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A review of UV radiation protection on humans by textiles and clothing

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Abstract

Purpose This review deals with the pros and cons of ultraviolet (UV) radiation on human beings and the role of textile clothing and the chemicals used for textiles to protect from their harmful effects. Design/methodology/approach UV radiation (UVR) which has further divided into UVA, UVB, and UVC. Almost 100% of UVC and major portion of UVB are bounced back to stratosphere by ozone layer while UVA enters the earth atmosphere. Excessive exposure of solar or artificial UVR exhibit potential risks to human health. UVR is a major carcinogen and excessive exposure of solar radiation in sunlight can cause cancer in the lip, skin squamous cell, basal cell and cutaneous melanoma, particularly in people with the fair skin. Findings This article aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the harmful effects of UVR on human skin, factors affecting UV irradiance and factors affecting UV protection offered by textile clothing. Originality/value Effect of fiber properties, yarn properties, fabric construction, fabric treatments and laundering has been reviewed along with the identification of gaps in the reported research. A comparison of inorganic and organic UV absorbers has also been given along with different testing and evaluation methods for UV protective clothing.

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The increasing incidence of skin cancer throughout the world is outlined. Topics such as the sunlight protection factor and the protective effect of fabrics and garments are discussed. The Rayosan process, developed at New South Wales University in Australia, is described. This finish is used to impart sunlight protection to lightweight garments. The process increases the absorption of ultraviolet rays by the textiles without impairment of their appearance, handle or breathability. The treated fabrics reduce the amount of ultraviolet radiation accumulated on the skin and this helps to diminish the risk of melanomas in the longer term.
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A discussion of the health hazards of ultra-violet radiation (UVR) from the sun leads on to ways in which this might be reduced and particularly the methods by which textile materials and clothing could contribute. The many factors affecting UV protection are listed, and a suggested way of increasing UV protection capacity of textile materials is the optimization of existing technology at all points in production. Color plays a significant role and tests have been conducted on the relationship of direct dyes characteristics absorbance/transmission in the solution, color and chemical structure to the UV transmittance and UV protection factor (UPF) of a lightweight cotton cloth. The study's aim was to ascertain the effect of chemical structure and concentration of the reactive dyes by dyeing individually and in binary mixture on the UV protection property of the dyed cotton fabric. The experimental method and materials are described, and the use of binary mixtures of monochlorotriazine dyes is recommended for the improvement of the UV-protection capacity of pale-colored lightweight cotton textile materials.
Article
Ultraviolet rays constitute a very low fraction in the solar spectrum but influence all living organisms and their metabolisms. These radiations can cause a range of effects from simple tanning to highly malignant skin cancers, if unprotected. Sunscreen lotions, clothing and shade structures provide protection from the deleterious effects of ultraviolet radiations. Alterations in the construction parameters of fabrics with appropriate light absorbers and suitable finishing methods can be employed as UV protection fabrics. This paper deals with the deleterious effects of UV rays and protection against them through textile materials.
Article
High‐strength fibers are used to produce high‐strength‐to‐weight‐ratio materials for applications such as composites, soft and hard body armor, bulletproof vests, and tendons for scientific balloons. Unfortunately, these fibers degrade when they are exposed to ultraviolet–visible (UV–vis) radiation. The objective of this research was to develop systems to improve the UV resistance of such fibers. Composite porous membranes from a polyurethane (PU) matrix loaded with rutile titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles were developed to protect a braid made of polybenzobisoxazole (PBO) yarns. The PU membranes loaded with TiO2 nanoparticles were prepared by a phase‐inversion technique. The effects of the amount of TiO2 nanoparticles on the composite membrane morphological structure and UV–vis light transmission were evaluated. The results show that when the concentration of TiO2 nanoparticles was increased, the porosity of the membrane and its UV–vis blocking effectiveness increased. The UV–vis protection was evaluated by the wrapping of the PBO braid with the composite membranes and exposed to UV–vis radiation. The strength loss of the PBO fiber due to exposure was decreased from 75% for the unprotected sample to 7.8% for the protected sample in the PU loaded with 4% TiO2 nanoparticles. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 2013
Article
Ultraviolet protection factor (UPF) of fabrics made of 100% cotton and 100% bamboo viscose yarns were studied and a comparative analysis carried out using curve fitting technique. Bamboo viscose fabrics showed higher shrinkage, cover percentage, areal density and UPF compared to its cotton counterpart woven with identical yarn counts and fabric sett. However, the predictive model of cotton fabric UPF using fabric areal density as the input was able to estimate the UPF of bamboo viscose fabrics with very good accuracy. Furthermore, the 100% cotton and 100% bamboo viscose fabrics showed the same UPF if their cover percentage and areal density is similar. It is inferred from the analysis that the apparently higher UPF of bamboo viscose fabrics can be attributed to their higher cover percentage and areal density instead of bamboo’s inherent UV protective property which has been claimed in various literatures.
Article
Premordanting of jute fabric was carried out following single mordanting by biomordants (myrobolan and pomegranate) and ecofriendly chemical mordants (ferrous sulphate and potash alum) and double mordanting by sequential treatment of biomordant and ecofriendly chemical mordant. Extraction condition of natural dyes from manjistha, annatto, ratanjot and babool was standardised and applied on premordanted jute fabric. There is a substantial improvement of colour yield, levelness of dyeing and wash fastness properties of natural dyed jute fabric after double premordanting using bio and chemical mordant. Light fastness ratings are moderate to good while rubbing fastness are very good to excellent for all the natural dyed jute fabric. Very good ultraviolet (UV) protection ratings are achieved in case of dyeing of jute fabric using natural dyes extracted from manjistha, annatto, ratanjot and babool after premordanting with sequential treatment of biomordant and chemical mordant. UV protection properties of natural dyed jute fabric follows the order babool > annatto > manjistha > ratanjot.
Article
The influence of conventional acid and alkaline high temperature dyeing procedures on fabric construction is investigated. The effects of weave construction, orange, red, and blue disperse dyes, double layers of fabrics, and UV absorber on the ultraviolet protection factors (UPF) of polyester fabrics are the topics of this research. A spectrophotometer with an integrating sphere is used to measure the uv transmittance of polyester fabrics according to an AATCC test. Small differences in the weight of fabrics after blind dyeing procedures already influence the uv transmittance of fabrics. Pale orange and blue dyed fabrics show a high enough UPF, while a pale red dyed fabric does not reach such values. Deep dyed and double layered fabrics and fabrics aftertreated with a UV absorber reach high UPF values.
Article
Various kinds of phenyl ester compounds are synthesized and their uv-visible absorption spectra are measured in ethanol. Their protective effects against fading of Crystal Violet are also examined in cellulose acetate film. The application of simple uv absorbing compounds is not necessarily useful for improving the light fastness of triphenylmethane dyes. Nickel 4-benzoyloxybenzenesulfonate or 2-benzoyloxynaphthalene-6-sulfonate, however, almost perfectly suppress photofading rate of Crystal Violet. The introduction of a singlet oxygen quenching group into the uv absorber plays a very important role in improving the light fastness of triphenylmethane dyes.
Article
The influence of reactive dyes with massive chromogene and nanosilver on ultraviolet protective factor (UPF) values of lightweight cotton fabrics was investigated. The effect of nanosilver on the color of cotton fabrics and on antibacterial effectiveness was also determined. AATCC Test method 183-1998 was used for the calculation of the UPF of lightweight cotton fabric. The antibacterial activity was determined according to ASTM Designation E 2149-01. The research shows an increase in the UPF values of lightweight cotton fabrics when they are pale red or pale navy dyed with nanosilver. Cotton fabrics treated with 80 nm nanosilver showed inhibition of the growth of Streptococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus aureus. Changes of color are observed on dyed cotton fabrics treated with nanosilver.
Article
Antibacterial activities and UV-blocking properties of polyethylene terephthalate (polyester) containing fabrics are easily achieved by surface modification via alkaline hydrolysis, to generate surface carboxyl groups on polyester component, followed by treatment with certain basic dyes, metal salts, or antibiotic. The results showed that the improvement in antibacterial activities and anti-UV-B protection properties are governed by the type of substrate (polyester > polyester/viscose > polyester/cotton), the pretreatment history (alkali-treated > untreated), and type of basic dye (C.I. Basic Blue 9 > C.I. Basic Red 24). On the other hand, the extent of improvement in both the antibacterial efficacy against Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli) bacteria and the UV-protection properties are governed by the nature of loaded metal ion and followed the decreasing orders (Zn > Cu) and (Cu > Zn), respectively. Additionally, the results proved that post-treatment of modified substrates with Doxymycin® antibiotic brings about a significant enhancement in antibacterial activity along with an improvement in the UV-blocking properties regardless of the used substrate. After 10 washing cycles, the imparted functional properties show some reduction. Possible reaction mechanisms have been given.
Article
Cotton yarns bobbins were treated in a water bath with different concentrations of a reactive β-cyclodextrin derivative. To quantify the amount of cyclodextrin fixed on the fiber different analytical methods were tested but none of them was reliable enough in the concentration range under investigation. Therefore, a new analytical method, fast and effective, was developed. From the measurement of cyclodextrin bath exhaustion, the amount of cyclodextrin chemically fixed and that physically adsorbed on the textile substrate was estimated. Two washing cycles were carried out to investigate the cyclodextrin washing fastness.
Article
This risk assessment seeks to summarize the state of scientific knowledge so that a considered judgement can be made about the need for additional controls. Scientific evidence is therefore reviewed and evaluated for two purposes: (1) to assess the likelihood that different human activities could alter the stratosphere in ways that altered ultraviolet radiation reaching earth's surface or that changed climate; and (2) to assess the likelihood that changes in ultraviolet radiation or climate due to modifications in column ozone or stratospheric water vapor would have detrimental effects on human health or welfare.
Article
The characteristics of fading of nylon, polyester and cellulose triacetate fabrics dyed with C I Disperse Blue 79:1 were investigated on a radiant energy basis by exposure to monochromatic light. Action spectra were compiled to show the strong effect of substrate on the fading with respect to radiant wavelength. Peaks were observed with maxima at 246 nm on cellulose triacetate, 310 nm on polyester and 262 nm on nylon in the fading. The nylon substrate caused the least light-fastness compared with the polyester and cellulose triacetate substrates, showing a wide wavelength range in the fading response. Moreover, it was estimated through color change examinations that the reduction of the nitro group to the amino group occurred on the nylon substrate, whereas the destruction of the azo group of the dye prevailed on the polyester and cellulose triacetate substrates under light irradiation.
Article
The aim of the paper was the modelization of the influence on the Ultraviolet Protection Factor (UPF) of the more representative properties of the wearing conditions of the garments, the tension produced in contact with the body and the wetness. The study was carried out on undyed woven fabrics manufactured with three different cellulosic fibers (Cotton, Modal and Modal Sun) and with three different structures. The transmission of Ultraviolet Radiation (UVR) in the whole ultraviolet range, as well as in the UVA and UVB regions, was measured and the UPF was determined. A statistical model for each fiber type was formulated, which allowed the prediction of the UPF according to the UPF of the original fabric (unstretched and dry), the tension and the wetness.
Article
Ultraviolet resistant cotton fabrics were developed by coating with ZnO and TiO2 nanoparticles. The ZnO nanoparticles applied on cotton yarns were found to withstand the knitting operation. Meanwhile, the TiO 2 nanoparticles applied on the bleached as well as reactive dyed cotton fabrics by the sol-gel and linking agent methods were found to be intact after various cycles of domestic washing. Knitted fabrics containing ZnO nanoparticles showed moderate to high ultraviolet protection factor (UPF) values, whereas 50+ UPF values were measured for the TiO2-coated samples. Further it was found that the rutile phase was better than anatase phase in blocking UV rays. The developed process can be easily adapted to the existing textile machinery, making it industrially viable.
Article
This study examined an innovative approach to functional finishes of linen-containing fabrics. Modification of surface properties along with creation on new interactive site onto the fabrics surfaces, i.e., —COOH or —NH2 groups, using oxygen-or nitrogen plasma followed by subsequent treatments with selected ionic dyes, certain metal salts, nano-scale metal or metal oxides, quaternary ammonium salt or nominated antibiotics were carried out to obtain linen-based textiles with upgrade UV-protection and/or antibacterial functions. The results detailed in this paper demonstrate that: (i) post-basic dyeing of oxygen plasma-treated substrates with C.I. Basic Red 24 brings about a significant improvement in the UV-protection and antibacterial activity against the G +ve (Staphylococcus aureus) and G —ve (Escherichia coli) bacteria, (ii) post-reactive dyeing of nitrogen plasma-treated substrates with C.I. Reactive violet 5, results in a remarkable improvement in both UV-blocking and antibacterial properties. (iii) the extent of improvement in the above-mentioned properties of the obtained dyeings is determined by the type of substrate, kind and concentration of the ionic dye, (iv) loading of the metal ions onto the preactivated fabric surfaces upgraded their UV-protection valued as well as their antibacterial efficiency, and the extent of enhancement is governed by the kind and concentration of metal salt as well as type of bacteria, (v) loading of nano-scale Ag, TiO2, or ZrO onto the plasma-treated substrates brings about a remarkable improvement in their functional properties, (vi) loading of the used antibiotics or choline chloride onto the plasma-treated substrates gives rise to better antibacterial ability, (vii) both the UV-protection ability and the antibacterial activity of selected samples were retained even after 10 laundering cycles, and (viii) the options described here for attaining linen-containing fabrics with high functional properties are effective, simple and applicable.
Article
Fibrous textiles have been increasingly used in a variety of industries. In these applications, the surface properties of textile materials play a very important role. The surface properties of textile materials can be modified by various techniques. Copper (Cu) nanocomposite textiles are prepared by magnetron sputter coating. The nanocomposite textiles with different thickness of coatings are investigated by atomic force microscope (AFM), energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, and opto-electrical tests. The AFM observations reveal the growth of the Cu nanostructures formed on the fiber surface as the sputtering time increases. The surface conductivity of the textiles coated with Cu nanostructures shows a significant increase compared to the uncoated ones. The increased coating thickness leads to better electrical conductivity. The coated textiles also show considerable improvement in UV and visible light shielding, examined by UV/Vis spectrometer.
Article
This study was designed to investigate the ability of single- and multi-wall carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as an ultraviolet radiation absorber for cotton fabric finishing. The results were compared with the traditional nano- and micro-mineral UV absorbers of ZnO and TiO2 as well as chemical UV absorber Ciba Fast W. The performance of the finishing process was determined by both calculating the ultraviolet protection factor (UPF) and controlling the color change of blue wool substrate located under the cotton samples. The results showed that similar to common UV absorbers, CNTs enjoy the specific absorption value in the UV region of the electromagnetic spectrum. In addition, a maximum UPF value was obtained for the cotton fabric treated with the SWCNT. As a result, for textiles and coatings applications, CNTs could be brought in UV protection finishing as an alternative absorber. Additionally, comparison of the results showed that the UV absorption of nano-ZnO and nano-TiO2 are more than the micro forms due to the higher specific surface.
Article
Nano ZnO crystal in-situ growth on SiO2 nano sol-coated cotton fabric via a reaction between Zn(NO3)2 and (CH 2)6N4 through a low-temperature hydrothermal method was studied. The effects of hydrothermal reaction conditions and SiO 2 nano sol coating on the size and crystalline perfection of nano ZnO, and the UV protection property of the fabric were investigated. The optimal treatment conditions for the highest Zn content and the best ZnO crystalline perfection on the fabric surface were obtained. Under optimal conditions, the cotton fabric was covered with 25 to 30 nm diameter ZnO crystallites and had an excellent UV-blocking property.
Article
This paper presents the effects of woven fabric construction and color on the ultraviolet protection factor. Weave type, fabric tightness, cover factor, volume porosity and color of lightweight summer woven fabrics were observed in this research. Color had the biggest influence on the ultraviolet protection factor of fabrics, whereas woven fabric construction was essential when light pastel colored fabrics were used as ultraviolet protection. This work provides guidelines for engineering woven cotton fabrics with sufficient ultraviolet protection.
Article
The safest protection from ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure is offered by textiles including various apparels, accessories such as hats and shade structures such as umbrellas. Their protectiveness depends on fabric composition, (natural, artificial or synthetic fibres), fabric construction (porosity, weight and thickness) and dyeing (natural or synthetic dyes, dye concentration, UV-absorbing properties, etc.). In this study the UV-protection properties were investigated on fabrics made of vegetable fibres (cotton, flax, hemp and ramie), with different construction parameters (drapery and apparel fabrics), dyed with some of the most common natural dyes. The effect of a tannins-based mordant (the galls of Quercus infectoria) on UV-protection capacity was also tested. UV radiation transmittance of fabrics was measured by two methods: one based on the utilisation of a spectrophotometer equipped with an integrating sphere (in vitro test), and the other based on outdoor measurements taken by a spectroradiometer. Transmittance measurements were used to calculate the Ultraviolet Protection Factor (UPF).
Article
Fabric samples using 100% cotton, 100% viscose rayon, 100% regenerated bamboo viscose fibre and cotton/bamboo viscose blend (60/40) were produced and characterised for hand value and health care applications. The present study shows the results of these woven fabrics in terms of antibacterial, absorbency, ultraviolet protection factor (UPF), static characteristics, moisture vapour permeability (MVTR) and handle and dust catchability. Bamboo fabrics (100%) give better results compared to 100% cotton and 100% viscose fabric in terms of antibacterial property and absorbency i.e. wettability. Bamboo fabric (100%) also shows slightly higher moisture vapour transmission rate than cotton fabric. In the case of UPF, 100% cotton and 100% bamboo give excellent-rated UPF. There is no significant difference between these fabric samples in terms of time to lapse half saturated voltage. Total hand value is higher in the case of viscose and bamboo fabric than cotton fabric. The studies also show that breaking load and extension of bamboo gauze bandages are higher than cotton bandages. Sinking time is faster but absorptive capacity is lower in the case of bamboo gauze bandage than cotton gauze bandage.
Article
There is a growing need and special attention for using textile products to provide effective protection against such damage of UV-radiation, i.e., skin cancer, sun burn, and photo-aging, in the recent years. In this research work a new approach for upgrading the UV-protective properties of cotton/wool and viscose/wool blended fabrics for high quality/trans seasonal apparel, was investigated. Factors affecting the UVB-protection function of the aforementioned substrates such as type and concentration of finishing additives, as well as subsequent treatment with cu-acetate or dyeing with anionic or cationic dyes were studied. The experimental data show that: i) the enhancement in the UV-protection factor (UPF) of the finished fabrics is determined by the type of finishing additives, i.e., citric acid ≥ aspartic acid ≥ tartaric acid ≥ none, chitosan TEA.HCL ≥ choline chloride ≥ none, β-cyclodextrin CMC-30 PEG-600 > none, and Siligen® WW > W Siligen® PEP ≥ Leomin® NI-ET ≥ none, regardless of the used substrate, ii) UPF values are governed by the type of substrate, i.e., viscose/wool ≥ cotton/wool, irrespective of the used additives, iii) post-treatment with cu-acetate or post-dyeing with the used dyestuffs brings about a dramatic improvement in UPF values, and iv) UPF values are determined by the finishing regime and follow the descending order:Resin finishing → post dyeing > resin finishing → posttreatment with Cu-acetate > resin finishing in presence of additives > resin finishing in absence of additives.
Article
Color is one of the most influential variables on the protection against ultraviolet radiation provided by a fabric. The protection against UV radiation of a fabric is expressed quantitatively by means of its UPF (ultraviolet protection factor). The present paper shows the results of a study about the influence of the color on the UPF of cotton woven fabrics appropriate for summer articles. Through statistical models, the research seeks to relate the level of protection achieved in dyeing with three azo dyes to the factors governing the process, the shade, and the color intensity, as well as their interaction with the initial UPF of the fabrics. The obtained models will allow the programming and optimization of the value of the UPF of a fabric by means of adequate adjustment of the variables.
Article
Interest in protection against solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) among the general public in the world has been increasing steadily. Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) was blended with UVR-protection agents and was spun into modified fibers to provide the property of UVR protection. Investigation of this property using a UV spectrophotometer showed that the modified PET fabrics could be resistant to UVR more than 90% in the UV-B band. The treatment of aqueous alkali on the surface of the fibers to improve the comfortable feel had little influence on the property of UVR protection. Scanning electron microscopy was employed to observe the surface morphology of the fibers. Also, the modified fibers had good heat insulation property and the mechanical properties of the fibers were measured. © 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 88: 1180–1185, 2003