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Al-Bīrūnī’s India, Chapter 14: An Account of Indian Astronomical, Mathematical and Other Literature

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Abstract

This article provides an updated English translation of Chapter 14 of al-Bīrūnī's Kitāb taḥqīq mā li-l-Hind, in which he lists and describes numerous Sanskrit works related to astronomy, astrology and mathematics, and a few books belonging to other genres. Chapter 14 of Kitāb taḥqīq mā li-l-Hind highlights several types of literature accessed by al-Bīrūnī in the north-west of the Subcontinent in the early eleventh century CE. Whenever possible the English translation is supplemented with annotations on the works mentioned by al-Bīrūnī, and the Appendix offers a comparison of the table of contents of the Brāhmasphutasiddhānta as reported by al-Bīrūnī (in Arabic) and that given in the edition by Dvivedin of the Sanskrit text.
     
A journal for the history of all forms of scientic thought and action, ancient and modern, in all regions of South Asia
      
    

    
Kyoto University and Kyoto Sangyo University
               
      History of Science in South Asia   
 
    
HISTORY OF SCIENCE IN SOUTH ASIA
                 
       
 
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      
      
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            
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     
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     
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     
 
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     
    
   
  
   

              
           
              
     
         
   
      

     
     
        
 

      
    

    
Kyoto University and Kyoto Sangyo University

      Taḥqīq     
          
             
                 
            
            
           
          
            
             
           
            
             
     
       Taḥqīq     
           
          
      
   Taḥqīq    Taḥqīq
      
      Taḥqīq

 
        
    
             
          
              
             
           
         
           Brāhmasphuṭa-
siddhānta      Brāhmasiddhānta  
            
               
     Karaṇatilaka    
         
            
           
            
      Census of Exact Sciences in Sanskrit 
             
        Pauliśasiddhānta  
         
             
        
            
Taḥqīq               
             Brāh-
masiddhānta            
           Brāhmasphuṭasiddhānta

          Jyotiḥśāstra  
        
     
         
 
             
             
       
              
              
         
               
  
             
             
  
                 
            
             
         
             
             
            
           
            
      
Taḥqīq    
      
     
    
   Carakasaṃhitā 
 Pañcatantra   Carakasaṃhitā  
Taḥqīq       
       
      
      
      
       
   Taḥqīq    
      
        
   al-hind YJêË@  
       al-hindī
ø
YJêË@    
     
      
        
Taḥqīq    
QîE
.Taḥqīq
   
QîE
     
     
       
       
        
        
     
       
       
      
      
     
       
     
   
        
    
              
           Sūryasiddhānta   
     Vasiṣṭhasiddhānta       
       Pulisasiddhānta 
              
       Romakasiddhānta  
      Brāhmasiddhānta  
             
            yojanas
                
  
        Pañcasiddhāntikā
              
                 
             
           
  𝜁   Bṛhat-
saṃhitā 
      
         
    
 Pañcasiddhāntikā  
      

      sayntra
Q
J
     
      
       
  
      
       
        
     
   Ṣat  Ṣatpañcaśika  
 Khatt      
   
     Brahmasiddhānta
    
Brāhmasphuṭasiddhānta   
   
  Brahmasiddhānta   
  Jyotiṣasiddhāntasaṃgraha
      
       
     
      Brahma-
siddhānta      
   Brāhmasphuṭasiddhānta
  èP@ñÊî
E@   
    
   
    
      
     
      
     
     

     

       
      
       
    
      
Pañcasiddhāntikā    
      
       
       
     
        
     
               
             
             
              
               
              
           Brāhmasiddhānta  
     
             
               
        ğuyūb  
     
             
           
             
  
        hilāl      
    
    
      
         
       
              
    
          
    uttara    
        
       
  indu    
     Somasiddhānta
     Jyotiṣasiddhānta-
saṃgraha    
        
        
    
     
        
  Golādhyāya  
      
     

   uttara   
       
     Khaṇḍakhādyaka 
       
        
    
      
           hilāl   
  kuṭṭaka        
           al-ǧabr
wa-l-muqābala        
     
           
     
              nakṣa-
tra
           
             
Dhyānagrahādhyāya        kra 
              
           
             
          
        siddhānta     tantra
 karaṇa   tantra            
       karaṇa    
 siddhānta      ācārya     
          tantra
   al-ǧabr wa-l-muqābala
    
    
      
    
        

     

    
 
     éJ
¯ h
.Qm'
ø
Y
Ë@
Taḥqīq     Taḥqīq  
      éJÓ h
.Qm'
ø
Y
Ë@
    Taḥqīq
   
     
dhyāna
  Dhyānagrahopadeśādhyāya 
    
      
     
       
Khaṇḍakhādyaka    
     
       
    ʿāmilūna
àñÊÓ 
     
      
      
        
      
     
      
     
   Taḥqīq   
        
     
     Rasāyana tantra  rasāyana    
    karaṇa      rasāyana   
Khaṇḍakhādyaka            
            
    Dadhisāgara        
    Kūrababaya       
 Lavaṇamuṣṭi        
             
            
       Uttarakhaṇḍakhādyaka   
              
         Khaṇḍakhādyakatappā 
          Uttarakhaṇḍakhādyaka  
          
            Karaṇatilaka 
Ġurra al-tawābiʿ          
     
     
   
     
  Kitāb Pātanǧal     
      
     
    
       
   Karaṇapratilaka  
   
   Taḥqīq   rasā-
yana
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AP       
     Kitāb Pātañ-
jal       
      
      
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Taḥqīq         
      
   śramaṇa
    
IAÖÏ@   
    kūra-babaya 
     kūraparvata
kūra   parvata  
      par-
vata      
        vihāra
 bihār PAîE
.  
Taḥqīq       
      
       A
K 
 AK
       
      
    
  
       
        
  
    Ġurra al-tawābiʿ
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«    
       
      
 Karaṇatilaka   tawābiʿ 
 tāʿiba     
    
karaṇa     
       
    Karaṇatilaka 
     
       
     
HAm.'
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« 
      
 
       
        
    
      Karaṇasāra      
 karaṇa      Karaṇapratilaka  
             
       Rāhunrākaraṇa 
  tawābiʿ   Karaṇapāta    tawābiʿ
    Karaṇacūḍāmaṇi       
           Mānasa  
           Mānasa
         Daśagītikā 
   Āryāṣṭaśata Lokānanda        
             
   
      aḥkām al-nuğūm    
        
        BṛhatSaṃhitā
            
            
      Karaṇasāra  
   
       
      
      
  Karaṇaparatilaka   
        
      
     
 
    Rā.h.t(?).ra karaṇa
Ārdharātrikakaraṇa
      
Karaṇaghāta    karaṇa  

      tawābiʿ  
        
     
     sāṃkhyanāśaka 
     
     
  
   Bṛhanmānasa   
    
    
      
    Éj
JK
  

 Daśagītikā      Ārya-
bhaṭīya       
      Ārya-
bhaṭīya      
 Āryāṣṭaśata       
     
 Daśagītikā   Āryāṣṭaśata   
 
       
    
      
    māndabba
H
.YKAÓ
       

       Gārgyajyotiṣa
       
      
      
       
   
       

 yātrā    

        
     
        zaǧr
             
            
   Saṃhitā        
         Jātaka 
           
             

           Sārāvalī    
   Pazīdaǧ       
           
            
          
Ṣaṭpañcasikā        Horāpañcahatarā  
         Yogayātrā  
Tikanikayātrā       Vivāhapaṭala 
      zaǧr,      
        
     
       
Muqaddima     
     
        
        
 
     praśna  
       
     
   puruṣalakṣaṇa 
 
   svapna    
      
     svapna  
 Atharvavedapariśiṣṭa
     
śākuna    
      
   
 zaǧr Qk
.
P     
        
zaǧara      

      
   Bṛhajjātaka  
 
       
       
    Bṛhajjātaka  

       
   Sūryasiddhānta
 Laghujātaka  Bṛhajjātaka 
      Taḥqīq  
     
 Laghujātaka    Taḥqīq
   Taḥqīq    

   Sālāvalī   
  
   h
.YK
Q.Ë@
    Yavanajātaka   
   
      
 Ṣaṭpañcasikā      
        
   
  Yogayātrā  Tikanikayātrā 
     
     
Bṛhadyātrā
   Vivāhapaṭala 
      
   
        
    
   Surūdava           
           
           Cūḍāmaṇi  
             śramaṇa
       Praśna Cūrāmaṇi     
          
          
      

               
              
             
         ṛṣi      
              
             
ṛṣi  ṛṣi           
    devas         
           
            
             
  Pañcatantra         Kalīla wa-Dimna 
            
            
              
            
    S.rū.dh.w (Sūtradhāra?)
 Taḥqīq    
KTaḥqīq
   
HC
K
       
         
     
       
     Praśnacūrāmaṇi
Āryasaptati     Praśnajñāna
Bhuvanadīpikā Jñānamālā   
      
    
        
      
        
     
        
        
      
     
     
     
     
   
   Khaṇḍakhādyaka  
    
       
   
      úGñ
@
       
  
      Caraksas-
aṃhitā 
       
       
        
     
              
              
          
      
 Pañcatantra    
      
      
     Kalīla wa-
Dimna      
     
     
    Kalīla wa-Dimna
      
 Pañcatantra    
       
      
     
 
        
    
    BRĀHMASPHUṬASIDDHĀNTA
 Taḥqīq  
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             
   
     Taḥqīq         
            
             
        Taḥqīq   
      
            
        Brāhmasiddhānta   
    
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            
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             
            
           
           
           
        
 Taḥqīq     
  
 Taḥqīq     
  
       
    
        
        
    
           
            
   Brāhmasphuṭasiddhānta        
             
           
           
            
         
Taḥqīq           
gola 
è
     
Taḥqīq           
Taḥqīq               
         
 
Taḥqīq        
Taḥqīq       
ð      
          nakṣatra
          
     kawākib I
.»@ñ»    
Taḥqīq          
   I
.
      
HAm.'
P
          adhyāya
   adhikāra       

Taḥqīq       kṣetragaṇita    
     
HAgAÖÏ@
Taḥqīq    uttara   
J
®m
'    
           
        
             
Taḥqīq   
Taḥqīq         
J
®m
' 
            
    
Taḥqīq              
           
            
      
         
        
   
        
     
         
         
éÊK.A
®ÖÏ@ð Q.m.Ì'@
       
          
      
Taḥqīq           chandas  
          
 chandas      Taḥqīq
Taḥqīq   Q
K@ðX       
  
HB@  
Taḥqīq             
    
ú
Í
PA    nakṣatra    
       Al-āṯār al-bāqiya  Tafhīm
  Taḥqīq
Taḥqīq               Saṃjñā-
dhyāya           
             
 Brāhmasphuṭasiddhānta         
    
 Taḥqīq       
  
       
   
 Taḥqīq       
  
        
    

Brahmasiddhānta      Brahmasiddhānta  Jyautiṣa-
siddhāntasaṃgrahaḥ tatra Pitāmahasiddhāntaḥ, Vṛddhavasiṣṭha-
siddhāntaś ca      
     http://n2t . net/ark :/ 13960 /
t6353t221      
     Brāhmasphuṭasiddhānto Dhyāna-
grahopadeśādhyāyaś ca, GaṇakacakracūḍāmaṇiSrīBrahmagupta-
viracitaḥ = Brāhmasphuṭasiddhānta and Dhyānagrahopadeśā-
dhyāya by Brahmagupta       
    http://n2t.net/ark:/13960/
t9f50913n
     A Census of the Exact Sciences in San-
skrit      
http://n2t.net/ark:/13960/t4dp0cq1z    
Taḥqīq      Albêrûni’s India: An Account of the Religion,
Philosophy, Literature, Geography, Chronology, Astronomy, Cus-
toms, Laws and Astrology of India about A.D. 1030. Edited in the
Arabic Original     https://gallica
.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k8538742
Taḥqīq         Kitāb
al-Bīrūnī fī taḥqīq mā li-l-Hind min maqūla maqbūla fī l-ʿaql aw
marḏūla = Kitāb fī Taḥqīq-ī-Mā li’l-Hind or Al-Bīrūnī’s India
(Arabic Text) … Revised by the Bureau from the Oldest Extant
MS. in the Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris [Schefer 680] 
     
    
http://n2t.net/ark:/13960/t5w66sf79    

     Maharṣiṇā Punarvasunopadiṣṭā, Tacchiṣyeṇāgniveśena
Praṇītā, Carakadṛḍhabalābhyāṃ Pratisaṃskṛtā Carakasaṃhitā, Śrīcakrapāṇi-
dattaviracitayā Āyurvedadīpikāvyākhyayā Saṃvalitā   
   http://n2t.net/ark:/13960/t48q2f20n   

        
     
    Ghurrat al-Zijat or Karana Tilaka. A Handbook of Astronomy
by Bijayanand of Benares. Translated from the Original into Arabic with an Expos-
ition of the underlying Principles by Abu Raihān Muhammad b. Ahman al-Beruni
   
    The Geographical Dictionary of Ancient and Early Me-
dieval India     
      Mélanges de
l’institut dominicain d’études orientales du Caire  
       Ḥudūd al-ʿālam, The Regions of the World.
A Persian Geography. 372 A.H. (982 A.D.). Translated and explained by V. Minor-
sky      
    Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition
             
     10.1163/1573-3912_islam_ COM
_0427    
       Kitāb al-Bīrūnī fī taḥqīq
mā li-l-Hind min maqūla maqbūla fī l-ʿaql aw marḏūla = Kitāb fī Taḥqīq-ī-Mā li’l-
Hind or Al-Bīrūnī’s India (Arabic Text) … Revised by the Bureau from the Oldest
Extant MS. in the Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris [Schefer 680]  
       
   http://n2t.net/ark:/13960/t5w66sf79 
  
    The Geographical Dictionary of Ancient and Mediaeval India 
          http://n2t
.net/ark:/13960/t6c28s09f
    Bṛhatsaṃhitā Śrī 6 Varāhamihirapraṇītāṃ. Śrī Bhaṭṭot-
palakṛtavivṛtisahitā         
 http://n2t.net/ark:/13960/t6xw9sc33      
http://n2t.net/ark:/13960/t9m382x4s
  Brāhmasphuṭasiddhānto Dhyānagrahopadeśādhyāyaś ca,
GaṇakacakracūḍāmaṇiSrīBrahmaguptaviracitaḥ = Brāhmasphuṭasiddhānta and
Dhyānagrahopadeśādhyāya by Brahmagupta      
     http://n2t.net/ark:/13960/t9f50913n
     Brahmasiddhānta  Jyautiṣasiddhāntasaṃgrahaḥ tatra
Pitāmahasiddhāntaḥ, Vṛddhavasiṣṭhasiddhāntaś ca    
       http :// n2t . net / ark :/ 13960 /
t6353t221      
        
    
      Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition 
            
     10.1163/1573-3912_islam_ SIM
_3304    
              
  History of Science in South Asia    10.18732/
h2nd44
         
   
        
         
Indian Journal of History of Science       
   
          Transactions of
the American Philosophical Society    10.2307/1005726
            Dictionary of
Scientic Biography       
    An Arabic-English Lexicon     
   http:// n2t.net/ark:/ 13960 /t60585z2s   

        Yoga: India’s Philosophy of Medita-
tion        
  http://n2t.net/ark:/13960/t6f27jv0n   

         Kitāb Pātaǧal   Pātañjala-
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formation: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives   
           10.14220/
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    A History of Indian Medical Literature  
    
       The Pañcasiddhāntikā of Varāhamihira
        
  https://archive.org/details/pancasiddhantika1
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        
     
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   http://n2t.net/ark:/13960/t4dp0cq1z
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 Jyotiḥśāstra: Astral and Mathematical Literature    
    http://n2t.net / ark :/ 13960 /
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     The Yavanajataka of Sphujidhvaja  
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     Al-āṯār al-bāqiya ʿan il-qurūn al-ḫāliya. Taʾlīf Abī
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 The Chronology of Ancient Nations. An English Version of the Arabic text
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 Albêrûni’s India: An Account of the Religion, Philosophy, Literature, Geo-
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 Alberuni’s India: An Account of the Religion, Philosophy, Literature, Geo-
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   ŚrīmadBrahmaguptakṛtaṃ Khaṇḍakhādyakaṃ Karaṇam = The
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        
    
    A Critical Study of the Laghumānasa of Mañjula  
          
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         
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           
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   Al-Bīrūnī’s Kitāb Sānk and Kitāb Pātanğal: A Historical and Tex-
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    The Indian System of Human Marks     
  10.1163/9789004299825
        
            
                 
      
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Article
It is demonstrated in this paper that Pṛthūdakasvāmin in the 860s, Utpala in the 960s, and al-Bīrūnī in the 1030s all used a now lost commentary on Brahmagupta's Brāhmasphuṭasiddhānta that was composed by Balabhadra in the eighth century, probably at Kānyakubja under Yaśovarman. Balabhadra's commentary was important for two reasons: its attention to physical arguments in support of astronomical theory, and its citations from the lost siddhāntas of Lāṭadeva and Viṣṇucandra as well as from Āryabhaṭa's Āryabhaṭīya and Varāhamihira's Pañcasiddhāntikā. It is further shown that al-Bīrūnī has distorted Balabhadra's physical arguments by interpreting them according to Peripatetic notions. The surviving verses quoted from Balabhadra's commentary by Utpala and by Pṛthūdaka are edited in the footnotes.
Ghurrat al-Zijat or Karana Tilaka. A Handbook of Astronomy by Bijayanand of Benares. Translated from the Original into Arabic with an Exposition of the underlying Principles by
  • N A Baloch
Baloch, N. A. (1973), Ghurrat al-Zijat or Karana Tilaka. A Handbook of Astronomy by Bijayanand of Benares. Translated from the Original into Arabic with an Exposition of the underlying Principles by Abu Raihān Muhammad b. Ahman al-Beruni (University of Sind: Sind).
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