Conference Paper

TFPMS: Transactions Filtering Pattern Matching Scheme for Vehicular Networks based on Blockchain

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The transformation of conventional grid into Smart Grid (SG) requires strategic implementation of the demand-sensitive programs while considering the varying fluctuations in the consumers’ load. The core challenges faced by existing electric system are that how to utilize electrical devices, how to tackle large amount of data generated by end devices and how to meet energy demands of consumers in limited resources. This dissertation is focused on the energy management of residential sector in the SG. For this purpose, we have proposed the Energy Management Controllers (EMCs) at three levels: at home level (including the single and multiple homes), at building level and at regional level. In addition, cloud and fog based environments are integrated to provide on-demand services according to the consumers’ demands and are used to tackle the problems in existing electric system. At first level, heuristic algorithms based EMC is developed for the energy management of single and multiple homes in residential sector. Five heuristic algorithms: genetic algorithm, binary particle swarm optimization algorithm, bacterial foraging optimization algorithm, wind driven optimization algorithm and our proposed hybrid genetic wind driven algorithm are used to develop the EMC. These algorithms are used for scheduling of the residential load during peak and off peak hours in a real time pricing environment for minimizing both the electricity cost and peak to average ratio while maximizing the user comfort. In addition, the advancements in the electrical system, smart meters and implementation of Renewable Energy Sources (RESs) have yielded extensive changes to the current power grid for meeting the consumers’ demand. For integrating RESs and Energy Storage System (ESS) in existing EMCs, we have proposed another Home EMC (HEMC) that manages the residential sector’s load. The proposed HEMC is developed using the earliglow algorithm for electricity cost reduction. At second level, a fuzzy logic based approach is proposed and implemented for the hot and cold regions of the world using the world-wide adaptive thermostat for the residential buildings. Results show that the proposed approach achieves a maximum energy savings of 6.5% as compared to the earlier techniques. In addition, two EMCs: binary particle swarm optimization fuzzy mamdani and binary particle swarm optimization fuzzy sugeno are proposed for energy management of daily and seasonally used appliances. The comfort evaluation of these loads is also performed using the Fanger’s Predicted Mean Vote method. For increasing the system automation and on-demand availability of the resources, we have proposed a cloud-fog-based model for intelligent resource management in SG for multiple regions at next level. To implement this model, we have proposed a new hybrid approach of Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) and artificial bee colony known as Hybrid Artificial Bee ACO (HABACO). Moreover, a new Cloud to Fog to Consumer (C2F2C) based framework is also proposed for efficiently managing the resources in the residential buildings. C2F2C is a three layered framework having cloud, fog and consumer layers, which are used for the efficient resource management in six regions of the world. In order to efficiently manage the computation of the large amount of data of the residential consumers, we have also proposed and implemented the deep neuro-fuzzy optimizer. The simulation results of the proposed techniques show that they have outperformed the previous techniques in terms of energy consumption, user comfort, peak to average ratio and cost optimization in the residential sector.
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Research into the established area of the intelligent transportation system is evolving into the Internet of Vehicles, a fast-moving research area, fuelled in part by rapid changes based on cyber-physical systems. It needs to be recognized that existing vehicular communication systems are susceptible to privacy vulnerabilities which require addressing. A practical challenge is that many vehicular communication applications and services make use of basic safety messages that contain the identity of the vehicle, location, and other personal data. A popular way of dealing with this privacy issue is to utilize a pseudonym change scheme to protect the vehicle's identity and location. However, many such schemes suffer that the cost grows and the certificate management difficulty raises with the number of pseudonyms generated and stored, casting doubt of the economic feasibility of that approach. We propose a decentralized blockchain-based solution for pseudonym management that overcomes these limitations. This scheme consists of pseudonym distribution and a shuffle operation, allowing the reuse of existing pseudonyms to different vehicles. The results reported here, including those from our simulations, demonstrate that the proposed scheme can reuse existing pseudonyms and achieve a better degree of anonymity at a lower cost than existing schemes.
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Smart contract technology is reshaping conventional industry and business processes. Being embedded in blockchains, smart contracts enable the contractual terms of an agreement to be enforced automatically without the intervention of a trusted third party. As a result, smart contracts can cut down administration and save services costs, improve the efficiency of business processes and reduce the risks. Although smart contracts are promising to drive the new wave of innovation in business processes, there are a number of challenges to be tackled. This paper presents a survey on smart contracts. We first introduce blockchains and smart contracts. We then present the challenges in smart contracts as well as recent technical advances. We also compare typical smart contract platforms and give a categorization of smart contract applications along with some representative examples.
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The vehicular ad-hoc networks (VANETs) is one of the most promising application in the communications of smart vehicles and the smart transportation systems. However, authentication and privacy of users are still two vital issues in VANETs. It is crucial to prevent internal vehicles from broadcasting the forged messages while preserving the privacy of vehicles against the tracking attack. Moreover, in the traditional mode, the transactional data storage provides no distributed and decentralized security, so that the third party initiates the dishonest behaviors possibly. In this paper, based on blockchain technique, we propose a traceable and decentralized the Internet of Vehicle system framework for communication among smart vehicles by employing of a secure access authentication scheme between vehicles and RoadSide Units (RSUs). On the one hand, this scheme allows that vehicles employ pseudonyms for Vehicle to Vehicle (V2V) and Vehicle to Infrastructure (V2I) communications anonymously in the non-fully trusted environment. On the other hand, the transparency of vehicles in authentication and announcement is preformed efficiently by the blockchain technology. In addition, the transaction information is tamper-resistant that provides the distributed and decentralized property for the different cloud servers. With the help of Certificate Authority (CA) and the RoadSide Units (RSUs), our proposal achieves the conditional privacy to trace the real identity of the malicious vehicle in the anonymous announcements as well. Finally, through the theoretical analysis and simulations, our scheme is able to construct a secure and decentralized system framework of VANETs with accountability and privacy preservation.
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The drastically increasing volume and the growing trend on the types of data have brought in the possibility of realizing advanced applications such as enhanced driving safety, and have enriched existing vehicular services through data sharing among vehicles and data analysis. Due to limited resource of vehicles, mobile edge computing integrated with vehicular networks gives rise to Vehicular Edge COmputing and Networks (VECONs) for providing powerful computing and massive storage resources. However, vehicular edge computing servers consisted of roadside units cannot be fully trusted, which may result in serious security and privacy challenges. We exploit consortium blockchain and smart contract technologies to achieve secure data storage and sharing in vehicular edge networks. These technologies efficiently prevent data sharing without authorization. In addition, we propose a reputation based data sharing scheme to ensure high-quality data sharing among vehicles. A three-weight subjective logic model is utilized for precisely managing reputation of the vehicles. Numerical results based on a real dataset show that our schemes achieve reasonable efficiency and high-level security for data sharing in VECONs.
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The public key infrastructure (PKI) based authentication protocol provides basic security services for the vehicular ad-hoc networks (VANETs). However, trust and privacy are still open issues due to the unique characteristics of VANETs. It is crucial to prevent internal vehicles from broadcasting forged messages while simultaneously preserving the privacy of vehicles against the tracking attacks. In this paper, we propose a blockchain-based anonymous reputation system (BARS) to establish a privacy-preserving trust model for VANETs. The certificate and revocation transparency is implemented efficiently with the proofs of presence and absence based on the extended blockchain technology. Public keys are used as pseudonyms in communications without any information about real identities for conditional anonymity. In order to prevent the distribution of forged messages, a reputation evaluation algorithm is presented relying on both direct historical interactions and indirect opinions about vehicles. A set of experiments is conducted to evaluate BARS in terms of security, validity, and performance and the results show that BARS is able to establish a trust model with transparency, conditional anonymity, efficiency, and robustness for VANETs.
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Vehicular networks enable vehicles to generate and broadcast messages in order to improve traffic safety and efficiency. However, due to the non-trusted environments, it is difficult for vehicles to evaluate the credibilities of received messages. In this paper, we propose a decentralized trust management system in vehicular networks based on blockchain techniques. In this system, vehicles can validate the received messages from neighboring vehicles using Bayesian Inference Model. Based on the validation result, the vehicle will generate a rating for each message source vehicle. With the ratings uploaded from vehicles, Roadside Units (RSUs) calculate the trust value offsets of involved vehicles and pack these data into a “block”. Then, each RSU will try to add their “blocks” to the trust blockchain which is maintained by all the RSUs. By employing the joint Proof-of-Work and Proof-of-Stake consensus mechanism, the more total value of offsets (stake) is in the block, the easier RSU can find the nonce for the hash function (proof-of-work). In this way, all RSUs collaboratively maintain an updated, reliable, and consistent trust blockchain. Simulation results reveal that the proposed system is effective and feasible in collecting, calculating, and storing trust values in vehicular networks.
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If all vehicles are connected together through a wireless communication channel, vehicular ad-hoc networks (VANETs) can support a wide range of real-time traffic information services such as intelligent routing, weather monitoring, emergency call. However, the accuracy and credibility of the transmitted messages among the VANETs is of paramount importance as life may depend on it. We introduce a novel framework called blockchain-assisted privacy-preserving authentication system (BPAS) that provides authentication automatically in VANETs as well as preserving the vehicle's privacyat the same time. This design is highly efficient and scalable. It does not require any online registration center (except for system initialization, vehicle registration), and allows conditional tracing and dynamic revocation of misbehaving vehicles. We conduct an in-depth security analysis of our proposed framework and a performance evaluation (built on the hyperledger fabric platform). The results demonstrate that our framework is an efficient solution for the development of a decentralized authentication system in VANETs.
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The privacy-preserving authentication is considered as the first line of defense against the attacks in addition to preserving the identity privacy of the vehicles in the vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs). However, the existing authentication schemes suffer from drawbacks such as nontransparency of the trusted authorities (TAs), heavy workload to revoke certificates, and high computation overhead to authenticate identities and messages. In this paper, we propose a blockchain-based privacy-preserving authentication (BPPA) scheme for VANETs. In BPPA, all the certificates and transactions are recorded permanently and immutably in the blockchain to make the activities of the semi-TAs transparent and verifiable. However, it remains a challenge how to use such blockchain effectively for authentication in real driving scenarios (e.g., high speed or large amount of messages during congestion). With a novel data structure named the Merkle Patricia tree (MPT), we extend the conventional blockchain structure to provide a distributed authentication scheme without the revocation list. To achieve conditional privacy, we allow a vehicle to use multiple certificates. The linkability between the certificates and real identity is encrypted and stored in the blockchain and can only be revealed in case of disputes. We evaluate the validity and performance of BPPA on the Hyperledger Fabric (HLF) platform for each entity. The experimental results show that the distributed authentication can be processed by individual vehicles within 1 ms, which meets the real-time requirement and is much more efficient, in terms of the processing time and storage requirement, than existing approaches.
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Carpooling enables passengers to share a vehicle to reduce traveling time, vehicle carbon emissions and traffic congestion. However, the majority of passengers lean to find local drivers, but querying a remote cloud server leads to an unnecessary communication overhead and an increased response delay. Recently, fog computing is introduced to provide local data processing with low latency, but it also raises new security and privacy concerns because users’ private information (e.g., identity, location) could be disclosed when theses information are shared during carpooling. While they can be encrypted before transmission, it makes user matching a challenging task and malicious users can upload false locations. Moreover, carpooling records should be kept in a distributed manner to guarantee reliable data auditability. To address these problems, we propose an efficient and privacy-preserving carpooling scheme using blockchain-assisted vehicular fog computing to support conditional privacy, one-to-many matching, destination matching and data auditability. Specifically, we authenticate users in a conditionally anonymous way. Also, we adopt private proximity test to achieve one-to-many proximity matching and extend it to efficiently establish a secret communication key between a passenger and a driver. We store all location grids into a tree and achieve get-off location matching using a range query technique. A private blockchain is built to store carpooling records. Finally, we analyze the security and privacy properties of the proposed scheme, and evaluate its performance in terms of computational costs and communication overhead. IEEE
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Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) are becoming the most promising research topic in intelligent transportation systems, because they provide information to deliver comfort and safety to both drivers and passengers. However, unique characteristics of VANETs make security, privacy, and trust management challenging issues in VANETs' design. This survey article starts with the necessary background of VANETs, followed by a brief treatment of main security services, which have been well studied in other fields. We then focus on an in-depth review of anonymous authentication schemes implemented by five pseudonymity mechanisms. Because of the predictable dynamics of vehicles, anonymity is necessary but not sufficient to thwart tracking an attack that aims at the drivers' location profiles. Thus, several location privacy protection mechanisms based on pseudonymity are elaborated to further protect the vehicles' privacy and guarantee the quality of location-based services simultaneously. We also give a comprehensive analysis on various trust management models in VANETs. Finally, considering that current and near-future applications in VANETs are evaluated by simulation, we give a much-needed update on the latest mobility and network simulators as well as the integrated simulation platforms. In sum, this paper is carefully positioned to avoid overlap with existing surveys by filling the gaps and reporting the latest advances in VANETs while keeping it self-explained.
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A purely peer-to-peer version of electronic cash would allow online payments to be sent directly from one party to another without going through a financial institution. Digital signatures provide part of the solution, but the main benefits are lost if a trusted third party is still required to prevent double-spending. We propose a solution to the double-spending problem using a peer-to-peer network. The network timestamps transactions by hashing them into an ongoing chain of hash-based proof-of-work, forming a record that cannot be changed without redoing the proof-of-work. The longest chain not only serves as proof of the sequence of events witnessed, but proof that it came from the largest pool of CPU power. As long as a majority of CPU power is controlled by nodes that are not cooperating to attack the network, they'll generate the longest chain and outpace attackers. The network itself requires minimal structure. Messages are broadcast on a best effort basis, and nodes can leave and rejoin the network at will, accepting the longest proof-of-work chain as proof of what happened while they were gone.
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