Article

Does the sequence of presentations matter for academic conferences? An application of the peak-end rule in event management

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Abstract

In psychology, the peak-end rule has been used to describe the effects of emotional factors on live experiences. However, it has yet to be examined in the contexts of events and conferences. This study investigated the influence of conference presentation order, excitement following peak experience, previous conference experience, and time since one’s last visit on conference satisfaction and loyalty. Although no significant differences in satisfaction and loyalty were found with regard to the order of presentations, previous experience and time since last visit were found to have significant effects on attendees’ outcomes. End-of-conference peak experiences exhibited the strongest influence on loyalty.

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... São abordadas questões econômicas, sociais e ambientais, em uma gestão que considera a diversidade e a pluralidade humana, além de aspectos cognitivos, emocionais e comportamentais. Ou seja, tal dimensão distancia-se de uma ótica utilitarista da gestão de eventos, pautada em uma visão instrumental, caracterizada pelo controle do comportamento do participante consumidor/cliente (BACKMAN, 2018;GODOVYKH;HAHM, 2020;RAJ;MUSGRAVE, 2009). ...
... São abordadas questões econômicas, sociais e ambientais, em uma gestão que considera a diversidade e a pluralidade humana, além de aspectos cognitivos, emocionais e comportamentais. Ou seja, tal dimensão distancia-se de uma ótica utilitarista da gestão de eventos, pautada em uma visão instrumental, caracterizada pelo controle do comportamento do participante consumidor/cliente (BACKMAN, 2018;GODOVYKH;HAHM, 2020;RAJ;MUSGRAVE, 2009). ...
Chapter
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Em nosso ensaio, nós refletimos sobre o papel do profissional de secretariado executivo no contexto da gestão de eventos e sobre a abordagem do desenho universal a partir de uma perspectiva dialógica. p. 33-44.
... Therefore, this quadrant represents the basic themes that are transversal and general, with high centrality and low density (Cobo et al., 2011). In this regard, concepts such as "convention center" (Fenich & Bordelon, 2008;Laslo & Judd, 2005), "economic impact of event tourism" (Hodur & Leistritz, 2006;Morgan & Condliffe, 2006), and "loyalty to MICE destination" (Godovykh & Hahm, 2020;Kim & Malek, 2017;Papadimitriou, 2013;Verma & Sarangi, 2019) are significant but underdeveloped themes in JCET. These themes are very important because they have many external linkages due to high centrality and are essential to the development of MICE tourism, yet they are not developed. ...
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... As reviewed in the introduction of this chapter, most experiments in pain research Schneder et al., 2011) and other studies in different modalities such as advertising (Baumgartner et al., 1997), music (Rozin et al., 2004), and even academic conferences (Godovykh & Hahm, 2020), have found clear evidence of peak-end heuristics. However, more recent research in some other modalities have failed to find peak-end rules in memories of experienced meals (Rode et al., 2007), virtual reality experiences (Strijbosch et al., 2019), and recording quality of a video clip (De Guzman et al., 2017). ...
Thesis
The use of magic effects in comparative cognition provides a powerful tool to investigate how diverse species perceive the world around them, by focusing on their shared psychological constraints rather than their cognitive prowess. In this thesis I explore how humans and non-human animals experience these techniques, and some of the nuances moderating this experience. After introducing the Science of Magic and proposing magic as a tool to investigate cognition in non-human animals in Chapter 1, Chapter 2 and Chapter 3 explore how multifaceted is the human experience of magic effects. In Chapter 2, I demonstrate how experience deceiving others using similar techniques moderate the expectations necessary to be misled by these effects, as expert magicians do not display the same biases when observing sleight of hand effects than typical observers. Chapter 3 shows how the order in which magic effects are presented within a routine moderate how the human audience will perceive the skill of the magician performing it. As a first step towards creating a Comparative Science of Magic, Chapter 4 reviews the similarities and differences in how both human and non-human audiences experience magic effects, evaluates the evolution of the craft by reviewing the deception tactics of non-human animals, and offers insight into the use of magic effects in the lab by reviewing potential candidates for such an endeavour. Chapter 5 takes inspiration from a well-known magic effect and uses it to investigate how Eurasian jays (Garrulus glandarius) experience illusions. Eurasian jays are sensitive to similar illusions that humans are, and this sensitivity is moderated by different nuances such as the type of effect (i.e., either negative or positive), or the social status of the avian observer. Chapter 6 and Chapter 7 provide comparisons of how diverse species with dissimilar anatomies and visual systems experience methodologically distinct sleight of hand effects. Both chapters provide evidence that anatomical ability and experience performing an action moderate how the pantomime movement of this action will be perceived. Alongside this, all species tested experienced the effect capitalising on fast motions similarly to each other regardless of their significant differences in their visual system, thus suggesting a convergently evolved blind spot or a product of common decent. Finally, Chapter 8 summarises the findings of this thesis and discusses the implications for the evolution of these nuances. Overall, the evidence presented in this thesis further reinforces the power and insight that using magic effects in psychology can apport in reference to the innerworkings and evolution of the human and the non-human mind.
... However, discussions regarding loyalty and behavioral intentions as the main outcomes of event experience have dominated research since loyalty influences the continued success of events and other businesses (Dixit, 2017). 3 The previously described determinants of attitudes and behavioral intentions in event settings are program content, event quality, venue, program, convenience, attendees' perceptions about food, staff, facilities, government policies, the presence of souvenirs, and some other attributes (Akhoondnejad, 2016;Godovykh & Hahm, 2020;Lee, 2016;Lee et al., 2008). However, some of these attributes (e.g., food quality, souvenirs, government policies, etc.) are unfeasible during virtual events. ...
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The recent situation with COVID-19 led to significant changes in the event industry and forced event planners to organize virtual events. However, virtual events are lacking social interactions and are characterized by lower levels of engagement. This study aims at exploring relationships between event types and attendees’ behavioral intentions using experimental design. The measurement model fit and constructs’ validity were assessed with Confirmatory Factor Analysis, while the study hypotheses were tested with the Structural Equation Modelling. The results demonstrate that event types have significant effects on attendees’ risk perceptions that influence attendees’ visit intentions. The study also revealed significant moderating effects of attendees’ age on the relationship between event type and visit intentions. The study provides important theoretical and managerial implications by introducing new factors affecting attendees’ behavioral intentions amid the COVID-19 pandemic, describing the relationship between risk perceptions and attendees’ behavioral intentions, and providing practical recommendations for event planners.
... Finally, it will help prevent selfreport biases by observing the real behavior of tourists and collecting sensor and mobilebased psychophysiological responses. Virtual reality scenarios make it possible for investigators to design and test outcomes of different destination situations by placing peak experiences at different time points [79,80], segmenting visitors by sociodemographic and personality characteristics [81], and introducing the effects of different affective stimuli before, during, and after the visit [82]. The further development of virtual destinations might make it possible to test different pricing models, including pay-what-you-want strategies, which currently remain underexplored in tourism research [83]. ...
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Virtual reality has become a more common phenomenon in both destination marketing and on-site experience. The recent challenges such as overtourism and the COVID-19 pandemic have created a pressing need to examine virtual tourism as an alternative to traditional travel. This conceptual article aims at clarifying virtual experience in tourism, discussing the main antecedents and outcomes of virtual experience, and proposing a conceptual model of virtual tourism experience. The review of the literature revealed that virtual experience in tourism is influenced by factors related to information, quality, technology acceptance, and affective involvement and has significant effects on tourists’ attitudes and behavioral intentions. This paper contributes to knowledge and practice by classifying the main groups of factors influencing virtual tourism experience, introducing the conceptual model, discussing opportunities for future research, and providing recommendations for tourism practitioners.
... Since virtual conferencing is a new market, many organizers suffer from imperfect information on demand and how much they can or should charge for participation (Schoening, 2020). Scientific associations, for instance, may be concerned about the loss of important or even major sources of income if the trend goes toward virtual conferences free of association meetings as well as on preferences by attendees (Godovykh & Hahm, 2020;Hahm et al., 2016;Kim, Kim, Milne, & O'Neill, 2020). Mair, Lockstone-Binney, and Whitelaw (2018) survey the motivations of 100 CAUTHE (Council for Australian University Tourism and Hospitality Education) members and find that their conference attendance is mainly related to opportunities to make professional contacts and to hear about new research within their fields. ...
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This study examines factors of importance for the pricing of virtual academic conferences based on information on their quality attributes. Data are based on 76 virtual conferences held or planned to be held in the field of tourism and related fields between April 2020 and December 2021. The distribution of fees is skewed with a median price of US$61 and an average of US$126. One fourth of the conferences is free of charge, although there is a trend toward increased prices the longer the time elapse from the outbreak of the pandemic, ceteris paribus. Count data model estimations show that the conference fee depends on size, academic field, and location of the host. A one-day conference is on average US$60 cheaper than a two-day event while pure tourism conferences are on average US$34 more expensive than those in related fields. Conferences in the United Kingdom have the lowest fees while hybrid format is a factor of specific importance for the pure tourism events. Reputation of the host university and whether the conference is held by an association are aspects of no significance for the fee.
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The interest in the value of academic conferences in the field of ELT is steadily increasing in the last decade in Turkey. Despite the increased interest, conferences remain a relatively less researched area. Conference participation has become a demanding process and more and more academics have started to reconsider their participation and the benefits they get from the conferences. Therefore, a questionnaire was created concerning conference participants’ opinions on the weak and strong points of ELT conferences in Turkey and 90 participants shared their views on what academic conferences are and what they might entail. The open-ended survey responses were analyzed qualitatively, with a focus on recurrent themes in participants’ responses and other responses were analyzed quantitatively based on percentages and frequencies. The present study showed the ongoing need to increase the quality of papers presented in ELT conferences in Turkey. The findings can be fruitful for organizers and presenters. Available at: The Journal of Language Teaching and Learning http://www.jltl.com.tr/index.php/jltl/article/view/187
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Experimenting with and testing new or improved service designs is often a challenging task for managers. In this paper, we promote the use of video experiments as a dynamic method for testing service innovation. We conducted a systematic review of over 40 articles from five prominent journals that span the disciplines of organizational behavior, operations management, marketing, and service management to summarize how researchers have used video experiments to develop managerial theory. We found that video experiments provide service researchers and practitioners the opportunity to effectively communicate important experiential aspects of service systems such as emotions and psychological effects. Moreover, customer responses to service design choices can be assessed based on the results of a video experiment. Consequently, we position video experiments as a particularly well-suited method for examining innovations that are related to the application of behavioral science insights or what we term as behavioral-based service innovations. To advance the future use of video experiments in service innovation research, we present a suggested guide for developing a video experiment and discuss important methodological considerations. We also review future research opportunities for studying behavioral-based service innovations through the use of video experiments.
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Context: The main aim in organizing academic conferences is to share and develop knowledge in the focus area of the conference. Most conferences, however, are organized in a traditional way: two or three keynote presentations and a series of parallel sessions where participants present their research work, mainly using PowerPoint or Prezi presentations, with little interaction between participants. Problem: Each year, a huge number of academic events and conferences is organized. Yet their typical design is mainly based on a passive way of sharing knowledge. No models for an adequate conference design and an appropriate learning environment are available. The overall conference design, however, is a crucial aspect in the learning of the participants and deserves special attention from conference organizers. Method: I have organized around 15 carefully designed conferences (and attended many more). These have been the steps of an ongoing exploration to learn from each of these events and develop a deeper understanding of adequate conference designs and stimulating learning environments. This paper reports on my understandings of the organization of a selection of these conferences (in architecture, arts and design) and on the way knowledge sharing and knowledge development was stimulated at these events. These conferences included less traditional conference designs, collective learning and explicit sharing of understanding between participants. Results: Collaboration in small groups and joint plenary discussions, plenty of time for interaction and generous feedback to presenters turn out to be very valuable for consolidating knowledge and envisioning future developments in a discipline. Also, it is our experience that the presence of design objects as a trigger and catalyst for discussing and learning makes a huge difference in sharing and developing new knowledge. This paper aims to highlight the importance and raise awareness of different methods of stimulating the construction of knowledge by conference participants. I hope it will inspire future conference organizers and help them to induce more deliberate knowledge construction amongst participants. Implications: Insights from this paper are relevant for all conference organizers, especially those in the domain of architecture, arts and design. It has become clear that it is beneficial to have exhibit-type presentations as well as moments of collective learning. Organizers are recommended to adopt an explicit conference design. Constructivist content: Following a constructivist approach to learning environments, this paper stresses the importance of scheduling moments of active and collective learning and knowledge construction explicitly during academic conferences.
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Annual association meetings are imperative to associations because they are the biggest revenue source outside of membership dues. The constant challenge for associations is to come up with innovative ideas to create a meeting experience that can build attendance and retain members year after year. This study proposes that the psychological factor sense of community drives people to an association meeting every year. The purpose of the study is to understand the sense of community at an annual meeting among association members and whether sense of community has an influence on future intentions to attend the annual meeting. In addition, the mediating effect of satisfaction on sense of community and future intentions is examined.
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The authors develop several hypotheses regarding the integration of moment-to-moment emotional responses into overall ad judgments, using the psychological literature dealing with people's preferences for sequences of hedonic outcomes, and they conduct three studies to test these predictions. The results of Study 1 indicate that consumers' global assessments of extended affective episodes elicited by advertisements are dominated by the peak emotional experience and the final moment of the series and also are correlated with the pace at which momentary affective reactions improve over time. Ad duration is related only weakly to overall ad judgments, though longer advertisements have an advantage as long as they build toward a peak emotional experience. In Study 2, the authors replicate these findings under more realistic viewing conditions and demonstrate that the results cannot be attributed solely to memory artifacts that are based on recency. Study 3 implicates adaptation as a possible explanation for the preference for delayed peaks and high ends and further explains the weak effects of ad duration by showing experimentally that longer advertisements can both enhance and depress ad judgments depending on how duration affects the peak emotional experience and the final moment.
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To date, limited research has investigated the effects of tourist prior knowledge as a multidimensional construct on their perceived risk. This research is one of the first studies to investigate the relationships among tourists' risk perceptions and various types of their prior knowledge, namely subjective knowledge, objective knowledge, prior visitation, and past international travel experience. The research also investigates the nature of the relationship between tourist prior knowledge, risk perceptions, and their subsequent information search behavior. Using structural equation modeling, the results reveal that while objective knowledge did not significantly reduce or increase the risk associated with traveling to the Middle East, subjective knowledge appeared to have the strongest influence on tourist risk perceptions. The results of this study further suggest that while various dimensions of perceived risk may elicit the use of different information sources, prior knowledge also plays a role alongside risk perceptions in determining the information sources used. Implications at both theoretical and practical levels are also discussed.
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A special event is an important experiential product that depends heavily on its ability to produce ranges of sensations, imaginative responses, emotions, and involvement within its consumers. Hence, a special event requires special consideration when conceptualizing and measuring the event outcome based on experiential perspective. The aim of this study is to examine the mediating effect of visitors’ event experiences in relations to event features and post-consumption behaviors. Survey data were collected at a public community event in Malaysia. Findings revealed that visitors’ event experiences fully mediate the relationship between event features and post-consumption behaviors (overall satisfaction and future intention).
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The authors investigate whether it is necessary to include disconfirmation as an intervening variable affecting satisfaction as is commonly argued, or whether the effect of disconfirmation is adequately captured by expectation and perceived performance. Further, they model the process for two types of products, a durable and a nondurable good, using experimental procedures in which three levels of expectations and three levels of performance are manipulated for each product in a factorial design. Each subject's perceived expectations, performance evaluations, disconfirmation, and satisfaction are subsequently measured by using multiple measures for each construct. The results suggest the effects are different for the two products. For the nondurable good, the relationships are as typically hypothesized. The results for the durable good are different in important respects. First, neither the disconfirmation experience nor subjects' initial expectations affected subjects' satisfaction with it. Rather, their satisfaction was determined solely by the performance of the durable good. Expectations did combine with performance to affect disconfirmation, though the magnitude of the disconfirmation experience did not translate into an impact on satisfaction. Finally, the direct performance-satisfaction link accounts for most of the variation in satisfaction.
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The present study investigates the factors that affect tourists' satisfaction towards food festivals and explores whether tourists intend to revisit and/or recommend food festivals to others. Based on personal interviews with 40 study subjects, eight factors that affect their satisfaction levels were identified: location and accessibility, food, venue facility, environment/ambiance, service, entertainment, timing and festival size. The majority of tourists were satisfied with the Macau Food Festival and intended to revisit and recommend it to others. The presented findings have practical implications for food festival organizers to further attract food tourists. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
This study aims at developing and testing a model integrating the associations among tourists' evaluation of destinations' attributes, overall satisfaction and behavioural intentions. The analysis is based on 923 observations collected in the Central Region of Portugal, where no investigation of this nature had been conducted before, and compares results regarding domestic versus international tourists. LISREL estimates provided strong support for the model. Some idiosyncrasies specific to each sample were found. This study represents an important contribution to the body of knowledge in the area of tourism destinations' management and marketing and suggests important implications to both practitioners and researchers. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
Complex, highly intangible services such as life insurance consist largely of credence properties. Insurance providers engage in relationship-building activities that emphasize buyer-seller interaction and communication. Economists contend consumers are prone to make quality generalizations based on the strength of these relationships, perhaps to the detriment of price competition. The authors report contrary results suggesting that, though relationship marketing adds value to the service package, it is not a substitute for having a strong, up-to-date core service.
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Convention loyalty was investigated in a survey of attendees at a major international convention. Five factors influenced both attendance and satisfaction: program, networking, external activities, location, and cost. Satisfaction exceeded motivation for destination-related attributes and matched motivation for program-related attributes. Behavioral loyalty was assessed with positive and negative indicators. Loyalty antecedents, namely emotional commitment and switching costs, were also rated. Emotional commitment was the strongest predictor of loyalty. Program satisfaction was a key determinant of intentions to return in the future or switch to a different convention. The findings have implications for meeting planners, associations, host properties, and event marketers.
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This study aimed to identify the antecedents of emotional and functional values of festival participation. At the same time, it investigated the relative contribution of emotional and functional values to satisfaction levels and behavioral intentions. Structural equation modeling suggested that festival programs and convenient facilities positively influenced both functional and emotional values, whereas a natural environment positively affected only emotional value. The festival program contributed more to emotional value than to functional value, whereas a convenient facility was more associated with functional value. Emotional value contributed more strongly to both festival satisfaction and behavioral intentions. The findings are expected to aid in our understanding of visitors’ perceptions of festivals, so that they can be better managed and designed in the future.
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Ireland is highly dependent on tourism as an employment and revenue generator. Recent trends, however, suggest that visitors from France, one of Ireland’s key source markets, may have peaked. Tourism images are critical to the success of any destination, particularly because of how they affect the level of satisfaction with the tourist experience. Ireland is frequently acknowledged as a successfully branded and marketed tourism destination. Nonetheless, few image studies to date have focused specifically on Ireland, and none has analyzed the image of Ireland as a tourism destination in France. The aim of this study, therefore, was to redress this knowledge deficit. A questionnaire was used to examine the importance of certain destination attributes for French tourists and to determine how French visitors rate Ireland’s performance with respect to these attributes pre- and postvisitation. This information was subsequently incorporated into an importance-performance analysis grid.
Article
Objectives The global affective evaluation (GAE) of an event influences the decision to repeat that event. Two moments are proposed to predict the GAE: the peak and end affect experienced from the event (Fredrickson, 2000). The purposes of this study were to test this peak and end rule in the context of exercise and examine the relationship between GAE and exercise behaviour.Methods41 inactive women (M = 42.7 years, SD = 10.6 years) completed a graded exercise test to determine ventilatory threshold (VT) and 20 min of treadmill exercise at an intensity either at-VT or 10% above-VT. Feeling Scale (FS) was recorded every 2 min during-exercise and 1, 5, 10 and 15 min post-exercise. GAE was measured 5 min, 15 min, 2 and 7 days post-exercise. Exercise intentions and behaviour were measured 7 days post-exercise. The individual's peak and end FS values were entered together as predictor variables in separate regression analyses with GAE from each time point as the dependent variable.ResultsPeak affect and end affect explained between 39 and 58% of the variance in GAE. Greater variance was predicted 5 and 15 min post-exercise compared with 2 and 7 days post-exercise. The independent contribution of the peak and end variables could not be determined due to multi-collinearity problems. No significant relationships existed between affective memory and intentions or behaviour.Conclusions The peak and end rule plays some part in predicting the affective memory of an exercise experience but other variables are likely to play a role.
Article
This research evaluated the role of reward membership and commitment on switching costs, defined as the price at which consumers would switch to a nonpreferred hotel brand. Online survey respondents were classified by reward tier and two types of commitment: value (reward program benefits) and affective (emotional attachment to brand). The results showed that all reward program members exhibit value commitment but upper tier members are more likely to develop an emotional bond. Participants rated likelihood to switch in response to 20 pricing scenarios that varied base price for the preferred brand and discount for a nonpreferred brand. Value commitment was associated with greater price sensitivity, whereas affective commitment produced less differentiation between prices and discounts. Findings indicate that value commitment and lower tier membership are associated with a utilitarian perspective, whereas high-tier members or those with high affective commitment value intangible benefits and are less susceptible to discounting by competitors.
Article
A number of research studies have investigated tourist satisfaction with mass tourism destinations, particularly during the peak (summer) season. However, there has been limited investigation of tourist satisfaction with off-season holiday destinations. This article reports the findings of a study to determine destination attributes critical to the over-all satisfaction levels of tourists visiting Mallorca, Spain, during the winter season. Their future holiday intentions also are investigated. Findings are analyzed, and implications and limitations are discussed.
Article
Despite the widespread acceptance that loyalty is a major driving force in successful companies, tourism destination loyalty has not been investigated. This study explores the application and usefulness of destination loyalty. Based on the brand loyalty literature, a number of loyalty measurements are suggested. The application of two measurement approaches to primary data on lifelong travel patterns by New Zealand residents indicate their validity. Through the collection and analysis of data on tourists’ destination loyalty, destinations will be able to determine the composition of its customers with respect to their destination loyalty. It will also facilitate a better forecasting and demand estimation.
Article
Alternative conceptualizations of the quality and satisfaction constructs are presented from both the leisure/tourism and the marketing literatures, and differences between them are noted. The predictive validity of seven alternative operationalizations of quality that were suggested by the literature were measured by evaluating them against an overall measure of quality in the context of a festival. Results showed that the most valid measures of quality were the performance-based operationalizations; the least valid were the disconfirmation-based operationalizations; and the inclusion of importance weights did not improve predictive validity of the measures. There was no significant difference between first-time and frequent visitors to the festival on any of the seven alternative operationalizations. Implications of the findings are discussed.
Article
This study aims to contribute to the advancement of knowledge in the consumer psychology of tourism by carrying out an exploration of the cognitive and affective psychological processes which an individual goes through during the pre-experience and post-experience stages. Thus, a model explaining the interrelationships between psychological variables of the tourist is developed. The research was conducted with 807 individuals visiting a destination in Spain. The results show that preconceived image of the destination influences expectations and tourist loyalty. Additionally, there is support for the impact of expectations and emotions on satisfaction, which has a significant influence on behavioral intentions. Finally, several academic and managerial implications are outlined.
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Retention of brand-loyal attendees induces deep commitment to an association meeting and great resistance to other conferences'marketing efforts, thereby contributing to high revenue and market share. This study provides additional information about the path from brand satisfaction to attitudinal brand loyalty (ABL) via brand trust through updated expectation of brand value (UEBV) as a mediator on the brand satisfaction—brand trust path. Also, the study investigates the differential tendencies to ABL by high and low behavioral brand loyalty (BBL) attendees within the conceptual model. According to the structural invariance test across two groups, (a) all paths showed significantly positive signs, (b) UEBV was found to serve as a mediator, and (c) BBL was supported as a moderator except for the brand trust—ABL path. Unexpectedly, low BBL attendees showed a stronger tendency toward the path from brand satisfaction to brand trust than did high BBL attendees. The theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
Article
Despite the amount of research focusing on brand loyalty, empirical tests of the relationship between customer satisfaction and brand loyalty have not been conducted. The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the mediating effects of attitudinal brand loyalty on the relationship between customer satisfaction and behavioral brand loyalty. More over, we developed a robust brand loyalty measurement in the lodging industry by using attitudinal and behavioral brand loyalty constructs. The majority of respondents were business travelers who stayed at an upper-middle-class business hotel. The results of this investigation suggested that customer satisfaction had a significant indirect effect on behavioral brand loyalty when mediated by attitudinal brand loyalty, including cognitive-affective-conative brand loyalty stages. Thus, practitioners should consider customers'perceptions of their brand and not rely solely on purchasing frequencies when measuring brand loyalty levels.