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Information Technologies as a Means of Acmeological Influence in the Context of Personal Self Realization

Authors:
  • Sevastopol State University
Information Technologies as a Means of Acmeological
Influence in the Context of Personal Self Realization
Balynin I.V.1* Nizhneva N.N.2, Mikhaylova A.G. 3,4
1 Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow, 125167, Russian Federation
2 Belarusian State University, Minsk 220030, Belarus
3 Sevastopol State University, Sevastopol, 299053, Russian Federation
4 Nakhimov Black Sea Higher Naval School, Sevastopol 299057, Russian Federation
*Corresponding author. Email: igorbalynin@mail.ru
ABSTRACT
The problem investigated in this article is important for the professional education system, since changes in the
higher education system have made some corrective in to the process of professional training of future
specialists during the transition to distance learning in order to prevent the threat of potential infection with a
new coronavirus infection, which is associated with person’s socio-psychological adaptation to the new social
conditions of existence. Therefore, the purpose of this work is to analyze information technologies as a means
of acmeological impact in the context of self-realization. Scientific and methodological recommendations and
conclusions are obtained on the basis of the theoretical analysis of future persons’ socio-psychological
qualities, which provide improving the effectiveness of the adaptation process in the transition to distance
learning. The reliability and validity of scientific results obtained in the course of the study is based on the
implementation of a set of mutually verifying and complementary methods, which are determined by the clarity
of methodological principles. The results of the study give possibility to monitor the positive dynamics of the
process of person’s socio-psychological adaptation to new social conditions of existence within the framework
of self-development. Information technologies are defined as a means of acmeological influence on the process
of personal development.
Keywords: coronavirus infection, distance learning, self realization, information technologies,
acmeological approach, socio-psychological qualities
1. INTRODUCTION
Changes in the higher education system during the
transition to distance learning in order to prevent the threat
of potential infection with a new coronavirus are
associated with the socio-person’s psychological
adaptation to the new social conditions of existence. These
transformations are aimed at adapting the educational
process to the student's personality needs, as well as to
new conditions and requirements, which are based on the
active environment development, its change and creation
of the necessary conditions for successful activity.
Analyzing the success of person’s socio-psychological
adaptation in the new conditions of existence, it is
necessary to differentiate the criteria depending on the
group or individual aspect. As indicators of productivity of
adaptation at the group level are the following: positive
social identity, satisfaction with relationships with a new
environment; among the criteria for adaptation at the
personal level are: high activity, satisfaction with the
meaning of life and an optimistic assessment of the life
situation; actualization of developed needs for self-
actualization; satisfaction with professional activities as
the most important condition for the need realization for
self-actualization and emotional stability [1].
The dynamism of social relations causes significant
changes in all spheres of human activity (in education,
professional activity). Socio-psychological adaptation is
not presented as a process of passive adaptation to the new
environment, but as an active process of transformation
and self-development, so adaptation should be considered
in the traditions of the acmeological approach. In this
regard, the study of the problem of socio-psychological
adaptation of the individual to new, constantly changing
realities becomes fundamentally important in theoretical
and experimental research.
Significant results can be achieved when applying to
practical activities based on the theoretical and
methodological basis through feedback from leading
scientists to solve problematic non-standard situations.
This approach makes the practice-oriented direction of
training engineers as the main component of the entire
learning process at the university.
Advances in Economics, Business and Management Research, volume 138
2nd International Scientific and Practical Conference “Modern Management Trends
and the Digital Economy: from Regional Development to Global Economic Growth” (MTDE 2020)
Copyright © 2020 The Authors. Published by Atlantis Press SARL.
This is an open access article distributed under the CC BY-NC 4.0 license -http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/. 1271
1.1. Related Work
The most authoritative studies are the acmeological
research of A.A. Derkach, V.G. Zazykin, N.V. Kuzmina,
A.A. Bodalev, V.I. Panov’s works about a model of the
educational environment, which must meet psychodidactic
and ecopsychological principles: it is not only the creation
of conditions for socialization and development of
subjective, and personal qualities and individuality of the
learner but also the implementation of environmentally
friendly educational technologies “in the sense of their
conformity with the natural, physiological and
psychological, and social characteristics and patterns of
age development of students” [2,. p. 71].
However, in the conditions of transformation to a new
educational environment, there is a problem of searching
effective means of forming communicative readiness,
which is an important quality of successful professional
interaction. First of all, it is necessary to consider the
conditions for successful socio-psychological adaptation of
the training person. Therefore, the problem of this research
is the following: what are the effective means of self-
development.
Theoretical analysis of psychological and pedagogical
literature has shown that the means of effective self-
development during the transition to distance learning was
not the subject of special research. Therefore, the purpose
of this work is to determine the conditions for successful
socio-psychological adaptation of the student's personality
in order to further self-development by means of
acmeological approach.
To achieve this goal, the following tasks are set: to
establish the features of socio-psychological adaptation of
the individual in the new conditions of existence that affect
the success of the adaptation process; to consider
information technologies in the self-development
effectiveness.
Thus, the sociological analysis of adaptation processes is
presented in the works of V.I. Panov, V.V. Gritsenko,
A.G. Maklakov and others. The works of L.S. Vigotskiy,
A.V. Mudrik, A.V. Petrovsky, A. A. Rean and others are
devoted to the social activity of the individual and its role
in social adaptation.
Since socio-psychological adaptation is presented as a
process to a new reality, educational environment, it is
necessary to consider the most significant works on the
problem of creating effective conditions for successful
person’s socio-psychological adaptation during the
transition to distance learning. V.I. Panov characterizes the
educational environment as the system ofpedagogical and
psychological conditions and influences that create an
opportunity for the disclosure of as yet undeveloped
interests and abilities, and for the development of already
manifested abilities of the individual”, taking into account
the available natural inclinations and requirements of age-
related socialization [2, p. 71].
To determine such pedagogical and psychological
conditions, we considered the acmeological researches by
A.A. Derkach, A.A. Bodalev [3], A.A. Rean [4],
J. Limoges, K. Jagos [5], R. M. Shaminov [6] and others,
since the tasks of acmeology are to study the regularities of
achieving acme, identifying conditions, factors, and means
that contribute or hinder the achievement of peaks in
development, self-realization.
Digital information technologies were considered by
S. Ahuja, D. Yadav [7], Y. Tabesh [8], E. Howell [9],
N. Kucirkova, T. Cremin [10], L. McNeil [11], J. Sargent,
A. Casey [12], C. Blundell, S. Nykvist [13]. The role of
information technologies in the different spheres of life
was analyzed by M. Dorofeyev, M. Kоsov, V. Ponkratov,
A. Masterov, A. Karaev, M. Vasyunina [14], V.A ,Slepov,
V.K. Burlachkov, T.P. Danko, M.E. Kosov, I.I. Volkov,
O.A. Grishina, V.D. Sekerin [15].
1.2. Our Contribution
This paper presents some improvements based on the
acmeological influence in the context of personal self
realization [3] during the transition to distance learning in
order to prevent the threat of potential infection with a new
coronavirus infection, which is associated with person’s
socio-psychological adaptation to the new social
conditions of existence. Scientific and methodological
recommendations and conclusions are obtained on the
basis of the theoretical analysis of future persons’ socio-
psychological qualities, which provide improving the
effectiveness of the adaptation process in the transition to
distance learning.
1.3. Paper Structure
The rest of the paper is organized as follows. Section 2
introduces the research methodology used in this paper.
Section 3 presents results of the study and discussion of
ones. Then section 4 concludes the paper and presents
direction for future research.
2. BACKGROUND
In order to achieve this goal, we used complementary
theoretical research methods: analysis of philosophical,
sociological, psychological, pedagogical, social,
engineering literature on the problem under consideration;
analysis of documentation on the organization of the
educational process at the University for the theoretical
justification of the essence, functions, indicators of
communicative readiness, analysis, synthesis and
systematization of the main approaches. On the basis of
theoretical analysis of socio-psychological qualities of the
future engineers received scientific guidance and insights
that improve the efficiency of the process of formation of
communicative readiness of future engineers in high
school.
The degree of socio-psychological adaptation is
determined by the adaptive resources of the individual and
the characteristics of the specific environment in which the
Advances in Economics, Business and Management Research, volume 138
1272
basic needs of the individual are met in a positive attitude,
which is possible only if the results of the individual's
activity meet the requirements of society. Adaptive
resources of a person are represented by socio-
psychological and individual characteristics that determine
the adaptation level in specific social conditions.
We identify the following indicators of productivity and
effectiveness of adaptation: positive social identity,
satisfaction with relationships with a new environment;
high activity, satisfaction with the meaning of life and an
optimistic assessment of the life situation; actualization of
developed needs for self-actualization; satisfaction with
professional activities as the most important condition for
realizing the need for self-actualization; emotional
stability.
The choice of research methods is determined by the
nature of research tasks. The research strategy was based
on an acmeological approach. The comparative method
was used as a main.
As part of the modernization of the education system, the
transition to the use of modern teaching methods and
technologies aimed at the continuous development and
further improvement of communication skills and
motivation should be ensured. Education can be
considered as a system of humanitarian technologies that
serves as a sphere of socio-humanitarian creativity, when
self-actualization, emotional stability and self-
development take place. These technologies include
technology for developing critical thinking and reflexive
learning.
Any change in a person's life, even minor, situational,
requires adaptive readiness in the form of openness to
experience, and efforts to coordinate external and internal
instances. In the process of adaptation to the new
educational environment, there is a change in the system
of emotional and evaluative relations of a person to
himself and the surrounding world, which not only
expresses the internal "subjective world" of the individual,
but is realized or manifested in an external fact.
The development of personality in this interpretation is
generally considered as the process of entering a new
social environment and integration in it. Three main
phases of this process were identified:
the adaptation phase (which involves the assimilation
of existing values and norms and mastering the appropriate
means and methods of activity);
the phase of individualization (as a result of the
contradiction between the need to be "like everyone else"
and the desire to stand out from the background);
the integration phase (as a connection with the desire
to be represented with their own characteristics and
differences, as well as the need of the community to accept
the individual).
Self-actualization and self-realization of the individual
must be combined with its adaptation, individualization
and integration. Self-actualization and self-realization have
a certain similarity to the processes of individualization,
but they have a different quality: just to differ is not a aim,
but to do it due to professional, personal or spiritual
achievements, a system of relationships is the main thing
in the acmeological understanding.
E-learning is a new approach, new technologies that can
create a favorable environment for self-development, when
the individual acquires independence and autonomy, that
is, individualization and socialization are interrelated parts
of a single process of personal development.
From the acmeological point of view, personality develops
in two areas potential and actual. The sphere of potential
includes: socio-psychological features; abilities; social
opportunities of the educational environment that can be
used for personal development.
The relevant areas are:qualitatively newly transformed
potential; external manifestations of the really functioning.
Thus, the person’s development can be progressive, and
perhaps harmonious, if it is carried out in both areas, and
not in isolation. However, in acmeology, the potential of
the individual is considered from its own position as a
system of constantly replenished and renewable resources.
Digital technologies, which are actively and rapidly
developing in the context of scientific and technological
progress, can have a serious impact on the upbringing and
development of the individual, help both in the educational
process and beyond it [16]. For example, they are needed
when organizing scientific work of students. At the same
time, they can be used both for consultations and
discussion of preliminary versions of scientific papers, and
can be, for example, applied to improve knowledge and
skills, characterological properties, etc., which is
associated with personal and professional development.
The renewable part of the potential of the individual now
depends mainly on the subject itself and to a much lesser
extent on society or the state, which now does not have a
humanistic-oriented policy and ideology.
Digital technologies are of particular importance when
organizing students' team work in remote mode, since they
allow to take into account the most convenient time for
everyone, exchange any materials, discuss them, ideas,
conduct brief surveys and even vote for making
appropriate decisions, etc.
The coronavirus pandemic has prompted a request to
monitor digital technologies application by educational
institutions. So, in particular, to assess the use of digital
educational technologies in the educational process, a
corresponding index can be used - a comprehensive index
of distance technologies application in the educational
process (further CIDTAEP =
W1*x1+W2*x2+….+Wn*Xn, where
W percentage of the corresponding element
X this is the value of the corresponding element
n a number of included elements
According to the authors’ mind, this formula can
be modified for each country and even for each training
area, taking into account the relevant features as much as
possible. Potential evaluation criteria may include the
following: the use of social networks, online courses of the
relevant university on certain issues of the taught
disciplines, visual instructions and guidelines for the
implementation of various works provided for in the
Advances in Economics, Business and Management Research, volume 138
1273
curriculum (term papers, final qualifying works, essays,
etc.).
It is important to note that the social networks application
has a great positive value in the context of student
consultations. In particular, the social network
"Vkontakte" allows to create very convenient visually and
instrumentally communities and joint chats, where
students can quickly ask questions and get answers (see
picture 1). At the same time, communities have the
opportunity to post various materials (task collections,
answers to the most frequently asked questions, a list of
questions for preparing for the interim certification, select
the discussion of the most difficult tasks as a separate
dialog), organize an online video broadcast and provide
access to it for members of the relevant community after
the its conducting.
.
Figure 1 Screen of foreign language classes in the
social network "Vkontakte"
In order to increase the interactivity of the educational
process and objective control providing of students'
knowledge, it may be recommended to use the "Kahoot"
service. The teacher can create test tasks of different types
(including those with several correct answers), setting their
own "cost in points" for each question (thus maneuvering
based on the complexity of the tasks). While using this
system an advantage will be associated with the lack of
subjectivity in evaluating students' knowledge.
3. DISCUSSION OF THE RESULTS
Among the possible disadvantages and limitations is the
lack of an Internet connection on the teaching device or
staff (the latter is relevant if the lesson is held remotely
and the research and teaching staff shares the screen with
students (if the speed is not high enough, both on the
sending and receiving sides, the information may not be
transmitted or transmitted in very low resolution).
After testing, the lecturer is able to use the reports
provided by the system for uploading, identify problem
blocks and repeat this material at the next (one of the next)
classes or in preparation for the lesson. At the same time, it
is important to use this formula to compare institutions and
then build appropriate ratings and encourage rating
leaders. The results obtained can also be used as scientific
and methodological recommendations in providing the
effectiveness of the adaptation process in the transition to
distance learning.
The development of complex individual abilities is usually
carried out in the process of learning, self-study and
professional activity. But it should be remembered that this
can be done individually in the process of using
acmeological technologies or using acmeological training.
It cannot completely replace humanitarian technologies for
the integral development of the individual, because
feedback, dialogue/communication between all
participants of the communication process are required.
The main pedagogical purpose of the information
technologies application is the self-development and self-
realization of persons. Active use of Internet technologies,
telecommunication means in the educational process helps
to facilitate learning and speed up the educational process.
Among the existing information technologies the most
popular are the following:
1. Electronic conference (computer conferences, allow to
receive the texts of messages on the monitor of the user's
computer transmitted by the participants of the
"conference", located at different distances from each
other).
2. Teleconference and video phone, which provide two-
way communication between the teacher and students.
In the context of electronic conference and teleconference
it is possible to apply technology visualization of the
educational information: mind map (mental map, chart,
links, map of thoughts, associative map, mind map),
conducting brainstorming sessions, preparation of trees of
concepts, technology, critical thinking, clusters,
infographics, scribing and the technology of asking
questions: the technique of asking questions "6Why",
cross-discussion and others.
4. CONCLUSION
This process of personal self realization development by
means of information technologies application is
accompanied by significant changes in the pedagogical
theory and practice of the educational process, associated
with the introduction of adjustments to the content of
learning technologies that should be adequate to modern
technical capabilities, and contribute to the harmonious
person’s adaptation to the information environment. At the
same time, it is important to warn against actively
replacing intramural learning with distance learning. At
the same time, digital technologies and interaction in
remote mode can significantly improve the quality of the
educational process in full-time format due to the ability to
diversify the content and formats of their conduct.
Scientific and methodological recommendations and
conclusions obtained on the basis of the theoretical
analysis can be applied in order to provide improving the
effectiveness of the adaptation process in the transition to
distance learning.
The direction for future research may be represented be the
investigation of effective conditions for person’s socio-
Advances in Economics, Business and Management Research, volume 138
1274
psychological adaptation in the new educational
environment, taking into accounts both group and
individual aspect.
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