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Fear of missing out (FOMO): overview, theoretical underpinnings, and literature review on relations with severity of negative affectivity and problematic technology use



This article discusses the fear of missing out (FOMO) on rewarding experiences, an important psychological construct in contemporary times. We present an overview of the FOMO construct and its operational definition and measurement. Then, we review recent empirical research on FOMO’s relationship with levels of online social engagement, problematic technology and internet communication use, negative affectivity, and sociodemographic variables. Additionally, we discuss theoretical conceptualizations regarding possible causes of FOMO and how FOMO may drive problematic internet technology use. Finally, we discuss future directions for the empirical study of FOMO.
Fear of missing out (FOMO): overview, theoretical
underpinnings, and literature review on relations
with severity of negative affectivity and problematic
technology use
Jon D. Elhai,
Haibo Yang,
Christian Montag
Academy of Psychology and Behavior, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin, China.
Department of Psychology, University of Toledo, Toledo,
Ohio, USA.
Department of Psychiatry, University of Toledo, Toledo, Ohio, USA.
Department of Molecular Psychology, Institute of Psychology
and Education, Ulm University, Ulm, Germany.
This article discusses the fear of missing out (FOMO) on rewarding experiences, an important
psychological construct in contemporary times. We present an overview of the FOMO construct and
its operational definition and measurement. Then, we review recent empirical research on FOMO’s
relationship with levels of online social engagement, problematic technology and internet commu-
nication use, negative affectivity, and sociodemographic variables. Additionally, we discuss theoretical
conceptualizations regarding possible causes of FOMO and how FOMO may drive problematic
internet technology use. Finally, we discuss future directions for the empirical study of FOMO.
Keywords: Addictive behavior; anxiety; social anxiety; depression; smartphone
The fear of missing out (FOMO) on rewarding experiences
has received increasing empirical study in recent years.
Central to FOMO is the perceived need to persistently stay
connected with one’s social network, resulting in frequent
(and for some people, excessive) use of social networking
sites (SNS) and messaging services.
The enhanced sci-
entific focus on FOMO coincides with growing societal
debate about whether too much digital ‘‘screen time’’ is
harmful to children and adults.
However, the empirical
literature on FOMO has not yet been synthesized into a
review paper. Our focus in this paper is to define and dis-
cuss the FOMO construct and its theoretical underpin-
nings, as well as review the recent empirical literature on
relationships between FOMO and levels of online social
engagement, problematic internet use (PIU), negative affec-
tivity, and sociodemographic characteristics.
Background, definition, and measurement of
FOMO was first introduced in media outlets in the early
At that time, SNS use had grown exponentially
around the world.
With the dissemination of means to
check SNS, especially the increasing ubiquity of smart-
phones, it has become easy to learn about potentially
rewarding experiences (online and offline) that one may
be missing. Incidentally, from early on FOMO was char-
acterized as an anxiety-provoking construct in popular
FOMO has been defined in scientific literature as
involving two specific primary components: a) apprehen-
sion that others are having rewarding experiences from
which one is absent, and b) the persistent desire to stay
connected with people in one’s social network.
The first
component maps onto the cognitive aspect of anxiety
(e.g., worry, rumination, etc.). The latter component involves
a behavioral strategy aimed at relieving such anxiety –
analogous to how compulsions aim (though maladapti-
vely) to relieve anxiety in obsessive compulsive disorder.
Currently, this behavioral component of FOMO most often
involves frequent checking of SNS and messaging ser-
vices to maintain social connections and avoid missing
out on rewarding experiences.
The persistent online checking behavior inherent in
FOMO is not only active, i.e. when people have time to
proactively browse their internet-enabled devices such as
smartphones, but is also frequently reactive (or perhaps
passive) through the many social-related notifications
received over the course of the day – to which there is a
compulsion to respond. On one hand, social-related noti-
fications are helpful for one’s social life and are rated
because they satisfy and alleviate FOMO.
Correspondence: Haibo Yang, Academy of Psychology and Behavior,
Tianjin Normal University, No. 57-1 Wujiayao Street, Hexi District,
Tianjin, 300074, China.
Submitted Jan 23 2020, accepted Mar 07 2020.
How to cite this article: Elhai JD, Yang H, Montag C. Fear of
missing out (FOMO): overview, theoretical underpinnings, and
literature review on relations with severity of negative affectivity
and problematic technology use. Braz J Psychiatry. 2020;00:000-
Braz J Psychiatry. 2020 xxx-xxx;00(00):000-000
Brazilian Psychiatric Association
Online social interaction can also enhance social capital
for many people.
On the other hand, interruptive smart-
phone and computer notifications (and associated check-
ing behavior) are known to have adverse effects. Such
notifications can result in a distracted and less focused
daily experience, impairing attention
and interrupting
work, school,
and other daily life activities
due to
‘‘switching costs,’’ which make it difficult to return to and
complete the task at hand.
Thus, FOMO can drive exces-
sive checking for and responding to SNS notifications,
making it difficult to remain productive in daily life.
In this
context, we also mention growing discussion on the need
to regulate the number of elements built in to social media
apps that elicit FOMO
in an attempt to prolong usage
time to harvest more personal data in the age of sur-
veillance capitalism.
Several self-report scales have been developed to meas-
ure FOMO, of which the most widely used is the 10-item
Likert-type FOMO Scale developed by Przybylski et al.
This scale includes items such as ‘‘I fear others have more
rewarding experiences than me,’’ and ‘‘When I miss out
on a planned get-together it bothers me.’’ Another similar
scale is Alt’s FOMO Scale, with 17-item
and 10-item
versions. A third scale added items to the Przybylski
FOMO Scale by incorporating state-based FOMO content
to distinguish it from trait-based FOMO.
The authors
used the two FOMO Scale items described above as
examples of trait-based FOMO, and added state-based
FOMO items such as ‘‘I am continuously online in order to
not miss out on anything’’ and ‘‘I fear not to be up-to-date
in my social networking sites.’’ Additionally, some research
has used behavioral measures to examine FOMO by
assessing the physiological distress (e.g., heart rate and
blood pressure) of being separated from a smartphone and
Several studies have explored the latent dimensions
of FOMO by using exploratory and/or confirmatory factor
analysis to better understand this construct. Some work
has tested and found support for a single latent dimen-
Wegmann et al.
added the previously des-
cribed state-based content to the Przybylski et al.
FOMO Scale and refined it through exploratory factor
analysis with a sample of German participants. They then
validated the expanded scale with confirmatory factor
analysis in a separate German sample, revealing a two-
dimensional model involving trait- and state-based FOMO
Another study revealed two FOMO factors
involving missing out on the experiences of others, and
the use of rumination strategies for controlling one’s social
Finally, other research has discovered
three FOMO factors in social, news, and commercial
FOMO appears to be a universal phenomenon, having
been investigated and supported as a valid construct in
numerous countries and languages. For example, FOMO
has been studied in samples from Israel,
the United Kingdom,
New Zealand,
and various regions within the United
One paper compared the FOMO scores
of German and Spanish samples, finding that Germans
scored significantly higher on trait-based FOMO, with a
small effect (Z
= 0.031).
FOMO’s relationships with relevant variables
We now review recent empirical research on bivariate rela-
tionships between FOMO and relevant variables, including
PIU, psychopathology and sociodemographic character-
istics. Ours is not a comprehensive systematic review,
since we focused on findings from the past couple of years.
Specifically, when reviewing FOMO’s relations with rele-
vant constructs, we only included studies published since
2018. Nevertheless, we also reviewed earlier studies when
discussing FOMO’s relations with sociodemographic vari-
ables, since few papers have reported such findings.
We organized the discussed references in an Endnote
Frequency and problematic use of internet
First, we will discuss research investigating FOMO in
relation to greater frequency of, but not necessarily mala-
daptive, SNS use. The majority of these studies investi-
gated only Facebook use or overall SNS use, employing
self-report methodology with a correlational, cross-
sectional survey design. Moderate to large relationships
have been discovered in several such studies involving
samples of children and youth, college students, and
For example, Dempsey et al.
data from 289 American college students using a cross-
sectional web survey design with standardized, self-report
scales. The authors reported a bivariate Pearson correla-
tion of -0.19 between the Przybylski et al.
10-item FOMO
Scale and a five-item Facebook use frequency scale
(computed such that lower scores indicate greater Face-
book frequency).
We should provide a caveat at this juncture about healthy
vs. maladaptive internet technology (including SNS) use.
A higher level of social networking is not necessarily
maladaptive, but it can be if it becomes excessive or
‘‘problematic.’’ In fact, PIU is defined as when overuse
results in adverse effects.
Such adverse effects are
typically categorized as those observed in addictive dis-
orders involving drug and alcohol use, including with-
drawal when denied access, tolerance (requiring increas-
ing periods of use to feel the same level of emotional
relief), and functional impairment such as work or social
problems, hazardous use, etc.
For recent discussion
on this topic and a taxonomy of internet-related use
disorders, including SNS use disorder or problematic SNS
use, see work by Montag et al.
We should also point out
that only problematic use of internet gaming is currently
an official medical/mental health diagnosis
; for pre-
liminary empirical findings, see recent work.
Nonetheless, problematic use of other forms of internet
technology, such as smartphones and SNS, are important
because of the adverse health and functional conse-
quences that can result from overuse.
Since the
smartphone itself is only a vehicle for accessing social
Braz J Psychiatry. 2020;00(00)
2JD Elhai et al.
media apps etc., the construct of problematic smartphone
use (PSU) (alternatively, smartphone addiction or smart-
phone use disorder) is frequently debated.
reviews of PIU have included smartphone
and SNS
including relations between problematic use and
psychological (including psychopathological) constructs.
The relationships between unspecified PIU and PSU have
also been investigated, showing overlap (correlations) of
around 0.50 in recent research.
The psychological
scales in the aforementioned reviews have frequently
used diagnostic criteria for drug and alcohol use that have
been modified to assess use of a specific technology
FOMO has been empirically studied in relation to
problematic SNS use in numerous studies. These studies
have almost exclusively used self-report methodology
with a correlational, cross-sectional survey design. Mode-
rate to large positive associations between FOMO and
levels of problematic SNS use have been found in several
studies of school-aged adolescents, college students,
and adults.
Dempsey et al.
a bivariate Pearson correlation of 0.32 between the
Przybylski et al.
FOMO Scale and the six-item Bergen
Facebook Addiction Scale.
Thus, FOMO has been
linked not only to greater frequency of SNS use, but also
to higher levels of problematic SNS use.
Many studies have also examined FOMO in relation to
levels of problematic smartphone use. These investiga-
tions have exclusively used self-report methods and a
correlational, cross-sectional research design. Numerous
studies with samples from all age groups have found
moderate to large positive associations between FOMO
and problematic smartphone use.
For example, Elhai, Yang, Fang et al.
analyzed data
from 1,034 Chinese university students, using a cross-
sectional, online self-report survey design with standard-
ized psychological scales. They reported a bivariate
Pearson correlation of 0.29 between the Chinese versions
of the Przybylski et al.
FOMO Scale and the 10-item
Smartphone Addiction Scale.
Associations between
FOMO and other adverse effects from smartphones have
also been investigated. FOMO has been positively
correlated with disrupted daily life activities due to smart-
phone notifications,
as well as to distracted pedestrian
behavior due to smartphone use.
Negative affectivity and demographics
FOMO has been conceptualized as a construct that
primarily involves anxiety-related psychopathology,
anxiety disorders are conceptualized as an important
aspect of underlying negative affectivity.
As such,
FOMO has been examined in relation to anxiety symptom
severity, including social anxiety, in studies with adoles-
cent and adult samples that used correlational, cross-
sectional designs. Across studies, FOMO has revealed
moderate to large positive relationships with anxiety
For instance, in the
previously mentioned study by Elhai, Yang, Fang et al.,
a bivariate Pearson correlation of 0.33 was reported
between the Przybylski et al.
FOMO Scale and the
seven-item anxiety subscale of the Depression Anxiety
Stress Scale-21.
Anxiety highly correlates (and is comorbid) with dep-
which is also a fundamental aspect of
underlying negative affectivity.
FOMO has also been
examined in relation to depression severity from adoles-
cence through adulthood using correlational, cross-sec-
tional methodology. Specifically, mild to moderate positive
associations have been found between FOMO and dep-
ression symptom severity.
Yang, Fang et al.
reported a bivariate Pearson correla-
tion of 0.29 between the Przybylski et al.
FOMO Scale
and seven-item depression subscale of the Depression
Anxiety Stress Scale-21.
Other indices of negative affectivity have been sup-
ported in connection with FOMO through correlational,
cross-sectional methodology. Moderate to large positive
associations have been found for FOMO with rumina-
as well as for FOMO with negative affect and
Additionally, a moderate positive correlation
has been found between FOMO and proneness to expe-
rience boredom
; in fact, boredom proneness is
conceptualized as a negative affectivity construct that
additionally involves impaired attention.
FOMO has also been investigated for relations with
variables involving the opposite of negative affectivity –
namely, perceived quality of life. These studies have used
cross-sectional methods similar to those of most of the
previously mentioned studies. Specifically, FOMO has
shown mild to moderate inverse correlations with life
Furthermore, mild to moderate inverse
associations have been found between FOMO and
emotional well-being.
Finally, FOMO has been associated with particular
demographic characteristics in a small number of studies
with correlational, cross-sectional designs. FOMO has
been correlated with younger age in some studies,
and others have found it to be more related to females
than males.
One study of North Americans found
that FOMO was more related to Caucasians than racial
Theoretical underpinnings of FOMO
FOMO was first conceptualized using self-determination
theory (SDT), which was developed by Ryan & Deci
applied by Przybylski et al. to understanding what drives
SDT attempts to explain how personality is
formed and the psychological needs that drive persona-
lity formation. SDT proposes that intrinsic (rather than
extrinsic) motivation for reward is essential in promoting
mental health, and that intrinsic motivation is best
promoted when one feels socially connected to others.
Therefore, in SDT, social relatedness can drive intrinsic
motivation, which in turn can encourage positive mental
Przybylski et al. applied SDT to FOMO, pro-
posing that FOMO is a negative emotional state resulting
from unmet social relatedness needs.
The conceptuali-
zation that FOMO involves negative affect from unmet
social needs is similar to theories about the negative
emotional effects of social ostracism.
Braz J Psychiatry. 2020;00(00)
FOMO review 3
In this context, research involving personality psychol-
ogy should also be mentioned. FOMO has been linked to
the personality trait of neuroticism,
one of the most
well-known risk factors for developing a mood disorder.
Furthermore, narcissism likely plays a role in FOMO.
Vulnerable narcissists in particular have unmet social
relatedness needs (similar to those with severe FOMO)
and more often engage in problematic SNS use.
fore, FOMO may have a mediational role between narcis-
sism and problematic SNS use.
Subsequent investigations have assessed whether
FOMO influences negative affectivity, such as depression
and anxiety, or whether negative affectivity influences
FOMO. For instance, several papers have conceptualized
FOMO as a driving factor for negative affectivity.
However, other papers have conceptualized negative
affectivity as an antecedent of FOMO.
It is not yet
clear whether FOMO causes negative affectivity, whether
negative affectivity causes FOMO, or whether there is
a bidirectional effect. Repeated measures, longitudi-
nal designs, and experiments may eventually provide
answers to this question. Studies with repeated measures
designs have found some initial support that FOMO
drives negative affect over short (1-week) periods of
FOMO is also widely considered a driving mechanism
for PIU, as discussed above. As such, FOMO has been
theorized for its role in PIU. The Interaction of Person-
Affect-Cognition-Execution (I-PACE) model of PIU con-
ceptualizes risk factors for PIU, both in early
and later
stages of excessive technology use.
I-PACE proposes
that background personal variables, such as psycho-
pathology, personality, and biology (including genetics),
can influence problematic use. I-PACE additionally sug-
gests that responses to background variables also play a
role in PIU as mediating mechanisms between back-
ground variables and problematic use. Such response
variables include coping strategies, cognitive bias, ability
to inhibit impulsive behavior, craving and expectations
about internet use.
FOMO has been conceptualized as an internet-related
maladaptive cognitive bias within the I-PACE model’s
response variables.
Elhai et al. suggested that
because depression and anxiety involve social isolation,
FOMO can be a natural consequence, in turn driving
In fact, consistent with I-PACE, several papers
have found FOMO to mediate relations between psycho-
pathological symptoms (i.e., depression and anxiety)
and PIU levels.
Thus, FOMO may be a
mechanism that explains how some depressed/anxious
people develop PIU.
Conclusions and future directions
FOMO is an important psychological construct in the
digital age. FOMO has been examined and validated
globally with several self-report psychological scales, as
well as with physiological monitoring. Support has been
established for FOMO in relation to greater frequency of
SNS use, higher levels of problematic SNS and smart-
phone use, more severe anxiety, depression and negative
affectivity, and lower levels of perceived quality of life.
Preliminary evidence indicates that FOMO is more related
to younger age and female sex.
Future research could explore unanswered questions
regarding the FOMO construct. Nearly all work assessing
the relations between FOMO and high or problematic
levels of technology use has involved self-reported beha-
vior as the dependent variable. However, self-reported
rates of internet use differ from objective measures of use
(e.g. device logs).
In particular, digital phenotyping
could help the psychological sciences overcome some of
the problems arising from self-report methods, such as
problems self-assessing a construct such as FOMO and
the tendency to answer questions in socially desirable
We are aware of only one FOMO study that
has objectively measured internet technology use (smart-
phone), finding that FOMO was related to higher level of
More work in this area is needed. Furthermore,
the vast majority of research on FOMO has used cross-
sectional research methodology. We encourage resear-
chers to use repeated measures, longitudinal, daily diary
and/or experience sampling designs to further assess
FOMO. Such designs can attempt to answer whether
FOMO drives negative affectivity or vice-versa, which has
been done thus far in only two papers,
and whether
FOMO drives problematic smartphone/SNS use or vice-
versa, which is as yet unexplored.
Additionally, the research on FOMO has been exclu-
sively variable-centered. No studies have used person-
centered analyses to examine possible heterogeneity
in the experiences/symptoms of FOMO across indivi-
duals with mixture modeling such as cluster, latent
class, or latent profile analysis. Furthermore, FOMO and
other negative affectivity variables are all correlated with
PIU and with each other. Therefore, statistical methods,
such as machine learning algorithms that can address
collinearity and relative variable importance and can
shrink regression coefficients among collinear predic-
tors to realistic levels, are advisable for further FOMO
When writing the present paper, we were also surprised
that FOMO has not yet been investigated with neuros-
cientific tools to better understand which neural processes
underlie the relevant construct. This is a glaring omission,
since studies have increasingly used such tools to
investigate the effects of excessive social network use/
smartphone use
or the power of likes on platforms
such as Instagram.
This less-traveled path will be of
tremendous importance for gaining deeper insights into
the actual nature of FOMO. It will also be important to
disentangle more state/trait effects of FOMO, given that
Balta et al.
found that associations with neuroticism
are stronger for trait FOMO (r = 0.29) than state FOMO
(r = 0.15). See also Wegmann et al.
on the distinction
between state vs. trait FOMO.
Finally, other psychological constructs that have pre-
liminary associations with FOMO should be further
examined in subsequent studies, including behavioral
activation, which is important for treating major depres-
sive disorder,
as well as the need for physical touch.
Another important area to study is app design that
Braz J Psychiatry. 2020;00(00)
4JD Elhai et al.
reduces FOMO by batching interruptive smartphone
We hope that advances in methodologi-
cal design will further our understanding of FOMO and its
relationship with relevant psychological variables.
JDE is a paid, full-time faculty member at University of
Toledo and a paid, visiting scientist at Tianjin Normal
University; he receives grant research funding from the
U.S. National Institutes of Health and the Department of
Defense. CM has received (from Ulm University and the
University of Bonn) grants from the German Research
Foundation (DFG) and the German Federal Ministry for
Research and Education.
JDE receives royalties for several books published on post-
traumatic stress disorder (PTSD); occasionally serves as a
paid, expert witness on PTSD legal cases. CM has perfor-
med grant reviews for several agencies; has edited journal
sections and articles; has given academic lectures in clini-
cal or scientific venues or companies; has generated books
or book chapters for publishers of mental health texts (for
some of these activities he received royalties, but never
from the gaming or social media industry); is part of a dis-
cussion circle (Digitalita
¨t und Verantwortung: https://about.
wortung/) debating ethical questions linked to social media,
digitalization and society/democracy at Facebook (no
salary); and is currently on the scientific advisory board
of the Nymphenburg Group (; for this
activity he is financially compensated). The other author
reports no conflicts of interest.
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FOMO review 7
... FoMO can be exploited by the techindustry through design elements that prolong usage . For instance, time restrictions on online-content together with reaching out via push notifications, could elicit FoMO and trigger users' sense of urgency to check their devices more regularly (Elhai, Yang, & Montag, 2020). Individuals with a high level of FoMO are more likely to react to the notifications and to spend more time online to ensure they are not missing out on any events or interactions, which could lead to prolonged use of social media and excessive attachment to it, hence resulting in developing PSMU. ...
... Additionally, while our study employed the Big-5 personality traits measure, there are other relevant traits worth exploring. For instance, narcissism, which is part of the Dark Triad (Paulhus & Williams, 2002), where individuals with unfulfilled social desires and needs, may be susceptible to FoMO and are likely to engage in PSMU (Casale, Fioravanti, & Rugai, 2016;Elhai et al., 2020). Regret tendency, another personality trait in which individuals often experience feelings of negative emotions over choices not made or opportunities missed, was found in the literature to be positively associated with FoMO (Ni, Xie, Lin, & Jian, 2022). ...
Recent meta-analytical evidence indicates a mild association between higher neuroticism and lower conscientiousness scores and a tendency towards problematic social media use (PSMU). However, fear of missing out (FoMO) has emerged as a critical variable in understanding the positive link between neuroticism and PSMU. Given the replication crisis in psychology, this study aimed to reinvestigate personality-PSMU associations and, crucially, the less-studied FoMO mediation effect. To ensure generalizability of the findings, we recruited two diverse samples with European and Arabian backgrounds. The results revealed a significant total effect of neuroticism on PSMU for both cultural groups, with the European sample demonstrating a fully mediated effect via FoMO, whereas the Arab sample showed a partially mediated effect via FoMO, along with a significant direct effect. This study contributes to the existing literature by highlighting the importance of FoMO as a mediator between neuroticism and PSMU and some minor potential cultural differences in this association.
... The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic exacerbated not only smartphone addiction (Duan et al., 2021) but also mental health issues such as depression and fear of missing out (FoMO) among adolescents (Cao et al., 2022;Wang et al., 2022). A series of studies have shown that depression, FoMO, and smartphone addiction are internally correlated (Augner et al., 2021;Elhai et al., 2021;Jon D. Elhai et al., 2020). Additionally, the literature has also shown that there may be bidirectional relationships between them (Cui et al., 2021;Elhai et al., 2016;Li, et al., 2022), which may imply the existence of a negative circle that needs to be broken to reduce exacerbation of these symptoms. ...
... FoMO refers to a personality construct of being reluctant to miss important information, including social information (Elhai et al., 2016), which shares a close relationship with depression. A series of studies suggested that FoMO was positively correlated with depression (Dhir et al., 2018;Elhai et al., 2018;Jon D. Elhai et al., 2020), and their relationship might be bidirectional (Elhai et al., 2021). Specifically, on one hand, FoMO may lead to depression. ...
Introduction: Abundant literature has shown that depression, Fear of Missing Out (FoMO), and smartphone addiction may have bidirectional relationships, and attention to negative information (ANI) may moderate these bidirectional relationships. However, previous literature mainly analyzed them using total scores, and longitudinal evidence is limited, motivating us to address this gap using moderated network analysis. Method: 2469 secondary school students (female = 1212 (49.09%), age mean ± SD = 13.90 ± 1.56, age range from 11 to 18) were recruited to complete questionnaires, including the ANI scale, the Mobile Phone Addiction Index scale, the FoMO scale, and the Patient Health Questionnaire before and after four-months online learning. The moderated network approach was used to test the bidirectional relationship among depression, FoMO, and smartphone addiction and the moderating role of ANI. Results: The analysis found that the strongest bidirectional relationships were between suicide and withdrawal or escape and between withdrawal or escape and fear of missing situations in waves 1 and 2, respectively. The number of interaction terms among depression, FoMO, and smartphone addiction moderated by ANI was: 4 and 3 in waves 1 and 2, respectively. In addition, the strongest interaction terms were between withdrawal or escape and fear of missing situations and between feeling anxious and lost and concentration in waves 1 and 2, respectively. Conclusions: We identified several significant bidirectional relationships between the symptoms of depression, FoMO, and smartphone addiction and interaction terms moderated by ANI. These findings provide valuable theoretical and practical insights for breaking the cycle between symptoms of depression, FoMO, and smartphone addiction through intervention with ANI.
... By writing at the kitchen table, I was a part of the day-to-day living, the meals and the drama-and there was a lot of drama. I didn't want to miss out on the social interactions as they were my version of positive mental health, and the fear of missing out on these experiences far outweighed any of the disruptions while writing (Elhai et al., 2020). I didn't need to get fully involved or move. ...
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore a novel storytelling approach that investigates lived experience at the intersection of motherhood/caregiving and Ph.D. pursuits. The paper contributes to the feminist tradition of writing differently through the process of care that emerges from shared stories. Design/methodology/approach Using a process called heartful-communal storytelling, the authors evoke personal and embodied stories and transgressive narratives. The authors present a composite process drawing on heartful-autoethnography, dialogic writing and communal storytelling. Findings The paper makes two key contributions: (1) the paper illustrates a novel feminist process in action and (2) the paper contributes six discrete stories of lived experience at the intersection of parenthood and Ph.D. studies. The paper also contributes to the development of the feminist tradition of writing differently. Three themes emerged through the storytelling experience, and these include (1) creating boundaries and transgressing boundaries, (2) giving and receiving care and (3) neoliberal conformity and resistance. These themes, like the stories, also became entangled. Originality/value The paper demonstrates how heartful-communal storytelling can lead to individual and collective meaning making. While the Ph.D. is a solitary path, the authors' heartful-communal storytelling experience teaches that holding it separate from other relationships can impoverish what is learnt and constrain the production of good knowledge; the epistemic properties of care became self-evident.
... Gejala ini jika dikaitkan dengan tingginya durasi penggunaan waktu untuk mengarungi internet menunjukkan kecenderungan FOMO pada mayoritas responden penelitian. FOMO ditandai dengan rasa bersalah dan ketakutan pervasif untuk terus terhubung dengan apa yang dilakukan orang lain di sosial media mereka (Elhai et al., 2021;Gioia et al., 2021;Tandon et al., 2021). Gejala FOMO ini mengalami banyak peningkatan sejak pembatasan jarak sosial akibat dari Covid-19 (Gioia et al., 2021). ...
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Cyberloafing is a form of social-loafing that reduces joint performance within an organization. As a reluctance to provide equal effort to communal work, cyberloafing is much more covert because an individual can hide behind their electronic work device. In the form of service work that demands teamwork, this behavior interferes with the performance of public service organizations. This study aims to see how this behavior exists in an organizational institution. This study took the research locus in sub-district offices throughout West Aceh Regency. A total of 73 research respondents consisting of government employees with the status of civil servants were examined for their responses from the main point of view of The Theory of Reasoned Action. The results of the partial least square test on the research construct indicate that the behavioral intention is based on the environment around which the individual interacts. The perceived behavioral control variable does not affect cyberloafing behavior.
... It is a fear that others may be having beneficial experiences of which one is not a part, a desire to be continuously connected to others, and a negative emotion caused by unmet social relationship needs [44]. Studies suggest that individuals experience greater levels of FoMO when their social needs are unmet [71,72]. The decline of individual social activities during the pandemic [73], may likely to lead to inadequate socialization and thus increase the FoMO. ...
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Based on social cognitive theory and gender differences, this study verified a moderated mediation model to explore the relationship between the COVID-19 related stress (CRS) and social network addiction (SNA) and evaluate the mediating role of fear of missing out (FoMO) and the moderating role of gender. A questionnaire survey was conducted, including 702 Chinese university students.This study used PROCESS to test the hypothesis model.The results showed that the CRS significantly and positively affected the SNA of college students and FoMO played a complementary mediating role. Moreover, the analysis of the moderated mediation model showed that gender moderated the relationship between FoMO and SNA; the effect of FoMO was stronger on the SNA of male college students than that of females. The results not only enhanced our understanding of the internal influencing mechanism of the relationship between CRS and SNA but also considered gender differences. In addition, some suggestions were proposed.
... (Wong et al. 2020) revealed that boys are more interested in games on the internet than girls and this lead to a negative impact on mental and physical health (Wong et al. 2020). (Elhai, et al., 2021) suggest that most girls have limited exposure to violence and porn, and hence, they are more vulnerable to being influenced by the content of that type mostly they use social media for connectivity, and it also leads to distancing from the physical environment and is more dependent on the virtual world. ...
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The basic aim of this study was to analyze the difference between expectations versus the reality of experiences of Pakistani and South Korean internet users. The population of this study comprises children from Pakistan and South Korea. The convenient sampling method was used for the selection of a sample from both countries; 200 were selected from both countries. Furthermore, respondents were accessed through social media like WhatsApp, LinkedIn, and Facebook. Results indicate a huge difference between what we expect from the Internet and what we experience in terms of reality. Pakistani children have different expectations from the internet and face different realities in terms of positive and negative experiences. While South Korean children also do have different expectations and different positive and negative experiences with the internet. It was explored that most of the children used the internet just for the sake of using their spare time without any motivation. The difference is present in terms of country versus expectations and expectations versus positive and negative experiences. Results explain that while using the internet children are exposed to bullying, online harassment, and exposure to pornography as well.
Fear of Missing Out (FoMO) is defined as an individual's fear and panic that others may be having more satisfying and rewarding experiences than they are, and the desire to constantly stay connected to what others are doing. It is known to be an important mediating variable in predicting the negative consequences of overuse of social networking sites. In terms of negative consequences, it is also suggested that it has an impact on university students' learning approaches. However, the heterogeneity of FoMO among individuals with different learning approaches has not yet been clarified. Therefore, in this study, latent profile analysis (LPA) was conducted to reveal hidden profiles of university students in terms of learning approaches and FoMO according to the frequency of checking the smartphone during studying. The participants consisted of 1122 university students studying at a state university in Turkey. The study used the Revised Study Process Questionnaire (R-SPQ-2F) to assess deep and surface learning approaches and the Fear of Missing Out Scale (FoMOs) to measure FoMO level. The findings indicate that there are low but significant relationships between the variables. LPA revealed four profiles among university students according to the incidences. The profiles were discussed in the light of the literature.
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The fear of missing out (FoMO) is characterized in the literature as a fear that others are having rewarding experiences while one is missing out, and a constant need to keep connected with one’s social network. Driven by social determination theory (SDT), FoMO has been linked with problematic social networking sites use (PSNSU), negative affectivity (NA), self-esteem (SE), and sleep disturbances. The present study reports findings from 512 individuals (79.1% women, mean age 30.5 years, SD = 8.61). Structural equation modelling (SEM) suggests that the duration of SNS use and the numbers of SNS platforms actively used partially mediated the relationship between FoMO and PSNSU. In turn, PSNSU partially mediated the relationship between FoMO and NA. Furthermore, the present study has extended the literature by incorporating the Vulnerability Model in the FoMO concept, identifying that SE partially mediated the relationship between FoMO and NA, while NA fully mediated the relationship between FoMO and sleeping disturbances. Accordingly, the present has extended previous research findings in showing exercise as a potential protective factor to prevent against FoMO. Practical and theoretical implications are discussed.
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Przedmiotem badań w niniejszym artykule jest następujący problem: W jaki sposób to, co społecznie uchodzi za wiedzę, może być wykorzystane do szerzenia dezinformacji, stanowiąc niebezpieczeństwo dla odbiorcy? Zjawisko to nazwano tutaj „wiedzą szkodliwą” i przeanalizowano w odniesieniu do Labiryntu świata i raju serca Jana Amosa Komeńskiego. Celem badań jest egzegeza owego dzieła pod kątem zastosowania jej do diagnozy problemów świata współczesnego.
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Aims: The present theoretical paper introduces the smartphone technology as a challenge for diagnostics in the study of Internet use disorders and reflects on the term "smartphone addiction." Methods: Such a reflection is carried out against the background of a literature review and the inclusion of Gaming Disorder in ICD-11. Results: We believe that it is necessary to divide research on Internet use disorder (IUD) into a mobile and non-mobile IUD branch. This is important because certain applications such as the messenger application WhatsApp have originally been developed for smartphones and enfold their power and attractiveness mainly on mobile devices. Discussion and conclusions: Going beyond the argumentation for distinguishing between mobile and non-mobile IUD, it is of high relevance for scientists to better describe and understand what persons are actually (over-)using. This is stressed by a number of examples, explicitly targeting not only the diverse contents used in the online world, but also the exact behavior on each platform. Among others, it matters if a person is more of an active producer of content or passive consumer of social media.
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Background: 'Gaming Disorder' (GD) has received increased medical attention and official recognition from both the American Psychiatric Association (APA) and the World Health Organization (WHO). Although these two medical organizations have independently developed promising clinical diagnostic frameworks to assess disordered gaming, little is known about how these frameworks compare at different psychometric levels in terms of producing consistent outcomes in the assessment of GD. Methods: A sample of 1429 German gamers (Meanage = 29.74 years; SD = 12.37 years) completed an online survey including measures on different psychopathological symptoms (depression, loneliness and attention problems), gaming motives and disordered gaming according to the WHO and APA frameworks. Results: The findings suggest the existence of minor discrepancies in the estimation of prevalence rates of GD according among the two frameworks. Nevertheless, both diagnostic frameworks are fairly consistent in the psychometric prediction of GD in relation to gaming motives and psychopathological symptoms. The findings underscore the role of key gaming motives as risk factors and protective factors across both diagnostic frameworks. Finally, the study provides support for the WHO diagnostic framework for GD and its measurement with the German Gaming Disorder Test (GDT). The findings and their implications are further discussed in terms of clinical relevance.
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Background It is well established that increased internet use is related to an increased risk of musculoskeletal pain among adolescents. The relationship between internet addiction (IA), a unique condition involving severe internet overuse, and musculoskeletal pain has, however, not been reported. This study aimed to investigate the association between IA and the risk of musculoskeletal pain among Chinese college students.MethodsA cross-sectional study was conducted among 4211 Chinese college freshmen. IA status was evaluated using the 20-item Young’s Internet Addiction Test (IAT). IA was defined as internet addiction score ≥50 points. Musculoskeletal pain was assessed using a self-reported questionnaire. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to determine association between IA categories (normal, mild, and moderate-to-severe) and musculoskeletal pain.ResultsAmong all participants; neck, shoulder, elbow, wrist/hand, and low back and waist pain was reported by 29.2, 33.9, 3.8, 7.9, and 27.9%, respectively. The prevalence of IA was 17.4%. After adjusting for potential confounders, the results showed significant differences in the risk of musculoskeletal pain among different IA categories. The odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for neck pain with IA categories were 1.000 (reference), 1.451 (1.221, 1.725), and 1.994 (1.608, 2.473), respectively (P for trends: < 0.001). For shoulder pain, these were 1.000 (reference), 1.520 (1.287, 1.795), and 2.057 (1.664, 2.542), respectively (P for trends: < 0.001). For elbow pain, ORs (95% CIs) were 1.000 (reference), 1.627 (1.016, 2.605), and 2.341 (1.382, 3.968), respectively (P for trends: 0.001). Those for wrist/hand pain were 1.000 (reference), 1.508 (1.104, 2.060), and 2.236 (1.561, 3.202), respectively (P for trends: < 0.001). For low back and waist pain with severe IA categories, these were 1.000 (reference), 1.635 (1.368, 1.955), and 2.261 (1.813, 2.819), respectively (P for trends: < 0.001).Conclusion This cross-sectional study showed that severe IA was associated with a higher risk of musculoskeletal pain in Chinese college freshmen. In future research, it will be necessary to explore causality regarding this relationship using interventional studies.
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The human need to belong is an innate drive that dictates much of our behavior. Informed by The Belongingness Hypothesis and Information Foraging Theory, the present study examines the relationship between FoMO and well-being. Study 1 (107 college students) investigates the relationship between FoMO, social media intensity and social connection. Results find that FoMO is positively associated with social media intensity, but negatively associated with social connection. The mediation tests, interestingly, reveal more positive results regarding FoMO. Specifically, FoMO has a positive indirect effect on social connection through social media intensity, suggesting that FoMO may, in some cases, be a good thing leading to enhanced social connection. Study 2 (458 college students) finds that FoMO impacts subjective well-being both directly (negatively) and indirectly (positively) through its impact on social media intensity and social connection. Results of the two studies reveal a nuanced model of FoMO and its relationships with social media intensity, connection, and well-being. FoMO can have a positive impact on well-being if it leads to social media use that fosters social connection. Study limitations and future research directions are discussed.
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Fear of missing out (FoMO) refers to a need for interacting with other people and staying connected to what they are doing, a concept that is increasingly linked to the use of online social media (“OSM,” e.g., Facebook). The aim of the present study was to develop and validate a brief inventory of modern OSM-related FoMO—the Online Fear of Missing Out inventory or “ON-FoMO.” Participants were 405 community adults who took an online survey questionnaire (M = 29.06 years, SD = 8.11). As expected, a robust factor analysis revealed that our ON-FoMO captures four distinct core dimensions of FoMO among users of OSM: need to belong, need for popularity, anxiety, and addiction. A scale total score was also granted by a bi-factor analysis. Supporting the convergent validity of our I-FoMO, the scale correlated highly with the FoMOs, the main instrument used in studies in the area, as well as with other assessments of smartphone and social media dependence. Associations with low life satisfaction, depression, and attempted suicide were also found. Future studies should focus on establishing the more subtle differences between broad and specific (online) FoMO and the discriminant validity of the ON-FoMO.
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Currently about 2.71 billion humans use a smartphone worldwide. Although smartphone technology has brought many advances, a growing number of scientists discuss potential detrimental effects due to excessive smartphone use. Of importance, the likely culprit to understand over-usage is not the smartphone itself, but the excessive use of applications installed on smartphones. As the current business model of many app-developers foresees an exchange of personal data for allowance to use an app, it is not surprising that many design elements can be found in social media apps and Freemium games prolonging app usage. It is the aim of the present work to analyze several prominent smartphone apps to carve out such elements. As a result of the analysis, a total of six different mechanisms are highlighted to illustrate the prevailing business model in smartphone app development. First, these app-elements are described and second linked to classic psychological/economic theories such as the mere-exposure effect, endowment effect, and Zeigarnik effect, but also to psychological mechanisms triggering social comparison. It is concluded that many of the here presented app-elements on smartphones are able to prolong usage time, but it is very hard to understand such an effect on the level of a single element. A systematic analysis would require insights into app data usually only being available for the app-designers, but not for independent scientists. Nevertheless, the present work supports the notion that it is time to critically reflect on the prevailing business model of ‘user data in exchange for app-use allowance’. Instead of using a service in exchange for data, it ultimately might be better to ban or regulate certain design elements in apps to come up with less addictive products. Instead, users could pay a reasonable fee for an app service.
A family environment, characterized by low expressiveness, low cohesion and intense conflicts is usually associated with problematic internet use (PIU) among adolescents. However, the mechanism that correlates family environment with PIU is still unclear. We propose that a negative family environment is associated with high adolescents' depression which, in turn, leads to Fear of Missing Out (FoMO); Finally, FoMO is associated with PIU, and time spent online. Eighty-five adolescents (aged 12–16) and their parents (total N = 170) participated in the study. Parents provided data on the family environment, and adolescents provided data on depression, FoMO and PIU. In addition, we monitored adolescents' smartphones for 14 days, gathering objective data to evaluate time and content online. Results supported out model, indicating that the effects of low family expressiveness and high conflicts on PIU and time spent online are mediated by depression and FoMO. Results suggest that positive family environment could decrease depressive symptoms and FoMO among adolescents, and hence, diminish PIU and time spent online.
We examined a model of psychopathology variables, age and sex as correlates of problematic smartphone use (PSU) severity using supervised machine learning in a sample of Chinese undergraduate students. A sample of 1097 participants completed measures querying demographics, and psychological measures of PSU, depression and anxiety symptoms, fear of missing out (FOMO), and rumination. We used several different machine learning algorithms to train our statistical model of age, sex and the psychological variables in modeling PSU severity, trained using many simulated replications on a random subset of participants, and externally tested on the remaining subset of participants. Shrinkage algorithms (lasso, ridge, and elastic net regression) performing slightly but statistically better than other algorithms. Results from the training subset generalized to the test subset, without substantial worsening of fit using traditional fit indices. FOMO had the largest relative contribution in modeling PSU severity when adjusting for other covariates in the model. Results emphasize the significance of FOMO to the construct of PSU.
Background: Fear of missing out (FOMO) has been increasingly researched recently, especially in relation to negative affectivity constructs. Our aim was to examine relations between FOMO and repeated measurements of negative affect over one week. Method: We investigated associations between FOMO and prospectively-measured negative affect over one week in an experience sampling study of 93 undergraduate students. Participants completed an initial web survey assessing depression, anxiety and FOMO. Over the week, participants responded to daily text messages, assessing negative affect from earlier in the day. Results: On a bivariate basis, FOMO, depression and anxiety severity were related to daily negative affect assessments. Using multivariate growth modeling, higher initial negative affect was related to decreasing negative affect over the week. Female sex and higher anxiety related to higher initial negative affect ratings. Higher FOMO levels related to increasing negative affect over the week. Limitations: Findings were based on self-report methodology, using university students and only one week of measurement. Conclusions: Results suggest that women and more anxious individuals had higher initial negative affect, while FOMO predicted increasing negative affect over the week. Results advance understanding of FOMO in relation to psychopathology, and are discussed in the context of Self-Determination Theory.
Fear of missing out (FoMO) has been linked to problematic social media use and negative health outcomes among adolescents and emerging adults. The 10-item Fear of Missing Out Scale (FoMO) is the most used instrument to measure FoMO levels and, for this reason, it seems relevant to evaluate its psychometric properties across various cultures. In Study 1, exploratory factor analysis was conducted on the scale items using a sample of 436 college students [F = 51.1%; M (SD) = 22.13 (2.78) years old]. In Study 2, confirmatory factor analysis was conducted in order to determine whether the results of Study 1 could be confirmed with another sample of college students [n = 239; F = 61.1%; M (SD) = 23.02(2.64) years old] and adolescents [n = 178; M = 57.3%; M (SD) = 16.2 (1.48) years old]. The model was also tested for measurement invariance by sex and age (collegiate versus high school students). Full scalar invariance of the FoMO across sex and age was supported and adequate internal consistency was found. Convergent validity was also demonstrated. As a result, we concluded that the FoMO might be used in clinical settings as a means of screening people who show potentially high behavioral engagement with social media. The FoMO can also help identify specific maladaptive cognitions and ruminative thoughts that maintain FoMO.