Conference Paper

Conditional Anonymity enabled Blockchain-based Ad Dissemination in Vehicular Ad-hoc Network

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... Group signatures and vector-based encryption [35] Identity privacy Pseudonyms [36] Identity privacy Pseudonyms [37] Identity privacy Location privacy Pseudonym change scheme [38] Identity privacy Private ledger for identity information transactions [39] Identity privacy ...
Preprint
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With the rapid development of the Internet of Things (IoT) and its potential integration with the traditional Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks (VANETs), we have witnessed the emergence of the Internet of Vehicles (IoV), which promises to seamlessly integrate into smart transportation systems. However, the key characteristics of IoV, such as high-speed mobility and frequent disconnections make it difficult to manage its security and privacy. The Blockchain, as a distributed tamper-resistant ledge, has been proposed as an innovative solution that guarantees privacy-preserving yet secure schemes. In this paper, we review recent literature on the application of blockchain to IoV, in particular, and intelligent transportation systems in general.
... The concept of blockchain is introduced in 2008 by Satoshi Nakamoto [27] and the first of its application is the Bitcoin. Blockchain is a shared ledger that facilitates the process of recording transactions and tracking assets in a distributed network [28]. Within the last decade, blockchain has become the focus of many researchers, stakeholders and industries spanning from voting, healthcare, finance, real estate and utilities. ...
Research Proposal
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In today's smart community, smart grids (SGs) have emerged as a promising solution to the future generation of the power system. In SG, smart meters automatically collect and act on information such as the behavior of consumers and suppliers. The information collected is used to improve the efficiency, reliability and sustainability of the distribution and generation of electricity. However, major challenges faced in SG are privacy, dynamic pricing and trust. This study combines pail-lier cryptosystem, differential privacy and blockchain technique to resolve the problems of data privacy, integrity and ownership. These techniques are implemented on data sharing and energy trading. Data of each prosumer is first encrypted by paillier cryptosystem at the off-chain level and then recorded in a distributed ledger at the back end level. Prosumer who want to access his encrypted data communicates with the corresponding aggregator and decrypts the encrypted data off-chain that results in minimum gas consumption and transaction fee. A new proof of authority (PoA) consensus mechanism is proposed to achieve minimum gas consumption and cost. In the PoA, the reputation score for each node is derived using the PageRank mechanism. In addition, the security analyses of PoA are performed based on similarity attack, double spending attack and birthday collision resilience. Furthermore, the characteristics of the PoA in terms of consistency, availability and partition tolerance are addressed. Note that the blockchain conducted a privacy risk negotiation with the service provider before prosumer's data is shared. In addition, blockchain serves as a broker to ensure fair energy trading among prosumers. In our scenario, two categories of prosumers are considered, such as mobile prosumers and static prosumers. This study provides three security definitions of the proposed models, which are secure two-party computation, secure temporal information and secure spatial information. In addition, threat models and their security analyses are discussed. Finally, preliminary simulation results of the proposed schemes are also presented.
Thesis
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Data sharing is a fascinating in-vehicle service which provide multiple benefits to the vehicle users in the Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks (VANETs). One of the interesting in-vehicle services is advertisement sharing in VANETs which enable advertisers to market their products and services in the areas of the users interest. With the help of Blockchain (BC) technology, the vehicle users can also participate in the ads dissemination process to gain monetary incentives. However, the existing BC based VANET schemes suffer from privacy, security and efficiency issues. Zero Knowledge Proof of Knowledge (ZKPoK) and certificate-less cryptography are used in the existing schemes to enable fair incentive provision and privacy preservation. These schemes incur high computational cost on the resource constrained vehicles. Moreover, the lack of conditional anonymity in the existing schemes makes the system vulnerable to internal attacker scenario. Furthermore, VANETs require secure and efficient reputation verification mechanism to prevent replay attacks and reduce the storage cost. Additionally, the reliance on a centralized entity for the certificate revocation makes the system wide open to the single point of failure vulnerability. To overcome these issues, a BC based secure, efficient and conditional anonymity enabled scheme is proposed. Elliptic Curve Digital Signature based pseudonym update mechanism is employed to enable conditional anonymity and trace malicious vehicles. InterPlanetary File System is used to efficiently store the vehicles' reputation information and reduce the storage overhead. Moreover, the Shamir Secret Sharing algorithm is used to enable distributed revocation. Security analysis is performed to show that the proposed scheme is secure against multiple known attacks. The simulation results show the effectiveness and practicality of the proposed scheme.
Thesis
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This thesis examines the use of blockchain technology with the Electric Vehicles (EVs) to tackle different issues related to the existing systems like privacy, security, lack of trust, etc., and to promote transparency, data immutability and tamper proof nature. Moreover, in this study, a new and improved charging strategy, termed as Mobile vehicle-to-Vehicle (M2V) charging strategy, is used to charge the EVs. It is further compared with conventional Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) and Grid-to-Vehicle (G2V) charging strategies to prove its efficacy. In the proposed work, the charging of vehicles is done in a Peer-to-Peer (P2P) manner to remove the intermediary parties and deal with the issues related to them. Moreover, to store the data related to traffic, roads and weather conditions, a Transport System Information Unit (TSIU) is used, which helps in reducing road congestion and minimizing road side accidents. In TSIU, InterPlanetary File System (IPFS) is utilized to store the data in a secured manner. Furthermore, mathematical formulation of the total charging cost, the shortest distance between EVs and charging entities, and the time taken to traverse the shortest distance and to charge the vehicles is done using real time data of EVs. The phenomena of range anxiety and coordination at the crossroads are also dealt with in the study. Moving ahead, edge service providers are introduced to ensure efficient service provisioning. These nodes ensure smooth communication with EVs for successful service provisioning. A caching system is also introduced at the edge nodes to store frequently used services. The power flow and the related energy losses for G2V, V2V and M2V charging strategies are also discussed in this work. In addition, an incentive provisioning mechanism is proposed on the basis of timely delivery of credible messages, which further promotes users’ participation. Furthermore, a hybrid blockchain based vehicular announcement scheme is proposed through which secure and reliable announcement dissemination is realized. In addition, IOTA Tangle is used, which ensures decentralization of the system. The real identities of the vehicles are hidden using the pseudo identities generated through an Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC) based pseudonym update mechanism. Moreover, the lightweight trustworthiness verification of vehicles is performed using a Cuckoo Filter (CF). It also prevents revealing the reputation values given to the vehicles upon information dissemination. To reduce the delays caused due to inefficient digital signature verification, transactions are verified in the form of batches. Furthermore, a blockchain based revocation transparency enabled data-oriented trust model is proposed. Password Authenticated Key Exchange by Juggling (J-PAKE) scheme is used in the proposed model to enable mutual authentication. To prevent collusion attacks, message credibility check is performed using Real-time Message Content Validation (RMCV) scheme. Furthermore, K-anonymity algorithm is used to anonymize the reputation data and prevent privacy leakage by restricting the identification of the predictable patterns present in the reputation data. To enable revocation transparency, a Proof of Revocation (PoR) is designed for the revoked vehicles. The vehicle records are stored in IPFS. To enhance the chances of correct information dissemination, incentives are provided to the vehicles using a reputation based incentive mechanism. To check the robustness of the proposed model, attacker models are designed and tested against different attacks including selfish mining attack, double spending attack, etc. To prove the efficiency of the proposed work, extensive simulations are performed. The simulation results prove that the proposed study achieves high success in making EVs energy efficient, secure and robust. Furthermore, the security analysis of the smart contracts used in the proposed work is performed using Oyente, which exhibits the secure nature of the proposed work.
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Intelligent vehicle (IV) is an internet-enabled vehicle, commonly referred to as a self-driving car, which enables vehicles-to-everything communications. This communication environment is not secure and has several vulnerabilities. The major issues in IV communication are trustworthiness, accuracy, and security of received and broadcasted data in the communication channel. In this article, we introduce blockchain technology to build trust and reliability in peer-to-peer networks with topologies similar to IV communication. Further, we propose a blockchain-technology-enabled IV communication use case. Blockchain technology is used to build a secure, trusted environment for IV communication. This trusted environment provides a secure, distributed, and decentralized mechanism for communication between IVs, without sharing their personal information in the intelligent transportation system. Our proposed method comprises of a local dynamic blockchain (LDB) and main blockchain, enabled with a secure and unique crypto ID called intelligent vehicle trust point (IVTP). The IVTP ensures trustworthiness among vehicles. Vehicles use and verify the IVTP with the LDB to communicate with other vehicles. For evaluation, we simulated our proposed blockchain technology-based IV communication in a common intersection deadlock use case. The performance of the traditional blockchain is evaluated with emphasis on real-time traffic scenarios. We also introduce LDB branching, along with a branching and un-branching algorithm for automating the branching process for IV communication.
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In online marketplaces (e-commerce, cloud marketplaces), potential buyers/consumers do not have direct access to inspect the quality of products and services offered by service providers or retailers of the marketplace. Therefore, consumers have to trust the reputation system of the online marketplace for deciding whether or not to interact with the particular service provider. Consumer's feedback about the service provider plays an important role to evaluate the trustworthiness of the service provider, but it brings the challenge of security and privacy of the feedback providers. Existing centralized reputation systems collect feedback from consumers about their service providers but they leak sensitive information about consumers transactions (such as buying history, likes and dislikes). To ensure the privacy of consumers, this paper presents a privacy-preserving decentralized reputation system named PrivBox that protects consumer's feedback values using homomorphic cryptographic methods and zero-knowledge proof primitives in a decentralized way. The design of PrivBox ensures the following characteristics. 1) It ensures the privacy of consumers without the use of any trusted setup or trusted third party, 2) it ensures that consumer's provided feedback value remains within the prescribed range, and 3) it enables consumers and service providers to verify the aggregated reputation without relying on any trusted third party. PrivBox achieves privacy-preservation properties using an encrypted exchange of feedback values and ensures well-formedness of encrypted values using zero-knowledge proof of knowledge. To evaluate the performance, we implement a prototype of the proposed system. The results demonstrate that our solution preserves privacy of participants while incurring only small computation and bandwidth overheads.
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A purely peer-to-peer version of electronic cash would allow online payments to be sent directly from one party to another without going through a financial institution. Digital signatures provide part of the solution, but the main benefits are lost if a trusted third party is still required to prevent double-spending. We propose a solution to the double-spending problem using a peer-to-peer network. The network timestamps transactions by hashing them into an ongoing chain of hash-based proof-of-work, forming a record that cannot be changed without redoing the proof-of-work. The longest chain not only serves as proof of the sequence of events witnessed, but proof that it came from the largest pool of CPU power. As long as a majority of CPU power is controlled by nodes that are not cooperating to attack the network, they'll generate the longest chain and outpace attackers. The network itself requires minimal structure. Messages are broadcast on a best effort basis, and nodes can leave and rejoin the network at will, accepting the longest proof-of-work chain as proof of what happened while they were gone.
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