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Although an important goal of learner peer feedback is promoting critical thinking, little attention has been paid to the nature of the topic, particularly whether it is controversial. In this article, we report on a study where 52 English majors were asked to comment on essays written by their peers using the PeerMark module of Turnitin. Half of the essays were about controversial topics in the Saudi society (e.g., women driving and banning cigarettes), whereas the other half were less controversial (e.g., importance of sleep and respecting parents). Our results showed that the participants provided significantly more critical, global comments on controversial essays. At the same time, this increase in global comments did not come at the expense of local, language-related comments-in that the participants did not provide significantly fewer language comments on controversial essays. The participants also reported favorable attitudes toward this task due to the convenience and anonymity of online feedback, thus allowing them to express their opinions more freely on controversial topics. We therefore concluded that utilizing an online platform that permits double-blind peer review on controversial essays seems to have to the potential to stimulate critical thinking among language learners.
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R E S E A R C H A R T I C L E Open Access
Turnitin peer feedback: controversial vs.
non-controversial essays
Mohammed Abdullah Alharbi
and Ali H. Al-Hoorie
* Correspondence: maalharbi@mu.
Department of English, Faculty of
Education, Majmaah University,
Majmaah, 11952, Saudi Arabia
Full list of author information is
available at the end of the article
Although an important goal of learner peer feedback is promoting critical thinking,
little attention has been paid to the nature of the topic, particularly whether it is
controversial. In this article, we report on a study where 52 English majors were
asked to comment on essays written by their peers using the PeerMark module of
Turnitin. Half of the essays were about controversial topics in the Saudi society (e.g.,
women driving and banning cigarettes), whereas the other half were less
controversial (e.g., importance of sleep and respecting parents). Our results showed
that the participants provided significantly more critical, global comments on
controversial essays. At the same time, this increase in global comments did not
come at the expense of local, language-related commentsin that the participants
did not provide significantly fewer language comments on controversial essays. The
participants also reported favorable attitudes toward this task due to the
convenience and anonymity of online feedback, thus allowing them to express their
opinions more freely on controversial topics. We therefore concluded that utilizing
an online platform that permits double-blind peer review on controversial essays
seems to have to the potential to stimulate critical thinking among language
Keywords: Turnitin, Peer review, Controversial topics, Critical feedback, Online
For decades, peer feedback has attracted a great deal of interest for researchers in both
first language and second language (L2) learning. This interest reflects the potential of
peer feedback for fostering critical thinking (e.g., Lam, 2013; Li & Li, 2017; Min, 2006;
Tsui & Ng, 2000), for the development of writing competence (Chen, 2014; Ferris &
Hedgcock, 2005; Flower & Hayes, 1981; Ho & Savignon, 2007; Hyland & Hyland, 2019;
Zamel, 1982), and for uncovering the processes and dynamics involved in L2 peer
interaction (e.g., Chang, 2016a; Li & Li, 2017; Li & Li, 2018; Wu, Petit, & Chen, 2015).
Some research has shown that peer feedback helps to engage learners in writing and
revision effectively (e.g., Yang, Badger, & Yu, 2006) and helps enhance audience aware-
ness and appreciation of what purpose a piece of writing should serve (e.g., Lee, 2015).
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Alharbi and Al-Hoorie International Journal of Educational Technology in Higher
Education (2020) 17:17
Nevertheless, scholars have also reported challenges (e.g., class discipline, time man-
agement, student resistance) in peer feedback conducted in face-to-face settings (Ferris
& Hedgcock, 2005; Kim, 2015; Leki, 1990; Liu & Hansen, 2002). Therefore, researchers
have begun to investigate the use of technology to facilitate peer feedback such as wikis
(e.g., Bradley, 2014), synchronous chatting (e.g., Chang, 2012; Liang, 2010), Turnitin-
based peer feedback (Li & Li, 2017; Li & Li, 2018), and blogs (e.g., Chen, 2012), signifi-
cantly widening the range of tools available. In this study, we examined the role of how
controversial the writing topic was on the type of feedback given by peers through
Turnitin. Although Turnitin is most famously known as a plagiarism detection tool for
student essays (Buckley & Cowap, 2013; Penketh & Beaumont, 2014), its new tool,
PeerMark, is specifically designed to facilitate online peer feedback.
Literature review
Peer feedback in L2 writing
Learner peer feedback (or peer review) refers to the process of collaboration between
learners on improving a piece of writing. The writer may receive comments, orally or
in writing, during the initial stages of brainstorming and outlining up to the very final
stages when the writing is complete. According to a systematic review by Chang
(2016b), previous research on peer feedback has focused on one of three major lines of
research. One line of research examined the perceptions and attitudes of learners to-
ward peer feedback as a pedagogic strategy. Another line of research examined the
process of peer feedback and its different implementation procedures. A third line of re-
search looked at the product of peer feedback and what learning outcomes are achieved
from it.
In relation to product-focused peer feedback, some investigators examined how ef-
fective it can be in improving the learners writing. Some research suggests that learners
can provide constructive comments to their peers, and the majority of this feedback is
subsequently incorporated to improve the quality of writing (Li, 2018). Product-focused
peer feedback has also been classified in different ways (e.g., Chang, 2012; Li & Li,
2017). One classification that is helpful in shedding light on the impact of peer feed-
back is to distinguish between local and global comments. Global comments involve
feedback on development of ideas, purpose, organization, argumentation, and identifi-
cation of audience; local comments focus more narrowly on language-related issues
such as vocabulary, phrasing, syntax, and mechanics.
Some research examining this globallocal distinction has explored its manifestation
in online versus face-to-face settings. An early study by Hewett (2000) suggested that
face-to-face feedback may place more emphasis on global areas whereas online feed-
back may be more concerned with local areas (see also Tuzi, 2004). However, other re-
searchers argued that this pattern may not be inherently related to online versus face-
to-face settings. That is, it is possible that some learners may overemphasize local ra-
ther than global areas simply due to lack of experience in providing feedback (Tsui &
Ng, 2000) or to more familiarity with pen-and-paper-based feedback compared to
software-based feedback (e.g., Bradley, 2014). Other variables affecting feedback type in-
clude cultural differences and deficient L2 rhetorical schemes (e.g., Ferris & Hedgcock,
2005). Liu and Sadler (2003) additionally argued that differences could emerge as a
Alharbi and Al-Hoorie International Journal of Educational Technology in Higher Education (2020) 17:17 Page 2 of 17
result of mode of interaction (i.e., synchronous vs. asynchronous). Deliberate training
and modeling can also increase the quantity and quality of global comments (e.g.,
Chang, 2015; Min, 2005,2006; Rahimi, 2013).
Finally, some research suggests that online peer feedback might be superior to face-
to-face feedback in certain respects. Online peer feedback tends to generate a larger
number of comments (Chang, 2012), and these comments tend to be more revision-
oriented, thus helping learners improve their essays. The convenience that technology
provides also seems to contribute to the quality of comments compared to face-to-face
peer feedback (Sengupta, 2001; Tuzi, 2004). Unlike face-to-face feedback, online peer
feedback seems to allow the learner to read essays more carefully at their own pace and
then formulate more quality feedback. Online peer feedback has additionally been
found to promote more participation of learners (Chang, 2016b; Guardado & Shi,
2007) due to the comparatively less threatening situation for learners who have con-
cerns about their English speaking proficiency and consequently prefer to remain silent
in a conventional classroom setting (Liu & Sadler, 2003). Moreover, online peer feed-
back may reduce stress, especially when typed-up comments can be made anonymous
(e.g., Bradley, 2014; Coté, 2014; Rourke, Mendelssohn, Coleman, & Allen, 2008).
From the above review, it is clear that while research to date has investigated various
aspects related to peer feedback, little attention has been paid to the writing topic itself.
Some topics have more personal meaning and value, potentially eliciting a different pat-
tern of feedback as a result. Other topics might have controversial connotations (e.g.,
political, religious), and so learners might engage differently with peer feedback. Peer
feedback research has generally tended to avoid such controversial topics perhaps due
to the sensitivity of this approach. However, the anonymity of online feedback might
encourage deeper engagement in these topics, thus plausibly stimulating critical
Critical thinking in L2 writing
In our context, critical thinking can be defined as studentsappropriate reasoning,
questioning, and critical evaluation, when receiving new information or applying previ-
ous knowledge to new situations(Liu, Lin, Chiu, & Yuan, 2001, p. 248). Because of its
potential value, the topic of critical thinking has received some attention in L2 writing
research (e.g., Floyd, 2011; Indah, 2017; Miri & Azizi, 2018). Critical thinking seems to
be crucial to success in university-level writing courses (Cheung, Rudowicz, Kwan, &
Yue, 2002; Floyd, 2011; Moore, 2004; Phillips & Bond, 2004). As Weigle (2002) states,
Writing and critical thinking are seen as closely linked, and expertise in writing is seen
as an indication that students have mastered the cognitive skills required for university
work(p. 5). Critical thinking is a challenge for L2 learners not only because they need
to utilize higher-order thinking skills, but also because they have to do so in a second
language (Floyd, 2011).
A number of experimental studies have shown that introducing critical thinking ac-
tivities to writing courses improves learnerswriting skills. In one study by Khoda-
bakhsh, Jahandar, and Khodabandehlou (2013), the researchers examined the impact of
critical thinking tasks on paragraph writing ability of L2 learners. The experimental
participants, who tackled critical thinking tasks, improved their writing skills in
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comparison to the control participants. Likewise, Miri and Azizi (2018) investigated the
impact of teaching critical thinking skills on L2 learnerswriting ability. The experi-
mental group received more instruction and practice on critical thinking techniques.
The researchers found that these critical thinking techniques significantly improved the
experimental learnerswriting skills.
Engagement with peer review, particularly global feedback, seems to be an activity
that has the potential to promote critical thinking. This process has been described a
critical thinking spillover effect(Deloach & Greenlaw, 2005, p. 150) that is augmented
through the use to technology. Especially when the topic of discussion is controversial,
the L2 learner has the opportunity to reflect on a peers argumentation and critique it.
To do that, the learner has to conceptualize, analyze, synthesize, and evaluate the argu-
ment presented by the essay writer. The learner is additionally expected to sustain a
level of critical thinking, involving higher-order thinking and reasoning skills, even
when a peers writing is not perfectly intelligible and when asking for clarification is
not an option. Besides, since the learner is aware that the essay writer is a (mortal) peer,
rather than an expert or another authority figure, this may further encourage him/her
to think more critically (see also Lynch, McNamara, & Seery, 2012; McMahon, 2010;
Yang, 2016, for similar arguments).
Findings by Li and Li (2017) provide some evidence that online peer feedback can
stimulate critical thinking when the writing topic revolves around a controversial issue.
In that study, the researchers gave 13 L2 learners two tasks: summaryresponse and ar-
gumentative. The summaryresponse task elicited slightly more local comments than
global comments. When it came to the argumentative task, however, the global com-
ments elicited were more than double the number of local comments. This pattern
could be due to the fact that the argumentative task was about an up-to-date conten-
tious topic(Li & Li, 2017, p. 24), thus encouraging peers to bring in their own atti-
tudes, beliefs, and convictions. Thanks to the convenience technology affords, the
possibility to access all papers and all reviews seemed to have played an important role
in sharpening their critical thinking skills by addressing global issues(Li & Li, 2017,p.
34). Therefore, it seems plausible that engaging learners in peer review of controversial
essays can be a useful strategy to stimulate global feedback.
Turnitin has primarily been used for originality check and plagiarism detection in a
written text (Rolfe, 2011). However, Turnitin also contains two other modules, namely
GradeMark and PeerMark, to help students monitor their learning and gain support in
academic writing (Li, 2018; Li & Li, 2017,2018). Some researchers have examined in-
structor feedback on student writing via the GradeMark tool of Turnitin, where
teachers provide electronic comments on each students paper submitted to Turnitin.
For instance, Buckley and Cowap (2013) explored 11 university instructorsperspectives
on the use of the GradeMark feature. The participants mentioned a number of
strengths, most notably the ease and speed of marking certain assignment formats.
Buckley and Cowaps findings are in line with those by Henderson (2008), who noted
that providing online feedback through Turnitin automates parts of the process. This
for example allows the marker to avoid having to handwrite the same comments
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repeatedly to different learners. Instructor comments on GradeMark deal with various
issues including critical aspects of assignments, referencing, grammar, and writing me-
chanics (Reed, Watmough, & Duvall, 2015).
PeerMark is another feature of Turnitin that has only recently attracted writing re-
searchersattention (see Fig. 1). The primary function of PeerMark is for learners to
read and comment on each others essays. When students submit their essays through
Turnitin, the instructor can either start grading and giving feedback on each essay, or
forward these essays to other students in the class to read and evaluate. Both essay
writers and peer reviewers can either be attributed or anonymized by the class in-
structor. The instructor can also assign a certain number of essays for each student to
review by a deadline, after which reviews can no longer be written, completed, or edi-
ted. Upon completing a review, feedback becomes immediately available to the essay
Peer reviewers can read, review, score, and evaluate each essay. To do that, peer re-
viewers have three main tools at their disposal, namely commenting tools, composition
marks, and direct questions. Commenting tools allow peer reviewers to highlight part
of a text and insert a comment on it (see Fig. 2). The second tool, composition marks,
offers peer reviewers a set of symbols representing common issues found in student
writing. Examples of these symbols include word choice, spelling errors, and run-on
sentences (see Fig. 3). Because these issues are common, composition marks allow peer
reviewers to save time by dragging the relevant symbol and dropping it where the issue
appears in the text. Finally, direct questions are a set of specific questions about the
quality of the essay set in advance by the class instructor. Peer reviewers are expected
to answer these questions, which can be free response or scale questions, as they evalu-
ate the essay.
Our knowledge about PeerMark and how students utilize it is still limited since only
a handful of studies have examined it to date. In a study by Li and Li (2017), the au-
thors found that the majority of studentspeer feedback was revision-oriented on both
local areas (e.g., grammar, mechanics, vocabulary, and format) and global areas (e.g.,
organization, content, and referencing). The participants also evaluated their experience
with this tool favorably as reflected both by questionnaires and interviews. In another
study by Li and Li (2018), both the class instructor and the students found this tool
Fig. 1 Types of assignments in Turnitin
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helpful in shifting the attention of students from local to global issues and from holistic
advice to specific suggestions, as well as facilitating classroom management (see also Li,
The present study
As we explained above, although some research has been conducted on peer feedback
and critical thinking, the type of essayparticularly whether it is dealing with a contro-
versial topichas not been systematically investigated. The primary aim of this study
was therefore to examine the potential of controversial essays in stimulating global
comments. Giving global feedback transcends superficiallanguage-related issues, re-
quiring a deeper-level understanding of the writers argument, the evidence provided to
support it, and how this evidence is organized (Li & Li, 2017; Lynch et al., 2012;
McMahon, 2010; Yang, 2016).
Fig. 2 Sample of a peer reviewers comments in PeerMark
Fig. 3 Composition marks that peer reviewers can drag and drop while providing feedback
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At the same time, because the task is in the L2, it is not clear whether focus on global
issues in controversial essays distracts from local issues. That is, it is possible that, in
controversial essays, local areas suffer in that learners receive fewer comments on local
issues from their peers.
Finally, we wanted to investigate the subjective experience of learners during this ac-
tivity. That is, even if learners objectively give more global comments on controversial
essays, the potentially sensitive nature of these topics might hinder full engagement
with them. Nevertheless, considering that all tasks can be performed in a double-blind
fashion, we expected that the participants would not feel uneasy about engaging with
these tasks.
To summarize, we posed the following three hypotheses:
Hypothesis 1: Students give more global comments in controversial essays, compared
with non-controversial essays.
Hypothesis 2: Students give fewer local comments in controversial essays, compared
with non-controversial essays.
Hypothesis 3: Students do not feel uneasy about engaging with essays on controversial
topics, considering the double-blind nature of the process.
Addressing these issues has important pedagogical implications. If local comments
do become scarce in controversial essays, this may suggest that this approach is not
suitable for lessons with a central focus on improving local areas. Conversely, if the
number of global comments in controversial essays turns out to be comparable to that
in non-controversial essays, then instructors wont need to look for controversial topics
to elicit global feedback.
One class of 52 university students participated in this study. The participants (aged
2022) were male English majors at a major all-male Saudi university. They had been
admitted to the English department based on their IELTS exam scores, which is one of
the programs entrance requirements. The department requires a score of at least 4.0
on the IELTS to be admitted to the program.
The class in which this study was conducted was an advanced writing course offered
by the English department. The program the participants were enrolled in consists of
eight levels of English (each level is one semester long). The participants were at Level
4, which is the last level of the second year. The students were therefore considered to
be at around an intermediate level in writing by this point.
The participants used Turnitin to write essays and then obtain feedback from their
peers (see Procedure). The feedback was given using the PeerMark functionality in
Turnitin, which allows peers to make comments and forward them to the original au-
thors. Toward the end of the study, the participants completed an anonymous online
questionnaire adapted from Li and Li (2017) evaluating their experience using Turnitin.
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This questionnaire consisted of 12 items rated on a 5-point Likert scale where a higher
score indicates a more favorable attitude. The participants additionally answered open-
ended questions about their overall impression about the use of Turnitin for this task.
Because the participants were English majors, the questionnaire was administered in
English. The questionnaire was completed in class, and the instructor was present to
answer any queries about it.
The first step was to decide on controversial and non-controversial topics. We created
a list of 20 statements dealing with various social topics related to the Saudi society
and asked a group of students not participating in this study to rate the extent to which
they agreed or disagreed with each statement. These students were 44 in total and
came from the same institution as those participating in this study. We then selected
six statements that received a high level of agreement (around 90%) to serve as prompts
for non-controversial essays. Six other statements that received mixed responseswith
a roughly equivalent amount of agreement, disagreement, and undecidednesswere se-
lected for controversial essays (see Table 1for the full list of prompts used in this
study). This was an important step to ensure that controversial and non-controversial
prompts were perceived as such by a sample from the target population.
Second, we randomly selected 24 participants from the class participating in this
study to write a short essay using this list of prompts. This process generated two es-
says about each prompt in Table 1. This pool of 24 essays constituted an authentic
basis for the present study.
Third, the class instructor, who was the first author of the present paper, introduced
the PeerMark tool to the participants and step-by-step trained them on how to access,
read, and comment on these essays. The instructor also made it clear to the partici-
pants that comments can either be on local or on global areas, illustrating each with a
variety of examples.
Fourth, we forwarded the essays to the participants using the PeerMark functionality.
To ensure that controversial and non-controversial essays received equivalent exposure,
we randomly assigned the essays to the participants after anonymizing both essay
writers and peer reviewers. The participants read and commented on the essays within
2 weeks outside of class time. On average, each participant commented on between 8
Table 1 The list of controversial and non-controversial prompts used in this study
Controversial Prompts Non-controversial Prompts
Schoolchildren should have the choice to study English or
Learning English is important nowadays.
Cigarettes should be illegal in Saudi Arabia. Smoking is bad for health.
English should be taught by native speakers only. The Internet has become important in daily
Watching sports is a waste of time. Getting enough sleep is important for health.
University professors should give students more homework. Reading helps develop the mind.
Saudi women are better drivers than Saudi men.
It is important to respect your parents.
This topic attracted considerable attention at the time of this study due to a royal decree lifting a decades-old ban on
women driving
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and 9 essays. Each essay received a generally comparable number of comments from
each learner who reviewed it (typically 04), while the highest number of comments by
one learner on a single essay was 10 (all language-related comments on the non-
controversial prompt Learning English is important nowadays).
We obtained IRB approval from the Deanship of Scientific Research at Majmaah Uni-
versity. All participants signed an informed consent form indicating their desire to take
part in the study. The participants received no compensation for participation.
Throughout, the participants were treated according to APA ethical guidelines.
Data analysis
We coded the comments to determine whether each represented a local or a global
issue. A local area involved commenting on issues related to vocabulary, grammar, me-
chanics, and format. Global comments related to the essay content, its organization,
and the logic and evidence used to support the writers position. At first, two experts
with PhDs in Applied Linguistics coded 10% of the comments, Cohensκ= .97,
p< .001. Subsequently, one coder coded the remaining comments. In very few cases,
one comment contained both local- and global-related aspects (e.g., disagreeing with
the argument and then pointing out a problem with word usage). In these cases, the
comment was divided into two comments: local and global.
In terms of the evaluation survey, the questionnaire scale was analyzed using a one-
sample t-test (see Al-Hoorie & Vitta, 2019) to examine whether the overall mean was
significantly different from middle point of 3.0, which represents indifference. To en-
sure trustworthiness, two trained external raters conducted a line-by-line open coding
of the open-ended survey responses (Glaser & Strauss, 1967; Saldaña, 2016). They read
and reread responses to ensure validity and avoid bias in the analysis process. They
eventually identified three themes emerging from the data, two related to favorable as-
pects of the Turnitin experience and the other related to areas needing improvement in
this platform to make the activity more effective.
Table 2presents descriptive statistics of the results. When the study concluded, Peer-
Mark generated a total of 618 comments. On average, a participant made 11.88 com-
ments. The majority of these comments (68.1%) were local comments, while fewer than
a third were global comments. This indicates that for every two local comments, there
was only about one global comment.
The following are examples of local comments made by the participants:
You said first The internet has become one of the most important thing in our
timewell you made a mistake here by saying Thingit should be (Things) because
you are talking about the internet in general so yeah. After that the sentence
continue by saying And the internet has pros and cons...since its a continuation
for the previous sentence you can not write the first word as a capital word so it
should have been and
you should write cities with capital letter at first
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you should put the title in the middle of the paper also you should make space in
the beginning of the first line of the paragraph. Also when you finished from the
sentence put full stop.
The following are examples of global comments:
I agree with you on how homework teaches us, but more homework?! that sounds
horrible. Some of the professors dont bother about how the students have a lot of
things to do, like they think that the students have nothing to do or to study. to put
the student under the pressure, no matter what he\she is human have limits, and
we are human. More homewrk will stress the student and that is not healthy
physical or mental
I understand your whole idea in general though i got to say first, you said that
cigarette is one of the main cause of air pollution. I disagree with you here because
its not one of the main reason of it, factories and cars are the main reason
I agree on how bad to watch tv all the time and damaging your eyes and stuff, but i do
not agree with you about how watching sports is a waste of time. Its waste of time but
the way you said it it sounded like you are holding something against sports. Sports
are fun to watch like anything else, watching movies or tv shows or playing games.
They dont have to be educational sometimes, you are just having fun and taking it
easy. But even sports can teach you things like skills or something, or even it become
the reason you want to be a player. Unhealthy addiction is not only on watching
spotrs, there is a lot of fun stuff if you were into them too much it will be unhealthy.
So every fun thing has its limits.
Types of comments on controversial vs. non-controversial essays
To test Hypotheses 1 and 2, we compared the comments coded as either local or global in re-
lation to whether they belonged to a controversial or non-controversial essay. A paired sample
t-test showed the participants gave, on average, significantly more global comments on con-
troversial essays compared with non-controversial essays. This finding provides support for
Hypothesis 1, indicating that learners give more global comments on controversial essays.
In contrast, the number of local comments was not significantly different between
controversial and non-controversial essays. This does not support Hypothesis 2. That
is, this pattern provides no evidence that local feedback decreases when the essay topic
is controversial. Table 3presents these results.
Subjective experience during the task
We analyzed the survey responses quantitatively and qualitatively. Starting with the
quantitative analysis, preliminary analysis showed that the scale was unidimensional
Table 2 Descriptive statistics of comments generated by the end of the study
Overall comments 618 11.88 7.04
Local comments 421 (68.1%) 8.10 7.77
Global comments 197 (31.9%) 3.39 3.39
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(through inspection of the scree plot) and had an adequate level of reliability, α= .87.
Descriptive statistics (see Table 4) showed that all items had a mean larger than 3.0,
the middle point, indicating that the participants on average tended to agree with these
statements (M= 3.72, SD = 0.61). Supporting this impression, a one-sample t-test
showed that the mean of this scale was significantly higher than 3.0, t(51) = 8.61,
p< .001, d= 1.18. These results suggest that the participants exhibited favorable atti-
tudes toward this task.
As for the qualitative part, the participants provided open-ended responses about
their experience with this activity. We analyzed these responses in order to obtain a
deeper understanding of the participantssubjective experience while giving and receiv-
ing peer feedback on controversial essays. Analysis of the data uncovered three major
themes, two concerning positive aspects of Turnitin and a third theme pointing to pos-
sible room for improvement.
The first major theme was the convenience Turnitin afforded the participants. Most
of the participants had no prior experience with such an online peer feedback tool.
They found the tool relatively easy to access and to use whether on or off campus. For
example, one participant described Turnitin as easy for using, helpful for the students,
easy to access, can use in your home or college or anywhere.This convenience encour-
aged some of them to read and comment on more essays than they would have offline.
Another participant commented that I like it because I use my phone after class in
break and sometimes in park when I am free I read my friends feedback and correct my
essay.This gave them additional opportunities to learn not only from receiving feed-
back but also from giving it to their peers. Since all feedback is stored on the platform,
the participants were also able to retrieve it at a later time for the purpose of further
A second major theme emerging from the analysis had to do with the anonymity of
comments. The participants appreciated the option of making the whole peer review
process double-blind. The anonymity encouraged the participants to be more honest
and give critical comments especially on controversial and culturally sensitive topics.
As one participant put it, it is like talking to a computer. You dont have to care about
its reaction.Similarly, comment receivers did not feel embarrassed or lose face when
their peers pointed out flaws in their arguments. This in turn could promote critical
thinking for both feedback givers and receivers.
Interestingly, despite the sensitive nature of some of the essays, no participant raised
concerns about this aspect. Instead, they reported being comfortable reading and com-
menting on an essay containing arguments with which they disagreed when the process
was double-blind. They found in this process an opportunity, on the one hand, to think
critically and give thoughtful comments at their own pace and, on the other hand, to
Table 3 Paired sample t-test results for the two types of comments on controversial and non-
controversial essays
Essay n(%) MSDr(p)t(df)pd
Global Comments Controversial 119(19.3) 2.29 2.35 .27(.05) 2.45(51) .018 0.415
Non-Controversial 75(12.1) 1.44 1.69
Local Comments Controversial 210(32.5) 3.87 3.77 .62(< .001) 0.78(51) .439 0.096
Non-Controversial 223(36.1) 4.29 4.88
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reflect objectively about a position with which they disagree without having to feel
With regard to areas needing improvement, the most common theme emerging from
the analysis was technical glitches while using Turnitin. Some participants reported oc-
casional difficulties with submitting their work, and sometimes with logging in. As one
participant explained, when I clicked on submit, the website closed and I returned to
the main webpage.This was a frustrating experience for the participants who had en-
countered this issue, as they had to log in and type up their feedback all over again.
Most participants used the website platform for this study, while only a few used the
Turnitin smartphone app.
Other participants suggested introducing additional features to Turnitin. One sugges-
tion was giving the reviewer the chance to submit a voice comment,as this option
would allow the learner to additionally practice their speaking skill. Another suggestion
was allowing peer reviewers access to perform plagiarism check themselves. In this
way, the peers can put on their instructor hat and investigate whether the text was pla-
giarized and whether the original text was adequately paraphrased and cited by the
essay writer. This activity may help L2 learners improve their writing skills by examin-
ing how their peers handle, paraphrase, quote, and cite sourcesa process that tends
to be performed by learners in an individual manner that is typically invisible to peers.
Finally, one participant suggested implementing plagiarism check on the comments
themselves as well. This might be relevant to more extended comments, especially in
cases where learners are evaluated on the quality of their review. It would appear that
this adding such features should not be technically challenging consider that Turnitin
is originally a plagiarism detection tool.
The primary purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of controversial
topics in stimulating global comments from peer reviewers. More specifically, we hy-
pothesized that asking learners to comment on controversial essays would result in
more global comments compared with non-controversial essays (Hypothesis 1). At the
same time, we also sought to find out whether attention to global issues in controversial
Table 4 Means and standard deviation of the questionnaire items (adapted from Li & Li, 2017)
Item MSD
1. I enjoyed using Turnitin for peer feedback. 3.63 1.05
2. My experience with Turnitin-based peer feedback was positive. 3.69 0.98
3. I found Turnitins originality report on my assignments helpful. 3.79 0.85
4. I used Turnitins originality report to revise my work. 3.62 1.07
5. Turnitin has helped me become better at citing sources. 3.81 0.86
6. I found the peer feedback I received on Turnitin helpful. 3.75 0.90
7. I found the PeerMark questions helpful for my peer feedback. 3.75 0.99
8. I enjoyed using PeerMark commenting tools to provide peer feedback. 3.60 1.05
9. I enjoyed using composition marks to provide peer feedback. 3.69 0.97
10. I prefer conducting peer feedback using Turnitin to doing face-to-face peer feedback. 3.69 1.15
11. I incorporated Turnitin peer feedback into my revision. 3.77 0.67
12. Peer feedback using Turnitin improves my writing skills. 3.90 0.80
Alharbi and Al-Hoorie International Journal of Educational Technology in Higher Education (2020) 17:17 Page 12 of 17
essays would result in a decrease in local comments (Hypothesis 2). The third purpose of
this study was to explore the participantssubjective evaluation of this task, which we ex-
pected to be favorable considering its double-blind nature (Hypothesis 3).
In terms of Hypothesis 1, our results indicated that, indeed, asking learners to com-
ment on controversial essays led to a significant increase in the number of global com-
ments generated. This suggests that asking learners to comment on a controversial
essay might be a useful strategy to stimulate critical, global comments. In terms of Hy-
pothesis 2, our results do not provide evidence that this increase in global comments
comes at the expense of local comments. The participants gave a comparable number
of local comments, whether the essay was controversial or not.
Generally speaking, our results are consistent with previous research showing that
learners tend to focus on local areas (Hewett, 2000; Tuzi, 2004), especially when these
learners are left untrained (Chang, 2015; Min, 2005,2006; Rahimi, 2013). The partici-
pants of the present study provided, overall, more comments on local than on global is-
suesonly one third of all comments were global (see Table 2). Nevertheless, once we
took into account the nature of the topic, interesting results emerged. Our findings
showed that the pattern of feedback was directly related to the type of essay in question
and whether it was dealing with a controversial topic. These findings seem in line with
those by Li and Li (2017), whose participants provided more global comments on argu-
mentative essays compared with summaryresponse essays. As Li and Li (2017) ex-
plained, the nature of summaryresponse tasks requires learners to devote a significant
part of their feedback on summarizing the writers point of view, thus leaving limited
space for critical commentary.
To put it differently, not all topics are created equal. While some research on learner
feedback has investigated whether learners focus on local or global areas, we consider it
almost meaningless to ask this question out of the context of the topic in question. If
learners consider a topic to be of neutral valence, they may consequently tend to focus
more on local areas. In contrast, if the topic is hot,on a contentious subject, or holds
personal and profound value, it is more likely that learners will engage more deeply
with it. This level of affective engagement might also enhance cognitive engagement,
potentially leading to better learning. Suggestive of this, our results showed that there
was no significant reduction in local comments on controversial essays.
In relation to the participantsexperience with the double-blind nature of the activity
(Hypothesis 3), the participants exhibited favorable attitudes. Many participants stated
that they preferred this facelesssystem. According to these participants, the ability to
give anonymous feedback makes the process less stressful and, therefore, there is little
incentive to engage in face-saving strategies at the expense of giving honest, construct-
ive feedback to their peers. These findings support previous research showing the value
of anonymizing online learner feedback (e.g., Bradley, 2014; Coté, 2014; Rourke et al.,
2008). Other participants pointed out the convenience of giving feedback from home
during their free time, instead of a situation where their peer is in the same room wait-
ing (im) patiently for feedback. These results are in line with those by Li and Li (2017),
who reported that their participants unanimously(p. 34) agreed that Turnitin was an
effective and enjoyable tool to conduct learner peer review. In the present study, re-
sponses from open-ended questions indicated that the majority of our participants felt
that online peer feedback gave them an opportunity to conveniently review the writing
Alharbi and Al-Hoorie International Journal of Educational Technology in Higher Education (2020) 17:17 Page 13 of 17
of their peers and learn from each other. This also echoed Chens(2012) results from
blog-based peer feedback where technology not only facilitated peer feedback but also
had a positive impact on the studentslearning experience. All in all, while some re-
search (e.g., Liu & Sadler, 2003) suggests that face-to-face feedback may be more effect-
ive due to the presence of nonverbal communication, our results suggest that the
nature of the topic and certain technological features (such as anonymity and conveni-
ence) also play an important role in the amount and type of peer feedback given.
Pedagogical implications
The results of the present study have some pedagogical implications. Teachers wishing
to stimulate critical thinking can utilize peer review on controversial topics. An obvious
concern in applying this strategy is the risk involved in controversial and culturally sen-
sitive topics. When a topic is too controversial, learners might be distracted and feed-
back might turn to pure airing of opinions that do not represent an objective
evaluation of a peers argument. It is possible that this type of engagement might not
be as conducive to language learning or to the development of critical thinking skills.
The prudent teacher should therefore aim to come up with topics that have an appro-
priate level of controversiality. When the instructor is a foreigner who is not very famil-
iar with the host culture, it would be advisable to consult with other teachers, and with
the students themselves, to find out what topics the learners are willing to discuss.
These topics will most likely vary from culture to culture, and the topics we used in the
present study might or might not be suitable in other contexts.
Using an online platform has additional pedagogical advantages. In the past, a plat-
form like Turnitin used to be primarily a plagiarism detection tool. It was therefore a
rather peripheral tool in the educational process, resorted to only prior to formal sub-
mission of essays. With a feature like PeerMark, however, technology serves a much
more active role in the day-to-day learning process. This automation can free up some
of the teachers time, allowing them to focus on learners in need of individual assist-
ance. The teacher will additionally have a record of what comments are given and who
is (not) giving them. The teacher can subsequently then use these comments for class-
room discussions.
Limitations and future directions
This study is not without limitations. While the primary goal of using controversial es-
says was to ultimately promote critical thinking, we measured global comments as a
proxy for critical thinking. While a number of researchers have emphasized a strong
link between critical thinking and global comments on essays written by peers (Li & Li,
2017; Lynch et al., 2012; McMahon, 2010; Yang, 2016), future research should investi-
gate this link more directly by utilizing measures of critical thinking. However, it is
likely that this type of research would need to be conducted over a longer period of
time, as a sizeable increase in critical thinking might require more frequent engagement
with peer review.
Another potential future direction is a more micro-analysis of peer review. We ar-
gued that not all essay prompts are the same in their effect on critical thinking. It is
equally likely that not all strategies of engagement with peer review are effective in
Alharbi and Al-Hoorie International Journal of Educational Technology in Higher Education (2020) 17:17 Page 14 of 17
stimulating critical thinking. Class teachers might need to deliberately draw the
learnersattention to critical thinking strategies (e.g., Brookfield, 2012) for more effect-
ive implementation.
A further future direction is the effectiveness of group work. In our study, the partici-
pants worked individually, reading and commenting on essays by their peers. It would
be interesting to examine how learners work as a group to evaluate an essay and give
anonymous feedback on it.
Finally, some platforms allow the user to give oral feedback. Giving oral feedback
might be more convenient to comment givers, but it might not be as convenient to
comment receivers. Comments receivers, assuming that they understand the oral mes-
sage, may find it time-consuming especially if they need to locate again a comment they
came across previously. This limitation might be circumvented if the feedback givers
speech can be automatically transcribed.
Not applicable.
Both authors designed the study, conduct experiments, collect and analyzed the data and co-wrote the paper. The au-
thor(s) read and approved the final manuscript.
Dr. Mohammed Abdullah Alharbi is an assistant professor in the Department of English at Majmaah University, Saudi
Arabia. His research interests include L2 writing instruction, computer-mediated communication, peer review, and peer
Ali H. Al-Hoorie is an assistant professor at the English Language and Preparatory Year Institute, Royal Commission for
Jubail and Yanbu, Saudi Arabia. He completed his PhD in Applied Linguistics at the University of Nottingham under
the supervision of Professors Zoltán Dörnyei and Norbert Schmitt. He also holds an MA in Social Science Data Analysis
from Essex University. His research interests include motivation theory, research methodology, and complexity.
His publications have appeared in various journals including Language Learning, Modern Language Journal,Studies in
Second Language Acquisition,ELT J,Language Teaching Research, and Learning and Individual Differences. His books
include Research Methods for Complexity in Applied Linguistics (Multilingual Matters, 2020, with Phil Hiver) and
Contemporary Language Motivation Theory: 60 Years Since Gardner and Lambert (1959) (Multilingual Matters, 2020,
coedited with Peter MacIntyre).
The authors would like to thank Deanship of Scientific Research at Majmaah University for supporting this work under
project number: 1439-90.
Availability of data and materials
The data that support the findings of this study are available.
upon request.
Competing interests
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
Author details
Department of English, Faculty of Education, Majmaah University, Majmaah, 11952, Saudi Arabia.
English Language
and Preparatory Year Institute, Royal Commission for Jubail and Yanbu, Jubail, Saudi Arabia.
Received: 28 January 2020 Accepted: 18 March 2020
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... about what to respond, also gives more time for teachers to monitor all students' performance and feedback(Yeh, H.-C., Tseng, S.-S., & Chen, 2019), and decrease the cost and logistical difficulties in administering paper-based peer assessment activities(Luo, 2016). Technology-supported peer feedback can give more opportunities for teachers to have more free time to focus on the learners' needs to getting more individual assistance(Alharbi & Al-Hoorie, 2020). Moreover, the rapid increase in the utilization of online learning environments and social network sites, such as Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, and LinkedIn, offers additional potential for the pedagogical use of peer assessment through feedback(Demir, 2018).All papers focused mainly on the pedagogical values by figuring out the research aims and the results of the research. ...
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Text-matching software has been used widely in higher education to reduce student plagiarism and support the development of students’ writing skills. This scoping review provides insights into the extant literature relating to commercial text-matching software (TMS) (e.g., Turnitin) use in postsecondary institutions. Our primary research question was “How is text-matching software used in postsecondary contexts?” Using a scoping review method, we searched 14 databases to find peer-reviewed literature about the use of TMS among postsecondary students. In total, 129 articles were included in the final synthesis, which comprised of data extraction, quality appraisal, and the identification of exemplar articles. We highlight evidence about how TMS is used for teaching and learning purposes to support student success at the undergraduate and graduate levels.
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Emergency remote teaching refers to the unanticipated, involuntary shift to a virtual learning environment due to, for example, a natural disaster or political instability. The sudden nature of this transition creates additional challenges to effective learning. In this article, we investigate one such challenge, namely the potential for teacher–student miscommunication. We report on a study involving 674 language learners and 61 language teachers. The participants were asked to rate a number of education‐related ١problems that could potentially arise in the context of emergency remote teaching. Learners rated these concerns in terms of the extent to which they had actually experienced them, while teachers were asked to rate the extent to which they perceived these to be concerns for their students. The results showed that teachers believed that students required additional training on using learning management systems, that students did not take online teaching seriously, and that emergency remote teaching would encourage students to cheat. Students disagreed with these statements (ds = 0.53–0.65). We discuss the implications of these teacher–learner discrepancies in light of the need for explicit guidelines and clearer expectations of students during online learning and assessment.
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This report presents a review of the statistical practices of 30 journals representative of the second language field. A review of 150 articles showed a number of prevalent statistical violations including incomplete reporting of reliability, validity, non-significant results, effect sizes, and assumption checks as well as making inferences from descriptive statistics and failing to correct for multiple comparisons. Scopus citation analysis metrics and whether a journal is SSCI-indexed were predictors of journal statistical quality. No clear evidence was obtained to favor the newly introduced CiteScore over SNIP or SJR. Implications of the results are discussed.
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Despite the benefits of peer review, there are still challenges that need to be addressed to make it more effective for L2 students. With the development of technology, computer-mediated peer review has captured increasing attention from L2 writing researchers and instructors. While Turnitin is known for its use in detecting plagiarism, its newly developed module, PeerMark, aims to facilitate peer review. In this article, we share our experience of using Turnitin for peer review in an ESL academic writing course and discuss its advantages, its limitations, and how different features of PeerMark may be used to address some of the challenges identified in previous research on peer review in the L2 writing classroom. Throughout a semester, the students were required to complete three peer review tasks through Turnitin. Based on the instructor's experience and the students' reports, we found that Turnitin could help shift students' attention from local to global issues in writing, scaffold students in their effort to provide more helpful comments and to make connections between specific suggestions and holistic advice for writing, and facilitate classroom management during peer review.
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This study seeks the evidence for the best pattern of relationship among critical thinking, writing performance and topic familiarity of EFL students at an Islamic university in Indonesia. Understanding the patterns of relationship is important to develop teaching syllabus, materials and evaluation method for teaching critical writing class. It employs ex-post-facto design to English department students. The instruments used were writing prompts and rubrics for assessing the observed skills namely critical thinking, writing performance and topic familiarity. Path analysis was used to figure out the pattern of relationship. The verified patterns of relationship show that on student initiated topic, critical thinking skills are triggered by topic familiarity and can be mediated by writing performance. Topic familiarity also has direct contribution toward critical thinking skills on student initiated topic. Similarly, on teacher initiated topic, critical thinking skills are supported by topic familiarity and can be mediated by writing performance as well. However, topic familiarity of teacher initiated topic does not have direct contribution toward critical thinking skills. The finding also indicates that the verified path model serves as the best pattern and can be used as a framework to predict the success of the student’s critical thinking skills.
The present study made an attempt to determine the effect of teaching critical thinking skills on Iranian EFL learners' essay writing ability. To do this, a sample of 60 EFL learners was selected based on their performance on Preliminary English Test (PET). The participants were randomly assigned to two equal groups of control and experimental. An essay-writing test functioning as pre-test was administered on both groups in order to ensure their homogeneity in terms of writing ability. The groups received 10 sessions of writing instruction; however, experimental group received additional instruction and practice regarding the techniques of critical thinking. Finally, both groups took an essay writing posttest in order to compare their writing achievements. Both pretest and posttest were scored by two raters using TOEFL rating scales. The results of paired and independent sample t-tests showed that critical thinking techniques significantly enhanced EFL learners writing ability.
El presente estudio reporta los resultados de un proceso de retroalimentación entre pares mediante el proceso de revisión anónima por pares en un curso de escritura de inglés como lengua extranjera. Se han realizado numerosos estudios sobre los beneficios de la revisión por pares en los cursos de escritura de inglés como segunda lengua / inglés como lengua extranjera. Sin embargo, la literatura también identifica diversos aspectos sociales que pueden afectar negativamente el resultado de la revisión por pares cara a cara. En este estudio, 25 de los estudiantes se matricularon en un curso de escritura expositiva en un programa de inglés intensivo de una universidad estadounidense con sede en Madrid, España. Los estudiantes asistieron a 25 horas de instrucción en inglés por semana con la finalidad de aprovechar al máximo los beneficios de la revisión por pares anónimos o doble ciego. Se esperaba que al reducir las interferencias sociales, los participantes estarían obligados a enfocarse en el tipo y número de correcciones realizadas en el ensayo por un compañero anónimo, así como para mejorar el tipo y número de correcciones que el par incorpora en el ensayo original. Los resultados indicaron que los escritores aceptaron la mayoría de los cambios sugeridos por el par en el proceso de revisión (70%), lo cual indica que se presenta una tasa de aceptación sin precedentes en el área de estudio.
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One hundred and three (N=103) peer review studies contextualized in L2 composition classrooms and published between 1990 and 2015 were reviewed. To categorize constructs in research studies, this researcher used Lai's (2010) three Ps dimensions (perceptions, process, and product). Perceptions are the beliefs and attitudes of peer review. Process refers to the learning process or implementation procedures of peer review. Product is the learning outcomes of peer review. A thematic analysis of the studies' constructs showed that perception studies examined learners' general perceptions/attitudes, Asian students' perceptions/attitudes (cultural influences), and learner perceptions of peer feedback in comparison to self and/or computerized feedback. Process studies discussed the effects of training, checklists/rubrics, writer-reviewer relationships, the nature of peer feedback, communicative language, timing of teacher feedback on peer feedback, grouping strategies, as well as communicative medium. Product research, on the other hand, investigated peer feedback adoption rates and ratio of peer-influenced revision s, effects of peer review on writers' revision quality, effects of peer review on reviewers' gains, and effects of peer review on writers' self revision. In light of this review, research gaps are identified and suggestions for future research are offered.