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Teacher's perception towards their role in Course Level Project-Based Learning environment

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Teacher's perception towards their role in Course Level Project-Based Learning environment

Journal of Engineering Education Transformations, Special Issue No. 1, November 2019, Volume No.33, eISSN 2394-1707
91
Teacher’s perception towards their role in Course Level
Project-Based Learning environment
Bhaveshkumar N. Pasi1, Vikas V. Shinde2, Mayuri R. Chavan3
1Mechanical Engineering Department, Vishwaniketan’s iMEET, Khalapur 410 202, India. (Corresponding Author)*
2Project Based Learning Centre of Excellence, Vishwaniketan’s iMEET, Khalapur 410 202, India.
3Cold Chain Logistics Department, Stellar Value Chain Solutions, Mumbai, India.
1bnpasi@vishwaniketan.edu.in
2vvshinde@vishwaniketan.edu.in
3mayuri.chavan@stellarvaluechain.com
Abstract: This research article focuses on survey of teachers
of Vishwaniketan Institute of Management,
Entrepreneurship and Engineering Technology (ViMEET),
affiliated to Mumbai University, India who are
implementing Course Level Project-Based Learning
(CLPBL). ViMEET has to follow the curriculum given by
Mumbai University, India. To make students industry ready
with more practical knowledge, management of ViMEET
introduces CLPBL in every semester for specific subjects
along with the curriculum defined by Mumbai University,
India. As there is no scope of CLPBL in Mumbai University
curriculum therefore teachers of ViMEET have to deliver
different roles while curriculum delivery along with CLPBL
implementation. Therefore, this survey was carried out to
understand teacher’s role clearly while implementing
CLPBL to make CLPBL successful. In the present survey,
quantitative research design method was used to understand
teacher’s role in CLPBL. The survey was conducted to find
out what teachers know about their role while implementing
CLPBL and how they are implementing PBL at course level
in Vishwaniketan iMEET, India. A total of 16 teachers of
Vishwaniketan iMEET, India have implemented CLPBL in
the even semester of academic year 2018-19 and participated
in question based survey. Quantitative data were collected
by sending emails to the teachers. About 54% participants
agreed that CLPBL supervisor should have leadership skill.
45% participants believes that CLPBL implementer should
have passion to do mentorship, whereas 50% participants felt
that CLPBL implementer should use different approach to
deal with students of different skill set. 48% of participants
believes that the purpose of CLPBL was to make students
compulsory to do any project. Frequency analysis of
participant responses shows that teachers are not aware
about their roles in CLPBL. Almost half of the participants
in present study stated that the main motive of CLPBL was
to make students compulsory to do any project, which does
not match with the definition of PBL. Also, respondents
agreed that more training is required to teachers to
understand their roles clearly while implementing CLPBL.
Keywords: Project-based Learning (PBL), Course Level
Project-based Learning (CLPBL), Leadership, Technical
Skill.
1. Introduction
Since many years, teaching methodology of
engineering courses is same. The lecture-based approach is
adopted to control the learning practices (Akao, 2012). Now-
a-days, engineering students should have questioning and
critical thinking skills to solve complex practical problems
(Alves et al., 2016). Also, engineering students should have
good communication skill as well as ability to work in team
(Bacarin et al., 2014). In recent years, industry requirements
from engineering graduates have been changed. Industry
requires graduate engineers with practical knowledge.
Therefore, it is need of time to improve teaching-learning
process. Teaching-learning process can become more
effective by implementing CLPBL in curriculum (Baytiyeh
and Naja 2016).
Research and new trends in engineering education
clearly emphasize the importance of practical application of
theory, creativity and innovation as key skills required for
problem solving (Carpenter et al., 2016). The world has
changed rapidly in the last decade and major changes such
as globalization, technological advances, inter-
connectedness, and accessibility to information influence the
way current and future generations of students learn.
Educators are finding it challenging to fit in new material
into a full curriculum in a timely manner (Chau, 2015). For
a long time the focus in engineering education was mainly
on disciplinary knowledge only, but recently there has been
a significant shift in focus to include more design thinking
and professional practice elements, as highlighted by
professional industry bodies (Chau, 2014). Interaction with
industry professionals indicates that they require engineering
graduates to be able to think critically, analyse problems,
create innovative solutions and communicate effectively
(Chau et al., 2014). Therefore, it has been found that there is
a need of PBL in engineering courses.
PBL is a technique which motivates students to
study the concepts in detail which may or may not be given
in curriculum. PBL needs considerable understanding of
technical subjects, team work and determination on the part
of the students and CLPBL implementer (Cooper, 2013).
Implementer of CLPBL plays an important role in guiding
students from idea generation to project completion.
Journal of Engineering Education Transformations, Special Issue No. 1, November 2019, Volume No.33, eISSN 2394-1707
92
It has been found that in PBL teacher’s role changes
from instructor to project guide. Instructor transmits
information and organizes activities for practice. To
understand the learner’s interest is the need of PBL. The
teacher should act as a good listener when the learner is eager
during solving the issue and start asking the questions. PBL
implementer requires to enable the skill in the group of
learners for moving in single direction by choosing own
ideas of solutions without any hesitation. (Daun et al., 2016).
The teachers should have some liberality for obscurity. This
research article gives an overview about the different PBL
models used in Vishwaniketan Campus and expected role of
teachers in all PBL models.
1.1 PBL Models in Vishwaniketan Campus
Over and above the ‘University of Mumbai’
curriculum; Vishwaniketan employs Project-Based Learning
approach to transform students into design engineers,
industry-ready professionals and entrepreneurs for
successful career. Vishwaniketan uses four different PBL
models i.e. VA-PBL, CLPBL, i-PBL, UG Fellowship in their
campus (refer fig. 1). The major outcomes of this PBL
models being start-ups, scholarship for MS program and
international mentorship for the students.
Fig. 1: PBL Models in Vishwaniketan Campus
1.1.1 Course Level PBL (CLPBL)
Course Level PBL (CLPBL) models are
implemented at the course level and focuses on student’s
deeper content learning and skill development. Every
semester, each department practices CLPBL.
1.1.2 Value Addition PBL (VA-PBL)
Value Addition Project Based Learning (VA-PBL)
starts in the second semester, and focuses on students
technical skill development in which students are trained by
the industry on the future technologies of his/her choice.
Every semester students work on one project till sixth
semester. This way he learns five technologies and
completes five projects.
1.1.3 Industrial PBL (i-PBL)
Industrial Problem Based Learning (i-PBL), is
aligned to design new products as per the customer
requirements and technology useful for industry. In this
model, students work on industrial problems. Vishwaniketan
have four industrial labs sponsored by the industries in
automobile, wireless robotics, automation and product
design. Aim is to get acquainted with industrial, tools,
techniques and practices. Goal is to produce future products.
1.1.4 Undergraduate (UG) Fellowship
Vishwaniketan firmly believe that education has no
boundaries. The best possible global exposure and learning
through Vishwaniketan’s UG-Fellowship programme, helps
students to transform themselves into ideal global
professionals. Project Based International Research Summer
Internship gives students international exposure.
Vishwaniketan have networked with CTIF and 16
international universities, which offer fellowships in which
students work with university professors on research projects.
Typically, students spend six weeks in that university and
takes university support to complete the project.
1.2 PBL Teacher’s Qualities and Skills
By changing traditional “teacher and students”
model, PBL can be made effective and successful. In PBL
environment teachers have to possess different skills and
roles. Teachers must:
a. Be able to provide encouragement, empathy and
motivation.
b. Enable and accelerate brain storming, development and
involvement through group activities.
c. Generate classroom activities based on understanding of
students.
d. Should be innovative for performing experiments and
flexible to be available after working hours in case of
need.
PBL should include advancement is in traditional
teaching pattern and adaptable for opting learner’s choices
and views. Currently system encourages compliance and
demonstration-based learning and bell schedules. In a PBL
scenario the instructor’s orthodox role changes and it may
need some time to change. The instructor should act as a
guide or coach in the classroom (Du et al., 2013). The
instructor should not assume skilled problem solving attitude
from the students. To learn rational issue solving technique
is the main aim of PBL, students might need guidance and
assistance during this process (Dym et al., 2015). To create
and solve questionnaire along with the students, the
instructor can put a good teaching model in front of the
students. The teacher may change his/her involvement as per
improvement of the students in problem solving. However,
the teacher should be able to distinguish between guidance
and extra engagement (Edström and Kolmos, 2014). The
teacher should use multidirectional techniques of finding the
solution for a problem to enhance the good thinking skill of
the students. Also, if the teacher always give complete
solution for the problem then students will not take
ownership for finding out the solution (Fernandes et al.,
2012). The teacher should develop the skill of observing the
things and ask questions for it in various manner.
Journal of Engineering Education Transformations, Special Issue No. 1, November 2019, Volume No.33, eISSN 2394-1707
93
1.3 Factors Affecting PBL Implementation
1.3.1 Factor 1: Organizational
In order to implement PBL successfully the
engineering institute’s internal dynamics should be flexible
and agile. Otherwise, implementation of PBL is almost
impossible or risky.
1.3.2 Factor 2: Quality of Teachers
Engineering institutes are facing problems because
existing faculties are not accepting PBL willingly. Faculties
feel insecure about their jobs and responsibilities. This
barrier could be outshined if the management educates their
faculties for PBL. It has been found that PBL requires
students to work in a group therefore number of teachers
working in an institute also matters. Otherwise, teachers
need to guide multiple projects. From fig. 2 it has been found
that successful implementation of PBL in engineering
education depends upon two factors i.e. organizational and
man power. Therefore, this research article is devoted to
understand the different roles of teachers in PBL.
Fig.2: Factors Affecting PBL Implementation
(Source: Authors own research)
2. Methodology and Methods
Fig. 3 shows the research methodology flow
diagram for research work. The literature review is
completed by searching some keywords along with their
combinations such as Challenges and difficulties in PBL;
Project Based Learning in Engineering; Course Level
Project Based Learning in Engineering; Role of Supervisor
in PBL; PBL Implementation; Role of Supervisor in PBL
and Challenges. For searching these Scopus, keywords and
Google Scholar were explored.
Fig. 3: Research Methodology Flow Diagram
The articles related to these keywords were
examined. In addition to this, collected articles are evaluated
using some criteria, given as - (i) the articles written in
English only were considered; (ii) the articles belong to peer-
reviewed publications and published reports were only
considered; (iii) the articles published in between year 2012
to 2019. In this way, the literature review was performed in
this research.
From literature survey it has been found that
teachers should possess various qualities (such as leadership
skill, time management skill, creative thinking skill, and
must be passionate to do mentorship) while implementing
PBL. Also, teachers must use different approach to deal with
students of different skill set and must have capability to
experiment with different ideas. Fig. 4 shows different roles
of teachers in PBL.
Fig. 4: Role of Teachers in PBL
2.1 Questionnaire based Survey
Questionnaire based survey among
Vishwaniketan’s iMEET (ViMEET) faculties are carried out
to understand their experiences during PBL implementation.
The questionnaire was sent to 16 faculties of ViMEET by an
e-mail and received response of all participants i.e. response
rate was 100%. In this research article, questionnaires were
prepared for CLPBL model with the aim to understand
faculty’s perception towards their role in CLPBL.
Assessment of questionnaire were carried out on 5 point
scale. Questions are as follows:
a. CLPBL implementer should have “leadership” skill.
(code: Q1)
b. CLPBL implementer should be “passionate” to do
mentorship. (code: Q2)
c. CLPBL implementer should “use different approach to
deal with students of different skill set”? (code: Q3)
d. CLPBL implementer make students compulsory “to do
any project”? (code: Q4)
e. CLPBL implementer should have “time management”
skill? (code: Q5)
f. CLPBL implementer should be “free to experiment”?
(code: Q6)
g. CLPBL implementer should “provide empathy and
inspiration to students”? (code: Q7)
h. CLPBL implementer should have “creative thinking”
skill? (code: Q8)
Journal of Engineering Education Transformations, Special Issue No. 1, November 2019, Volume No.33, eISSN 2394-1707
94
3. Results and Discussions
From fig. 5, it has been found that about 54%
participants agreed that CLPBL supervisor should have
leadership skill. 45% participants believes that CLPBL
implementer should have passion to do mentorship, whereas
50% participants felt that CLPBL implementer should use
different approach to deal with students of different skill set.
48% of participants believes that CLPBL implementer
should make students compulsory to do any project. 75%
participants agreed that CLPBL implementer should have
time management skill. 87.5% participants believes that
CLPBL implementer should be free to do experimentation
with innovative ideas, whereas 56.25% participants felt that
CLPBL implementer should provide empathy and
inspiration to students. 50% participants agreed that CLPBL
implementer should have creative thinking skill.
It is observed that teachers are not aware of their
roles while implementing PBL. If teachers are not aware of
their role then effective and useful outcome of PBL cannot
be achieved. To implement PBL effectively faculties must
attend PBL trainings. PBL training is conducted in three
different levels. Level one of PBL training deals with why
PBL is important? How teachers can implement PBL? Level
two deals with teacher’s role in PBL and research in PBL.
Level three deals with the outcome of PBL.
Fig. 5: Questionnaire based survey results
4. Conclusions
It is concluded that PBL teachers must have higher
level skills such as leadership skills, ability to think
differently, time management skills, and passion towards
attaining goal.
From the survey it is observed that majority
teachers are unaware about their roles in CLPBL. Almost
50% participants in the present study indicated that the main
purpose of CLPBL was to make students compulsory to do
any project, which is contradicting with the definition of
PBL. It is concluded that more training is required to
teachers to understand their roles clearly while implementing
CLPBL. In future work this research work can be extended
to evaluate sustainability of PBL models.
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Low cost rain gauge: product and process development final report
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