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MMR Vaccine Appears to Confer Strong Protection from COVID-19: Few Deaths from SARS-CoV-2 in Highly Vaccinated Populations

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Abstract

Published epidemiological data suggests a correlation between patients who receive measles-rubella containing vaccines such as the commonly available MMR vaccine, and reduced COVID-19 death rate. Similar observations were recently noted in a Cambridge Study by Young et al, who noted protein homology between the COVID-19 virus and the rubella virus, corroborating the evidence in this report. The epidemiologic associations suggest that a measles-rubella containing vaccine, as currently produced, may be protective against severe disease and death from COVID-19 exposure.
Posted 29 March 2020. Last Updated 10 May 2020. v7.3
MMR Vaccine Appears to Confer Strong Protection from COVID-19:
Few Deaths from SARS-CoV-2 in Highly Vaccinated Populations
Rubella component of MMR vaccine may prevent death or severe disease from COVID-19
Principal Investigator: Jeffrey E. Gold1, President, World Organization (inset); Co-Investigator: Larry P. Tilley2, Diplomate, ACVIM;
Co-Investigator: William H. Baumgartl3, MD, MSME; Correspondence: mmr@world.org Text/Call: 202-642-4445
Summary: Published epidemiological data suggests a correlation between patients who receive measles-
rubella containing vaccines such as the commonly available MMR vaccine, and reduced COVID-19 death
rate. Similar observations were recently noted in a Cambridge Study by Young et al, who noted protein
homology between the COVID-19 virus and the rubella virus, corroborating the evidence in this report. The
epidemiologic associations suggest that a measles-rubella containing vaccine, as currently produced, may
be protective against severe disease and death from COVID-19 exposure.
Introduction
COVID-19 infections have presented with a very unusual morbidity penetration, where patients younger than 50 show
little morbidity from the disease, with mortality dramatically increasing above age 50. This is a very different
presentation from other viral diseases, suggesting that some factor is protective in younger people, and missing in
older patients. It was our theory that different exposure to vaccines between younger and older people may account
for this different morbidity rate. Widely deployed measles-rubella containing vaccines (MRCV) including MMR, MR,
and MMRV are believed to be why children, teenagers and other young adults often have few symptoms from
COVID-19, and few deaths are attributed to COVID-19 in the young. Statistical data also demonstrates that MRCV
vaccination rates substantially correlate with the widely varying outcomes from country to country related to COVID-
19 mortality. Countries with recent, major MRCV vaccination programs have few if any deaths from COVID-19. [1]
Published Epidemiologic Data
Globally, COVID-19 has what appears to be a clearly defined fatality rate pivot point close to 50 years old. From birth
to age 49 the fatality rate from COVID-19 increases only slightly with each year of age. After age 50 the fatality rate
from COVID-19 climbs quickly and steadily. This is very different from most other diseases.
Case Fatality Rates by Age from: https://ourworldindata.org/coronavirus
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The MMR (measles, mumps, rubella) vaccine was introduced in 1971. It was most commonly given as a single
vaccination from 1971-1978 then as a set of two vaccinations at least 28 days apart starting in 1979. Based upon its
year of introduction, most people today aged 49 and under would likely have had at least one MMR vaccination, and
those 41 and under would most likely have had two MMR vaccinations. This vaccine history may be a possible
explanation for a COVID-19 death rate pivot point close to age 50. The fact that some aged 40-49 only received a
single MRCV dose is a possible reason why this age range has a marginally higher death rate than those under 40.
LEFT: Deaths per 100,000 population from John Hopkins (3 May 2020 at 11:53 PM EDT): https://coronavirus.jhu.edu/data/mortality
RIGHT: MMR Vaccine Coverage, 2002 (excerpted from BMJ chart): https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC261838/
In countries where vaccination "catch up" programs have been instituted in recent decades there appears to be the
lowest incidence of death from COVID-19, and in a few countries no deaths at all. In many of these countries, two
doses of MRCV were given to older teenagers, and in some cases also to young adults, in addition to children.
The potential lethality of COVID-19 is related, in part, to it easy and rapid transmissibility, leading to wide-spread
exposure. Early data suggested that each person would likely transmit the virus to two other people, leading to a
quick, logarithmic progression of the infection. Under the theory of herd immunity, having large portions of the
population with immunity, dramatically reduces the transmissibility of the disease. It is not necessary in any single
population to vaccinate 100% of individuals with MRCV to eliminate nearly all deaths from COVID-19. Instead, one
has to only provide enough coverage with MRCV so that the effective reproductive number (R) of the virus through
each patient is less than 1, which stops the logarithmic progression. A drop in the R value below 1 likely explains why
several populations including those of Madagascar, Hong Kong, and South Korea, which have all had aggressive
MRCV vaccination programs, have reported so few deaths from COVID-19.
Published data demonstrates the following associations:
Madagascar, a country with 26.26 million people, recently vaccinated 7.2 million of its citizens (over 27.4% of the total
population) with MRCV in 2019. This is in addition to any citizens who may have already been vaccinated. There
have been no deaths at all from COVID-19 in Madagascar as of May 4, 2020. [2]
Hong Kong in 1997 initiated a mass immunization campaign targeting infants through 19-year old adults. During
2019, Hong Kong instituted a free MMR vaccination program for all adult healthcare workers, airport staff and foreign
domestic helpers, and also made MMR vaccinations available to many other adults seeking them. Hong Kong
continued this program into 2020. Only four people have died from COVID-19 in all of Hong Kong despite its
proximity the epicenter of the pandemic, just 563 miles away in Wuhan, China. Hong Kong is the world’s fourth most
dense country in the world with a population nearly the size of New York City which recently had large scale protests,
with over 1 million people at some rallies, continuing well into 2020. Nonetheless, no new COVID-19 deaths have
been reported during the seven-week period ending 3 May 2020. [3] [4]
On the opposite end of the spectrum, Belgium is the country with the highest COVID-19 death rate in the world.
Belgium didn’t even offer MMR vaccinations until 1985, and it wasn’t until 1995 that it began giving the recommended
two doses of MMR vaccinations per person. Even though Belgium has a population just 54% larger than Hong Kong,
it has had a staggering 7,844 deaths from COVID-19, compared to Hong Kong’s four. [5] [6]
Several other countries which have reported zero or near zero deaths from COVID-19 have had aggressive MRCV
programs which include a large percent of the adult population: North Korea (many adults vaccinated through age
45), Turkmenistan (many adults vaccinated through age 40), Cook Islands (many adults vaccinated through age 35),
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Marshall Islands (many adults vaccinated through age 40), Solomon Islands (many adults vaccinated through age
29), and Tuvalu (many adults vaccinated through age 34).
South Korea had a huge outbreak of measles in 2000 - 2001 (55,707 reported cases) resulting in the government
going back and vaccinating its entire population at well above the typical child-only MRCV protocols in most other
countries. In addition to childhood immunizations, the South Korean military requires all new recruits to get two MMR
vaccinations. Since every male in the country is required to join the military between age 18 to 28, many men
received the MMR vaccine as many as three or four times, conferring maximum immunity. During measles outbreaks,
there have even been MMR vaccine shortages in South Korea as many in the adult population sought to get
immunized. South Korea is showing an unusually low incidence of death from COVID-19 as compared to other
countries with a similar timeline of initial infection. [7] [8] [9] [10] [11]
Many other countries which have MRCV programs reaching beyond young children are also seeing far fewer deaths
as well as much slower death doubling rates than most other countries from COVID-19. Such countries include:
Vietnam, Laos, Mongolia, Nepal, Maldives, Libya, Djibouti, Republic of Georgia, El Salvador, Uruguay, Nicaragua,
Guatemala, Belarus, Armenia, Oman, Somalia, Azerbaijan, Cambodia, Sri Lanka, Papua New Guinea, and
Micronesia. One small country in Asia, Bhutan, with zero COVID-19 deaths, has vaccinated nearly its entire
population of both children and adults with MRCV.
Another country on the opposite end of the spectrum, Italy had a large-scale measles outbreak in 2017 affecting over
4,000, caused by a much lower than typical MRCV rate in that country. The lack of sufficient MRCV is a possible
explanation why there has been a higher death rate in Italy from COVID-19 when compared to most other similarly
affected countries. The measles immunization rate in Italy in 2005 was just 85%, one of the lowest in Europe. [12]
[13] [14]
Analysis of data related to topics like MRCV are, of course, not always straightforward. For example, Iran is another
country that has been hard hit by COVID-19 deaths. Iran engaged in an aggressive MRCV strategy in 2003, which
one would normally expect to have had a protective effect as Iran vaccinated over 33 million of its citizens that year,
up through age 25. The reason that program likely did not protect the population substantially from COVID-19 is that
only one MRCV vaccination was given, while two at least 28 days apart are required for full effect. [15]
Further epidemiological evidence possibly supporting MRCV decreasing severity of COVID-19 cases can be obtained
from the U.S.S. Roosevelt. As of 30 April 2020, 1102 people on board the Roosevelt tested positive for COVID-19.
Although there was one crew member death early on, of 1102 current COVID-19 positive crew members only seven
have been hospitalized over the course of the outbreak, and no cases are currently in an ICU. [16] The data set
provided by the U.S.S. Roosevelt is unique because unlike the general population which typical receives only MMR
vaccinations as young children, the U.S. military gives all recruits new MMR vaccinations upon entry regardless of
prior vaccine history. This means nearly everyone on the U.S.S. Roosevelt most likely had updated MMR
vaccinations within the last several years. Most crew members of the U.S.S. Roosevelt likely fall into the 20-44 age
range which is known to have a typical COVID-19 hospitalization rate of 14.3-20.8%. Currently at only a 0.6%
hospitalization rate, the hospitalization rate for those on the U.S.S. Roosevelt appears to be around 20 times lower
than that for the general population of COVID-19 positive people in the same age range. [17] [18] [19]
Infants are presumed well protected from COVID-19 because their own mothers have mostly likely had two MRCV
vaccinations, thus passing along MRCV related passive immunity to them. Ordinarily, babies receive their first dose
of the measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine in the United States between 12-15 months of age. A second
dose of MMR is recommended between ages 4 and 6 before a child enters kindergarten or first grade.
The efficacy of MRCV has been shown to go down with age, leaving some of those who received the vaccines in
their youth more vulnerable as they age. Most people over age 60 never received any form of MRCV. [20]
Outside of countries where MRCV have been widely given to adults, some adults get additional MRCV as part of a
vaccine protocol when traveling to certain countries. Health care workers are sometimes offered additional access to
vaccination as well. [21]
Discussion
A possible mechanism for the protective effect of the rubella component of MRCV in relation to COVID-19 was
recently described by scientists at the University of Cambridge, corroborating from a biological perspective the same
conclusion reached herein by Principal Investigator from an epidemiological perspective. Further evidence supporting
the postulated relationship between MRCV and COVID-19 include: a live measles vaccine has previously been
considered in studies as a base for other Coronavirus vaccines including SARS; novel alphacoronaviruses and
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paramyxoviruses (the measles family) have been found to cocirculate; and MRCV have previously been shown to
generally increase immunity against many unrelated viruses. An excellent discussion was presented noting the
homology of amino acid sequences between the COVID virus, and the rubella virus, possibly explaining cross-over
reactivity of the vaccines. [22] [23] [24] [25]
The variety of epidemiologic associations clearly suggest a plausible indication that the MMR vaccine may
confer protection to the COVID-19 virus as well. Right now, it is a national priority to develop a safe and
effective vaccine for the COVID-19 virus, and the race is on to do this, with dozens of companies and millions
of dollars spent in this effort. As part of this effort, there should be an immediate investigation of using the
already available MMR vaccine in controlled studies to show a protective benefit. Epidemiologic studies
suggest this may already be effective as a COVID-19 vaccine, and this could be instituted within months,
perhaps saving thousands of lives with an earlier deployment than other vaccines under development.
This study began on 18 March 2020. An early version was sent to Anthony S. Fauci, MD (NIAID Director) and
subsequently forwarded by the National Institute of Health to the COVID-19 Research Team on 29 March 2020.
Note: In the interest of providing early information to other researchers and the public, many COVID-19 researchers
including ourselves are publishing "early release" articles like this one which are not considered final. The information
contained herein, and certainty of any conclusions being reached, are subject to change as this study continues.
Author Information:
1Jeffrey E. Gold: Founder and president of World Organization, Gold is a veteran computer scientist, inventor, and data analyst. Gold was
the first person to publish research demonstrating correlations between the MMR Vaccine and COVID-19. He has been devoting his full-time
efforts to this research since March 18, 2020. Gold is also inventor of the world’s first 3D microphone, Barnaby Pro, capable of recording
audio so real, it is indistinguishable from real life. Prior to launching World Organization, Gold created and programmed Go.com, the world’s
first online entertainment portal acquired by the Walt Disney Company in 1997. Gold’s mathematical and data analysis accomplishments
date back to high school when in 1981 he programmed the world’s first computer simulation to solve Rubik’s Cube, and also scored first
place in a math competition run by the State of California. Gold does all database programming for World Organization’s Rescue Me website.
2 Larry P. Tilley, DVM, Diplomate, ACVIM: One of the world’s most-respected veterinary researchers, there are few veterinarians worldwide
who wouldn’t know his name or have at least one if not several of Tilley’s standard-of-care books on their shelves. Tilley is a Diplomate,
American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine. In addition to his well-known veterinary work, Dr. Tilley is also a consulting human medical
researcher working with pharmaceutical companies to assist them in the development of new medications. Tilley has authored and co-
authored hundreds of scholarly articles, books and proceedings. His articles and research have been published in: JAVMA, JAVRS, JAAHA,
VM/SAC, Canine Practice, Feline Practice, The American Journal of Pathology, Journal of Veterinary Radiology, Medical Education
Dynamics, Medical Times, Comparative Pathology Bulletin, ACVIM Scientific Proceedings, and dozens of other publications. Tilley has
written and edited over 30 veterinary books that veterinarians depend on to provide current best standard of care in their practices including:
Manual of Canine and Feline Cardiology, Blackwell's Five- Minute Veterinary Consult, ECG for the Small Animal Practitioner, Canine and
Feline Cardiac Arrhythmias Self-Assessment, and Blackwell's Five-Minute Veterinary Consult: Laboratory Tests and Diagnostic Procedures.
3William H. Baumgartl, MD, MSME: Director of Stem Cell Therapies at Nevada Spine Center in Las Vegas, Baumgartl has a rare
background combining Mechanical and Biomedical Engineering, and Medicine. After receiving a bachelor’s and master’s degree in
engineering from Virginia Tech, Baumgartl went to medical school at the University of Florida. Following this, he trained in orthopedic
surgery, and completed his Residency in Anesthesiology, and a Fellowship in Pain Management at UC San Francisco. Following this, he had
further training in Acupuncture through the UCLA Medical School. Baumgartl is triple board-certified in Anesthesia, Pain Management, and
Addiction Medicine. Baumgartl was the previous Associate Professor of Medicine and director of Interventional Pain Management at UC
Davis in California where he taught advanced interventional pain treatment techniques.
World Organization is a 501c3 public charity. It’s website World.Org was launched in 1997 and has recently been repositioned to
devote itself entirely to World’s research related to COVID-19 and the MMR Vaccine. World also operates one of the most
visited international charity websites, Rescue Me, a pet adoption site has helped 950,000 pets find homes. Rescue Me is ranked
4,086th most visited website in the United States, serving more monthly visitors than the ASPCA, and six times the number of
monthly visitors as the United Way.
Posted 29 March 2020. Last Updated 10 May 2020. v7.3
References
1. MRCV DATA FROM W.H.O. USED HEREIN:
https://www.who.int/immunization/monitoring_surveillance/data/Summary_Measles_SIAs.xls
2. MADAGASCAR VACCINATES 7.2 MILLION WITH MEASLES-RUBELLA VACCINE IN 2019
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against-measles/
3. HONG KONG MMR CAMPAIGN: https://www.who.int/bulletin/archives/80(7)585.pdf
4. LARGE SCALE FREE MMR CAMPAIGN IN HONG KONG 2019-2020:
https://www.news.gov.hk/eng/2020/01/20200129/20200129_131138_327.html
5. DEATHS PER 100,000 POPULATION (FROM JOHN HOPKINS):
https://coronavirus.jhu.edu/data/mortality
6. MMR VACCINATION HISTORY FOR BELGIUM:
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4998501/
7. ERADICATION OF MEASLES IN SOUTH KOREA:
https://www.virology.ws/2007/04/12/eradication-of-measles-in-south-korea/
8. SOUTH KOREA MEASLES OUTBREAK: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3534158/
9. MMR VACCINE SHORTAGES IN SOUTH KOREA DUE TO HIGH DEMAND:
http://www.koreabiomed.com/news/articleView.html?idxno=5108
10. SOUTH KOREA FIRST WESTERN PACIFIC COUNTRY TO ELIMINATE RUBELLA
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14. MEASLE VACCINATION RATES IN IN ITALY: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6321942/
15. MEASLES/RUBELLA VACCINE FAILURE IN IRAN:
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S120197120700080X
16. USS ROOSEVELT COVID-19 INFECTION AND HOSPITALIZATION RATES APRIL 24, 2020:
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positive/3018331001/
17. US MILITARY MMR VACCINATION POLICY:
https://www.thebalancecareers.com/military-vaccinations-4058318
18. AGE DEMOGRAPHICS OF US NAVY ACTIVE DUTY MEMBERS:
https://download.militaryonesource.mil/12038/MOS/Reports/2015-Demographics-Profile-Navy-Active-Duty-Members.pdf
19. COVID-19 HOSPITALIZATION RATES BY AGE:
https://www.statista.com/statistics/1105402/covid-hospitalization-rates-us-by-age-group/
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https://www.cbc.ca/news/health/measles-undervaccinated-1.5094362
21. MEASLES VACCINES FOR TRAVELERS: https://www.cdc.gov/measles/plan-for-travel.html
22. PROTECTION FROM SARS CORONAVIRUS USING MEASLES VACCINE:
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0042682214000051
23. VIRUSES COCIRCULATE: https://aem.asm.org/content/83/18/e01326-17
24. MEASLES VACCINES ADDITIONAL BENEFITS: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28646947
25. HOW MMR MIGHT PROTECT AGAINST COVID-19:
https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.04.10.20053207v1.full.pdf
... 6,7 For instance, the findings of an epidemiological research conducted by Gold, indicated that the number of COVID-19 cases are lower in countries where live viral vaccines, such as measles, mumps, rubella (MMR), were applied routinely at every age group including the adult population. 8 Currently, enormous efforts are being devoted to develop a vaccine against this virus to control the pandemic. There has also been growing interest in the repurposing of existing vaccines owing to the possible difficulties in the development of a new vaccine targeting SARS-CoV-2. ...
... Epidemiological data from several studies suggest a correlation between receiving a booster dose of MMR vaccine may be associated with a lower severity of COVID-19 disease. 8 But the present study failed to show this association. All COVID-19 positive patients had mild to moderate disease. ...
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Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of booster vaccination of adults with measles-mumps-rubella in the COVID-19 infection rates. Methods: In order to investigate this hypothesis, we tested COVID-19 positivity rate through PCR assay on the participants (n=245; male), who had to share the same student accommodation together with the same dining hall to provide governmental service. Participants were divided into two groups based on their booster vaccination status with measles-mumps-rubella: the non-vaccinated group (n=207) and the vaccinated group (n=38). The rate of COVID-19 seropositivity, age, body mass index (BMI), active smoking and presence of comorbidity were also measured and recorded. Results: All of the participants were healthy, and age distribution, comorbidity rates, active smoking status and BMI did not vary significantly among the two groups (p=0.305, p=0.594, p=0.280, and p=0.922, respectively). About 36.7% (n=90) of the participants were found to be COVID-19 positive by PCR among which the non-vaccinated cases had higher rates of COVID-19 seropositivity than the vaccinated cases (40.6% vs 15.8%) (OR=3.6, 95%CI: 1.5-9.0, p=0.004). Conclusion: Based on these results, we cautiously predict that immunity produced by MMR vaccination boosters may provide some degree of protection against COVID-19 in the adult population.
... Our group was the first to hypothesize that childhood vaccines provide some level of cross-protection against COVID-19 (Gold, 2020;Okyay et al., 2020). Soon afterwards, several other authors proposed similar hypotheses (Salman & Salem, 2020;Lyu et al., 2020). ...
... Franklin et al. (2020) reported that SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoproteins share structural similarities with the fusion proteins of both measles and mumps viruses and they found 29% amino acid sequence homology between the macro domains of SARS-CoV-2 and rubella; and concluded that measles, mumps, rubella (MMR) vaccination could improve the outcome of COVID-19 infection. Similarly, Gold reported that MMR vaccine appears to confers protection from COVID-19 in a study of the vaccination coverage in different countries around the world and their incidence of COVID-19 disease (Gold, 2020). Although we found a significant difference in COVID-19 and control groups in terms of rubella titers, we did not find a significant relationship in the severity of COVID-19 disease based on rubella titer. ...
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Background: There is growing evidence indicating that children are less affected from COVID-19. Some authors speculate that childhood vaccinations may provide some cross-protection against COVID-19. In this study, our aim was to compare the circulating antibody titers for multiple childhood vaccine antigens, as an indicator of the state of immune memory between patients with COVID-19 and healthy controls, with a specific aim to identify the association between disease severity and antibody titrations which may indicate a protective function related to vaccine or disease induced memory. Methods: This study is a case-control study including 53 patients with COVID-19 and 40 healthy volunteers. COVID-19 severity was divided into three groups: asymptomatic, mild and severe. We measured the same set of antibody titers for vaccine antigens, and a set of biochemical and infection markers, in both the case and control groups. Results: Rubella (p = 0.003), pneumococcus (p = 0.002), and Bordetella pertussis (p < 0.0001) titers were found to be significantly lower in the case group than the control group. There was a significant decline in pneumococcus titers with severity of disease (p = 0.021) and a significant association with disease severity for Bordetella pertussis titers (p = 0.014) among COVID patients. Levels of AST, procalcitonin, ferritin and D-dimer significantly increased with the disease severity. Discussion: Our study supports the hypothesis that pre-existing immune memory, as monitored using circulating antibodies, acquired from childhood vaccinations, or past infections confer some protection against COVID-19. Randomized controlled studies are needed to support a definitive conclusion.
... Bu durum COVİD-19'un neden yenidoğan dışındaki çocuklarda daha az sıklıkta veya daha az kötü seyirli olduğu sorusunu gündeme getirmiştir. Bunun üzerine 'Çocukluk çağı aşılarının spesifik olmayan veya çapraz koruması olabileceği' hipotezi ortaya çıkmıştır (7). Bu nedenle KKK, BCG gibi çocukluk çağı aşılarının COVİD-19 ve kötü etkilerine karşı koruyucu olup olmadığı konusunda çeşitli araştırmalar yapılmıştır. ...
... Gold et al. introduced the theory that the trivalent measles-mumps-rubella vaccine might be associated with a reduction of deaths due to COVID-19 [57,58]. The same author confirmed, in a later study, the presence of an unexpected protection against SARS-CoV-2 due to the anti-mumps antibodies, with a significant inverse correlation between antibody titre and severity of COVID-19 [59]. ...
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The COVID-19 pandemic has led to an unprecedented closure of schools in terms of duration. The option of school closure, SARS-CoV-2 initially being poorly known, was influenced by the epidemiological aspects of the influenza virus. However, school closure is still under debate and seems unsupported by sure evidence of efficacy in the COVID-19 era. The aim of our narrative review is to discuss the available literature on SARS-CoV-2 spread among children and adolescents, in the school setting, trying to explain why children appear less susceptible to severe disease and less involved in viral spreading. We also tried to define the efficacy of school closure, through an overview of the effects of the choices made by the various countries, trying to identify which preventive measures could be effective for a safe reopening. Finally, we focused on the psychological aspects of such a prolonged closure for children and adolescents. SARS-CoV-2, children, COVID-19, influenza, and school were used as key words in our literature research, updated to 29 March 2021. To our knowledge, this is the first review summarizing the whole current knowledge on SARS-CoV-2 spreading among children and adolescents in the school setting, providing a worldwide overview in such a pandemic context.
... The SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein is 20% identical to that of the rubella virus, and COVID-19 patients with higher circulating rubella antibodies reportedly experience lower SARS-CoV-2 viral burden [105]. Additionally, two unreviewed epidemiological studies suggest a negative correlation between MMR immunization rates and COVID-19 rates and symptom severity, both globally and across 37 North American and European countries [106,107]. The same trends were not found between COVID-19 and DTP immunization rates [107]. ...
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SARS‐CoV‐2 is the novel coronavirus behind the COVID‐19 pandemic. Since its emergence, the global scientific community has mobilized to study this virus, and an overwhelming effort to identify COVID‐19 treatments is currently ongoing for a variety of therapeutics and prophylactics. In order to better understand these efforts, we compiled a list of all COVID‐19 vaccines undergoing pre‐clinical and clinical testing using the WHO and ClinicalTrials.gov database, with details surrounding trial design and location. The most advanced vaccines are discussed in more detail, with a focus on their technology, advantages and disadvantages, as well as any available recent clinical findings. We also cover some of the primary challenges, safety concerns, and public responses to COVID‐19 vaccine trials, and consider what this can mean for the future. By compiling this information, we aim to facilitate a more thorough understanding of the extensive COVID‐19 clinical testing vaccine landscape as it unfolds, and better highlight some of the complexities and challenges being faced by the joint effort of the scientific community in finding a prophylactic against COVID‐19.
... The current study would suggest that the rubella component of MMR is the major protective agent, though measles also exhibits some high-quality antigenic similarities to SARS-CoV-2. Indeed, Franklin, et al., [47] also report significant similarities between both rubella and measles proteins and SARS-CoV-2, and their key results were independently reproduced here in FIGURE 2. Additionally, Gold [48] has also proposed that the measles-mumps-rubella vaccine may confer protection against SARS-CoV-2. However, there are significantly fewer similarities between measles and rubella proteins and those of SARS-CoV-2 proteins (and none with mumps proteins) than there are with pneumococcal proteins making pneumococci a much higher probability source of protection. ...
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Various studies indicate that vaccination, especially with pneumococcal vaccines, protects against symptomatic cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection and death. This paper explores the possibility that pneumococcal vaccines in particular, but perhaps other vaccines as well, contain antigens that might be cross-reactive with SARS-CoV-2 antigens. Comparison of the glycosylation structures of SARS-CoV-2 with the polysaccharide structures of pneumococcal vaccines yielded no obvious similarities. However, while pneumococcal vaccines are primarily composed of capsular polysaccharides, some are conjugated to CRM197, a modified diphtheria toxin, and all contain about three percent protein contaminants, including the pneumococcal surface proteins PsaA, PspA and probably PspC. All of these proteins have very high degrees of similarity, using very stringent criteria, with several SARS-CoV-2 proteins including the spike protein, membrane protein and replicase 1a. CRM197 is also present in Hib and meningitis vaccines. Equivalent similarities were found at lower rates, or were completely absent, among the proteins in diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, measles, mumps, rubella, and poliovirus vaccines. Notably, PspA and PspC are highly antigenic and new pneumococcal vaccines based on them are currently in human clinical trials so that their effectiveness against SARS-CoV-2 disease is easily testable.
... Some antiviral vaccines like the MMR vaccine contain components that have structural similarities with SARS-CoV-2 (42,43). There is a 29% amino acid sequence homology between the ADP ribose-1-phosphatase domains of SARS-CoV-2 and rubella virus, including surface-exposed conserved residues shared between SARS-CoV-2 and the attenuated rubella virus in MMR (42). ...
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The reduced development of COVID-19 for children compared to adults provides some tantalizing clues on the pathogenesis and transmissibility of this pandemic virus. First, ACE2, the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) receptor, is reduced in the respiratory tract in children. Second, coronavirus associated with common colds in children may offer some protection, due to cross-reactive humoral immunity and T cell immunity between common coronaviruses and SARS-CoV-2. Third, T helper 2 immune responses are protective in children. Fourth, surprisingly, eosinophilia, associated with T helper 2, may be protective. Fifth, children generally produce lower levels of inflammatory cytokines. Finally, the influence of the downturn in the global economy, the impact of living in quarters among families who are the most at risk, and factors including the openings of some schools, are considered. Those most disadvantaged socioeconomically may suffer disproportionately with COVID-19.
... The current study would suggest that the rubella component of MMR is the major protective agent, though measles also exhibits some high-quality antigenic similarities to SARS-CoV-2. Indeed, Franklin, et al., (2020) also report significant similarities between both rubella and measles proteins and SARS-CoV-2, and their key results were independently reproduced here in FIGURE 2. Additionally, Gold (2020) has also proposed that the measles-mumpsrubella vaccine may confer protection against SARS-CoV-2. However, there are significantly fewer similarities between measles and rubella proteins and those of SARS-CoV-2 proteins (and none with mumps proteins) than there are with pneumococcal proteins making pneumococci a much higher probability source of protection. ...
Preprint
Various studies indicate that vaccination, especially with pneumococcal vaccines, protects against symptomatic cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection and death. This paper explores the possibility that pneumococcal vaccines in particular, but perhaps other vaccines as well, contain antigens that might be cross-reactive with SARS-CoV-2 antigens. Comparison of the glycosylation structures of SARS-CoV-2 with the polysaccharide structures of pneumococcal vaccines yielded no obvious similarities. However, while pneumococcal vaccines are primarily composed of capsular polysaccharides, some are conjugated to CRM197, a modified diphtheria toxin, and all contain about three percent protein contaminants, including the pneumococcal surface proteins PsaA, PspA and probably PspC. All of these proteins have very high degrees of similarity, using very stringent criteria, with several SARS-CoV-2 proteins including the spike protein, membrane protein and replicase 1a. CRM197 is also present in Hib and meningitis vaccines. Equivalent similarities were found at statistically significantly lower rates, or were completely absent, among the proteins in diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, measles, mumps, rubella, and poliovirus vaccines. Notably, PspA and PspC are highly antigenic and new pneumococcal vaccines based on them are currently in human clinical trials so that their effectiveness against SARS-CoV-2 disease is easily testable.
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: The COVID-19 pandemic has prompted researchers to find treatments and vaccines to control SARS-CoV-2. There are some hypotheses about the benefit of respiratory virus vaccines, like MMR, for COVID-19 pneumonia severity, morbidity, and mortality. The influenza vaccine is one of the most frequently used respiratory virus vaccines covered by one of the Iranian insurance institutes. We have a symmetrical group of participants that have received this vaccine that could be compared with each other. We compared 3,379 persons aged 20 - 75 years for the effect of the influenza vaccine on COVID-19 mortality. We ultimately found that it does not affect mortality caused by COVID-19 pneumonia, but it can decrease the hospitalization cost in people over 65 years with a history of chronic disease.
Article
Background: Analysis of real-world data can be used to identify promising leads and dead ends among products being repurposed for clinical practice for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This paper uses real-world data from Cerner Labs collected from 90 source institutions in the United States to assess the potential impact of two viral vaccines on COVID-19 case fatality rates. Methods: We identified 373,032 polymerase chase reaction (PCR)-positive COVID-19 cases in the Cerner Labs database between 01-MAR-2020 and 31-DEC-2020 and identified patients that had received measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) or a recombinant adjuvanted varicella-zoster vaccine within the previous 5 years. We calculated heterogeneity scores to support interpretation of results across institutions, and used stepwise forward variable selection to construct covariable-based propensity scores. These scores were used to match cases and control for biasing and confounding issues inherent in observational data. Results: Neither the recombinant adjuvanted varicella-zoster vaccine nor MMR showed significant efficacy in prevention of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. We could not derive clinically significant results on the impact of MMR for case fatality rates due to persistently high rates of heterogeneity between institutions. However, we were able to achieve acceptable levels of heterogeneity for the analysis of the recombinant adjuvanted varicella-zoster vaccine, and found a clinically meaningful benefit of reduced case fatality rate, with an odds ratio of 0.43 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.38 – 0.48). Conclusions: Using propensity score matching and heterogeneity statistics can help guide our interpretation of real-world data, and rigorous statistical methods are needed to reduce bias or disparities in data interpretation. Applying these methods to the impact of viral vaccines on COVID-19 case fatalities yields actionable findings for further analysis.
MADAGASCAR VACCINATES 7.2 MILLION WITH MEASLES-RUBELLA VACCINE
  • H O Mrcv Data From W
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MRCV DATA FROM W.H.O. USED HEREIN: https://www.who.int/immunization/monitoring_surveillance/data/Summary_Measles_SIAs.xls 2. MADAGASCAR VACCINATES 7.2 MILLION WITH MEASLES-RUBELLA VACCINE IN 2019 https://measlesrubellainitiative.org/measles-news/mri-gavi-partners-help-vaccinate-7-2-million-children-in-madagascaragainst-measles/
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SOUTH KOREA FIRST WESTERN PACIFIC COUNTRY TO ELIMINATE RUBELLA http://www.koreabiomed.com/news/articleView.html?idxno=1577 11. VACCINE POLICY FOR SOUTH KOREA MILITARY: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4366953/ 12. ITALY MEASLES OUTBREAK: https://www.eurosurveillance.org/content/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2017.22.37.30614 13. INADEQUATE VACCINATION IN ITALY: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5243a4.htm 14. MEASLE VACCINATION RATES IN IN ITALY: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6321942/ 15. MEASLES/RUBELLA VACCINE FAILURE IN IRAN: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S120197120700080X
COVID-19 HOSPITALIZATION RATES BY AGE
  • Age Demographics
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AGE DEMOGRAPHICS OF US NAVY ACTIVE DUTY MEMBERS: https://download.militaryonesource.mil/12038/MOS/Reports/2015-Demographics-Profile-Navy-Active-Duty-Members.pdf 19. COVID-19 HOSPITALIZATION RATES BY AGE: https://www.statista.com/statistics/1105402/covid-hospitalization-rates-us-by-age-group/ 20. VACCINE IMMUNITY CAN WEAR OFF OVER TIME: https://www.cbc.ca/news/health/measles-undervaccinated-1.5094362 21. MEASLES VACCINES FOR TRAVELERS: https://www.cdc.gov/measles/plan-for-travel.html 22. PROTECTION FROM SARS CORONAVIRUS USING MEASLES VACCINE: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0042682214000051 23. VIRUSES COCIRCULATE: https://aem.asm.org/content/83/18/e01326-17
  • Measles Vaccines
  • Benefits
MEASLES VACCINES ADDITIONAL BENEFITS: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28646947 25. HOW MMR MIGHT PROTECT AGAINST COVID-19: https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.04.10.20053207v1.full.pdf