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Evaluation of antibacterial activity of ethanolic extract of Butea monosperma (Lam.) Kuntz pod

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Abstract

The present study designed to screen antibacterial activity of ethanolic extract of Butea monosperma pod. The ethanolic extract was tested for antibacterial activity against Enterobacter aerogens, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia, Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Proteus vulgaris bacteriae using agar well diffusion method. The ethanolic extract of B. monosperma pod exhibited prominent inhibitory effect against Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Peudomonas aeruginosas and Salmonella typhimurium. The extract was active in higher concentration against Enterobacter aerogens, Klebsiella pneumonia, Proteus vulgaris and Staphylococcus aureus.
1
J P h a rm Chem Bio l Sci , M arch-May 2 0 15; 3(1):01-05
Journal o f P h a rmaceutical, Ch e m i c a l a n d Biological
Sciences
ISS N: 2 3 4 8 - 7 6 5 8
Impac t F a c t or (SJIF ) : 2 . 092
M a r c h -May 2015 ; 3( 1 ) : 0 1 - 05
Av ai l a b le online at http://www.jpcbs.info
Evaluation of antibacterial activity of ethanolic extract of Butea
monosperma (Lam.) Kuntz pod
Jayasree D1*, Shakila R2, Meeradevi Sri P3
1Department of Pharmacology, Madha Medical College & Research Institute, Kouvr, Near Porur,
Chennai - 600122, Tamil Nadu, India.
2Department of Chemistry, Siddha Central Research Institute (Central Council for Research in
Siddha), Anna Hospital Campus, Arumbakkam, Chennai-600 106, Tamil Nadu, India.
3Department of Microbiology, Regional Research Institute for Unani Medicine, Royapuram, Chennai-
600013, Tamil Nadu, India
* Corresponding Author
Email: drdjayasree@gmail.com
Rece ived: 06 March 2015 Revised : 14 March 2 0 1 5 Accept ed: 16 Ma rch 2015
INTRODUCTION
India is an ancient traditional multifariousness
country. Ayurveda and siddha are Indian
medical sciences, originating over 5000 years
ago. Ayurveda and Siddha are well integrated
Original Research Article
ABSTRACT
The present study designed to screen antibacterial activity of ethanolic extract of Butea monosperma
pod. The ethanolic extract was tested for antibacterial activity against Enterobacter aerogens,
Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia, Salmonella typhimurium,
Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Proteus vulgaris bacteriae using agar well diffusion
method. The ethanolic extract of B. monosperma pod exhibited prominent inhibitory effect against
Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Peudomonas aeruginosas and Salmonella typhimurium. The extract
was active in higher concentration against Enterobacter aerogens, Klebsiella pneumonia, Proteus
vulgaris and Staphylococcus aureus.
Keyword: Butea monosperma; Butea frondosa; Erythrina monosperma; Palash; Raktapuspaka;
antibacterial activity
Jayasree et al 2
J Pharm C hem Biol S c i , March-May 2 0 15 ; 3 ( 1 ):01-05
into the Indian health care system since ancient
times. According to world health organization,
80% of the populations in the world depend on
traditional medical practitioners for their
medicinal needs [1]. Particularly in rural India,
uses of raw plant products as well as some
concoction of plant products in Ayurvedic
medicines are sought after to a great
proportion, because of cheap availability and
less adverse effects, and in urban areas too
those are increasingly popular for cultural
nuances that exist. During the last two decades,
the development of drug resistance as well as
the appearance of undesirable side effects of
certain antibiotics has leads to the search of
new antimicrobial agents mainly among plant
extracts.
In ethno-botanical literature of India, several
hundreds of plants are known to have the
potential to treat many diseases and one of
those popular ones is Butea monosperma
(Lam.) Kuntz. syn. Butea frondosa Roxb. ex
Willd., Erythrina monosperma Lam. [2]. The tree
is called as Raktapuspaka in Sanskrit; Purasu,
Paras in Tamil and popular as Palash in Bengali
and Punjabi. This tree is also called ‘Flame of
the Forest’ and Bastard Peak in English [3]. It is
a medium sized tree with 20-40 feet height
belonging to the family Fabeacae [4]. It is found
in mountain region of India, Burma and few
Asian countries. This plant is extensively used in
India to treat various diseases. The flowers are
used in the treatment of hepatic disorders, viral
hepatitis, diarrhea [5], anti-inflammatory [6],
anticonvulsive agent [7] and tonic. The roots
are useful in treatment of night blindness [8],
piles, ulcers [9], tumor and antispermatic
activity [10]. The gum is powerful astringent.
The stem bark possesses antifungal [9] activity
and dermal wound healing activity [11].
Phytochemical investigation showed the
presence of jalaric esterI, jalaric ester II,
laccijalaric ester I, laccijalaric ester II [12],
palasonin, monospermoside, somono-
spermoside, allophonic acid [13] from seed.
Hydroethanolic extract of seeds are used as
antihyperglycemic and antioxidant [14]. The
anticancer activity [15] and antibacterial activity
[16] of ethanolic extract of leaves of Butea
monosperma has recently reported. In present
paper we are reporting antibacterial activity of
ethanolic extract of Butea monosperma pod.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Plant Material
The fruits of B. monosperma were handpicked
from Mettur Dam, Salem, Tamil Nadu, INDIA.
The fruit was identified by Dr. Padma Sorna
Subramanian, Research Officer (Botany), Siddha
Medicinal Plants Garden (CCRS), Mettur Dam,
Salem. Pod of the plant were cleaned with
distilled water, dried and crushed in mixer
grinder and the grinding was performed in a
hygienic condition.
Extract Preparation
The coarsely powdered pod was soaked in
methanol in a conical flask and left for 24 hours.
The extract was taken out and filtered using
sterile filter paper and concentrated using
water bath.
Working solution
Working concentration of 250, 125, 62.5,
31.25, 15.625 mg/ml were prepared by
dissolving respective amount of extract in one
ml of DMSO in separate test tubes.
Test Organisms
Organisms such as B. subtilis (MTCC 441), E.
aerogens (NCIM 5139), E. coli (ATCC 25922), K.
pneumonia (NCIM 2957), P. vulgaris (NCIM
2857), P. aeruginosa (NCIM 2945), S.
typhimurium (NCIM 2501) and S. aureus (NCIM
5021) were used for the study. The ATCC
culture was procured from Christian Medical
College; MTCC culture from Institute of
Microbial Technology, Chandigarh and NCIM
cultures from National Chemical Laboratory,
Pune and were maintained by serial sub-
Jayasree et al 3
J Pharm C hem Biol S c i , March-May 2 0 15 ; 3 ( 1 ):01-05
culturing every month on nutrient agar slants
and incubating at 37°C for 1824 hours. The
cultures were stored under refrigerated
condition [17].
Antimicrobial activity
The ability of the extracts to inhibit growth of
bacteria was determined using the agar disc
diffusion method [18, 19, 20]. The extract was
tested for antimicrobial activity in five different
dilutions against the selected test organisms.
Extract was compared with standard drug
ampicillin (10 µg disc). Muller Hinton agar was
used. 50 μl of extracts of 250, 125, 62.5, 31.25,
15.625 mg/ml concentrations and 10 μg
standard disc were transferred into 6 mm well
and all were labeled. The test solutions were
allowed to diffuse in wells for 2 h at room
temperature. The petri plates were incubated
for 24 h at 37C temperature. The stringent
aseptic conditions were maintained during
microbial culture.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
Ethanol extract of pod tested for antimicrobial
effect against the test organisms E. aerogens, E.
coli, P.aeruginosa, K. pneumonia, S.
typhimurium, S. aureus, B. subtilis, P. vulgaris.
According to the results, the extract was found
to be active against all pathogenic bacteria.
Table 1 summarizes the microbial growth
inhibition of ethanol extract of pod comparing
with standard drug ampicillin.
Table 1: Antibacterial activity of ethanolic extract of B. monosperma pod
The strongest antibacterial activity was seen
against B. subtilis followed by S. typhimurium,
P. aeruginosa and E. coli. MIC for P. aeruginosa
was observed with 31.25 mg/ml concentration
and no activity was found in the lower
concentrations. MIC for P. vulgaris, K.
pneumonia and S. aureus was observed with
125 mg/ml concentration and no activity was
found in the lower concentrations. The
inhibition of growth of E. aerogens was
observed with 250 mg/ml concentration only
and no activity was found in the lower
concentrations. Standard drug ampicillin was
found not sensitive for E. aerogens, E. coli, K.
pneumonia but extract was observed
antibacterial effect in these organisms. E. coli is
a gram negative bacteria causing diarrheal and
urinary tract infections. S. typhimurium is a
gram-negative bacteria predominantly found in
the intestinal lumen, causes gastroenteritis in
humans. B. subtilis is a gram-positive bacterium,
found in soil, the gastrointestinal tract of
human beings, causing gastrointestinal and
urinary tract diseases.
S.No
Organism
Zone diameter in mm
250
mg/ml
125
mg/ml
62.5
mg/ml
31.25
mg/ml
15.625
mg/ml
1
B. subtilis
28
26
20
19
13
2
E. coli
15
13
12
11
11
3
E. aerogens
12
-
-
-
-
4
K. pneumonia
24
18
-
-
-
5
P. vulgaris
23
19
-
-
6
P. aeruginosa
18
16
13
9
-
7
S. typhimurium
22
19
17
15
12
8
S. aureus
19
12
-
-
-
Jayasree et al 4
J Pharm C hem Biol S c i , March-May 2 0 15 ; 3 ( 1 ):01-05
CONCLUSION
The results showed that the ethanolic extract of
pod of plant possess antibacterial action against
especially B. subtilis, S. typhimurium, E. coli and
P. aeruginosa showing the use of B.
monosperma pod extract in the therapy of
gastroenteritis, urinary tract infections and
diarrhoea.
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Cite this article as:
Jayasree D, Shakila R, Meeradevi Sri P. Evaluation of antibacterial activity of ethanolic
extract of Butea monosperma (Lam.) Kuntz pod. J Pharm Chem Biol Sci 2015; 3(1): 01-05
... The methanolic extract of leaf of B. monosperma at the dose level of 400 mg/kg body weight exhibit significant (P < 0.05) anti-inflammatory activity against carragenan induced paw edema in rats [38] The ethanolic extract of B. monosperma exhibits antibacterial action against B. subtilis, S. typhimurium, S. aureus, P. vulgaris. and E. coli [39] Kachnal ...
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