semantic loans and English items. Borrowed lexeme structures by word class were also described. Results suggested that several types of English loan existed in the Macedonian language: loanwords, semantic loans and English words (non-nativized forms of loanwords). Other types of loan, such as loan translations and hybrids, and grammatical influences from English were also present.
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As a way of tracking popular framing of CMC, this article critically reviews an inter- national corpus of 101 print-media accounts (from 2001 to 2005) of language-use in technologies such as instant messaging and text messaging. From the combined perspec- tive of folk linguistics and critical discourse analysis, this type of metadiscourse (i.e., discourse about discourse) reveals the conceptual and ideological assumptions by which particular communication practices come to be institutionalized and understood. The article is illustrated with multiple examples from across the corpus in order to demon- strate the most recurrent metadiscursive themes in mediatized depictions of technologi- cally or computer-mediated discourse (CMD). Rooted in extravagant characterizations of the prevalence and impact of CMD, together with highly caricatured exemplifications of actual practice, these popular but influential (mis)representations typically exagger- ate the difference between CMD and nonmediated discourse, misconstrue the ''evolu- tionary'' trajectory of language change, and belie the cultural embeddedness of CMD.
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Summary in English. Typescript. Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Massachusetts at Amherst, 1992. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 150-155). Microfilm. UMI no. 9233157.
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The lexical impact of English on other languages, especially in the course of the twentieth century, has been documented with greater or lesser comprehensiveness, but there has never been a comparison of these influences on a comparative basis. My paper describes such a project which is to be organized as an international research scheme, is planned to include up to twenty European languages and to be published as a dictionary. My restriction to Europe (and to EFL countries) is because the sociolinguistic histories of European speech communities and their languages, and the way they came to be affected by English, are similar enough to make a comparison fruitful. In my paper I define the term anglicism and discuss language-specific differences of the phenomenon and problems on the levels of spelling, pronunciation, morphology, meaning, etymology, style and social restrictions before presenting in detail the structure of the projected dictionary. A section of the paper is devoted to problems of fieldwork involving stylistic judgments of native speakers and a critical assessment of pilot studies undertaken in 1990–91. Even if the results of the statistical analysis of the responses have to be seen with a great deal of caution, they confirm that national differences persist with regard to anglicisms to a much greater extent than many would have expected in a world culture increasingly dominated by the English language. The dictionary is intended to compare these lexical imports and their native equivalents comprehensively, concentrating on present-day conditions; the data collected will prove relevant for bilingual lexicography as well as for learner's dictionaries of English used in European schools.
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