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Environmental Management in the World’s Largest Mass Gathering Kumbh Mela 2019 at Confluence of River Ganga and Yamuna at Prayagraj, India

Authors:
International Journal of Innovative Research in Information Security (IJIRIS)
Issue 04
, Volume
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ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGE
AT CONFLUENCE OF RIV
Department of Environmental Engineering,
Department of Environmental Engineering,
Department of Environment
Manuscript History
Number:
IJIRIS/RS/Vol.0
Received: 02, April 20
20
Final Correction: 10,
April
Final Accepted: 12,
April
Published: April 2020
Citation:
Ayushi, Singh &
Kumbh Mela 2019
at Confluence of river Ganga and Muna at Pra
Research in Information Securit
Editor:
Dr.A.Arul L.S, Chief Editor, IJIRIS, AM Publications, India
Copyright: ©2020
This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons
Attribution License, Which Permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided
the original author and source are credited
Abstract:
Mass gathering
has made certain
negative impact on our environment.
the earth. It is o
ne of the most important and sacred festival
banks of river Ganga (
Haridwar
the Ganges, the Y
amuna
paper studies the
water and
2019 at Prayagraj with the help of relevant data of that event collected. Moreover, it discusses what steps have
been tak
en by the government to curb the ill effects of the place of event to be held
technologies like Geo-
tubes and Bio
Sanitation with
use of 1.2
managed at most of the locations with the help of Tipper vehicles which carried the solid waste to the treatment
plants.
Several new STPs were installed to manage the waste generated.
Keywords: Kumbh
Mela
A mass-gathering ev
ent
particular location for so
congregations in the
pilgrimage
75 nationalities were
present of this mammoth event to be he
observance site rotate
at Haridwar
, on the bank of river Shipra at
Sangam of the rivers
Ganges, the
addition, a G
reat Kumbh Mela festival is celebrated
International Journal of Innovative Research in Information Security (IJIRIS)
, Volume
7 (April 2020)
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All Rights Reserved
ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGE
LARGEST MASS GATHERI
AT CONFLUENCE OF RIV
YAMUNA AT PRAYAGRAJ
Ayushi Raghav
Department of Environmental Engineering,
Delhi Technological University, Delhi, India
ayushiraghav96@gmail.com
S.K Singh
Department of Environmental Engineering,
Delhi Technological University, Delhi, India
sksinghdce@gmail.com
Twinkle Bhatia
Department of Environment
al Engineering,
Delhi Technological University, Delhi, India
twinklekiet93@gmail.com
IJIRIS/RS/Vol.0
7/Issue04/APIS10080
20
April
2020
April
2020
Ayushi, Singh &
Twinkle (2020). E
nvironmental Man
at Confluence of river Ganga and Muna at Pra
Research in Information Securit
y, Volume VII, 25-35.
doi://10.26562/IRJCS.2020.APIS1008
Dr.A.Arul L.S, Chief Editor, IJIRIS, AM Publications, India
This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons
Attribution License, Which Permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided
the original author and source are credited
Mass gathering
events
is very common in India due to which there have been various instances which
negative impact on our environment.
Kumbh Mela is
ne of the most important and sacred festival
Haridwar
), river Shipra (Ujjain) .
River
amuna
, and the mythical Sarasvati(
Prayagraj)
water and
Sanitation management and
impact on the en
2019 at Prayagraj with the help of relevant data of that event collected. Moreover, it discusses what steps have
en by the government to curb the ill effects of the place of event to be held
tubes and Bio
-Remediation.
The study shows that there were proper arra
use of 1.2
2 lakhs Eco-toilets along
with 20,000 dustbins. Moreover
managed at most of the locations with the help of Tipper vehicles which carried the solid waste to the treatment
Several new STPs were installed to manage the waste generated.
Mela
; Sanitation; Waste Management;
Water
I
. INTRODUCTION
ent
abbreviated as MG
is usually defined as
particular location for so
me purpose (WHO, 2015).
Kumbh
pilgrimage
world
of faith to bath at Sangam, Prayagraj.
present of this mammoth event to be he
between pilgrimage places
located
, on the bank of river Shipra at
Ujjain,
on the bank of river
Ganges, the
Yamuna
, and the mythologi
reat Kumbh Mela festival is celebrated
in
every 144 years at Prayag
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IJIRIS: Mendeley (Elsevier Indexed) CiteFactor Journal Citations Impact Factor
SJIF: Innospace, Morocco (2016):
4.651|
Indexcopernicus: (ICV 2016):
ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGE
MENT IN THE WORLD’S
LARGEST MASS GATHERI
NG KUMBH MELA 2019
AT CONFLUENCE OF RIV
ER GANGA AND
YAMUNA AT PRAYAGRAJ
, INDIA
Ayushi Raghav
Delhi Technological University, Delhi, India
ayushiraghav96@gmail.com
S.K Singh
Delhi Technological University, Delhi, India
sksinghdce@gmail.com
Twinkle Bhatia
Delhi Technological University, Delhi, India
twinklekiet93@gmail.com
nvironmental Man
agement in the World’
s Largest Mass Gathering
at Confluence of river Ganga and Muna at Pra
yagraj, India.
International Journal of Innovative
doi://10.26562/IRJCS.2020.APIS1008
Dr.A.Arul L.S, Chief Editor, IJIRIS, AM Publications, India
This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons
Attribution License, Which Permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided
is very common in India due to which there have been various instances which
Kumbh Mela is
one of the largest mass gathering event
ne of the most important and sacred festival
which is celebrated
four times
River
Godavari ( Nashik)
, and at the
Prayagraj)
. This time it has take
n place at
impact on the en
vironment before and after
2019 at Prayagraj with the help of relevant data of that event collected. Moreover, it discusses what steps have
en by the government to curb the ill effects of the place of event to be held
with the implementation of new
The study shows that there were proper arra
with 20,000 dustbins. Moreover
, solid waste was properly
managed at most of the locations with the help of Tipper vehicles which carried the solid waste to the treatment
Several new STPs were installed to manage the waste generated.
Water
Supply and its Quality and
Water
. INTRODUCTION
is usually defined as
the assemblage of
people in large numbers
Kumbh
Mela,
the holy event of India is
of faith to bath at Sangam, Prayagraj.
Approximately
12 crore visitors from
present of this mammoth event to be he
ld from January 15th to
March
located
on four sacred rivers
on the bank of river Ganga
on the bank of river
Godavari at
Nashik
, and the mythologi
cal Sarasvati at Prayagraj ( S
ingh & Bisht, 2014).
every 144 years at Prayag
raj.
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ISSN: 2349-7017
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Page -25
MENT IN THE WORLD’S
NG KUMBH MELA 2019
ER GANGA AND
Delhi Technological University, Delhi, India
Delhi Technological University, Delhi, India
Delhi Technological University, Delhi, India
s Largest Mass Gathering
International Journal of Innovative
doi://10.26562/IRJCS.2020.APIS1008
0
This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons
Attribution License, Which Permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided
is very common in India due to which there have been various instances which
one of the largest mass gathering event
on
four times
in 12 years on the
, and at the
confluence of rivers
n place at
Prayagraj. This
vironment before and after
Kumbh Mela
2019 at Prayagraj with the help of relevant data of that event collected. Moreover, it discusses what steps have
with the implementation of new
The study shows that there were proper arra
ngements for the
, solid waste was properly
managed at most of the locations with the help of Tipper vehicles which carried the solid waste to the treatment
Water
Pollution;
people in large numbers
at a
the holy event of India is
one of the largest
12 crore visitors from
March
4th, 2019. The
on the bank of river Ganga
Nashik
as well as on the
ingh & Bisht, 2014).
In
International Journal of Innovative Research in Information Security (IJIRIS) ISSN: 2349-7017
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Kumbh mela 2019 has covered an area of around 45 km .Many people take a holy dip in rivers during special
occasions including Makar Sankaranti, Purnima , Amavasya , Ganaga Dashara, Deepawali,, etc. as a symbol of faith..
Such mass bathing events greatly affect the health of the river with respect to water pollution. The main aim of the
study is to manage the mass gathering and to find out the measures taken to treat the solid waste generated during
the Kumbh Mela 2019 held at Prayagraj. This paper discusses the water, sanitation, and hygiene components at the
Kumbh Mela, In this study, various water quality parameters before, during and after the Mela dates are taken into
consideration. The chosen parameters describe the designated best use for river waters. Central Pollution Control
Board (CPCB), India, has given the definition of Designated Best Use (DBU) of rivers and the evaluated parameters
were compared with their standard values to estimate the quality of the river during the mass gathering.
Fig 1: Kumbh Mela 2019 at Prayag Arial View
II. THE KUMBH MELA 2019 AT PRAYAG
Kumbh Mela, 2019 was held at Triveni Sangam in Prayagraj( previously known as Allahabad), Uttar Pradesh, India
, starting from January 15th to March 4th 2019. Pilgrimage from all over the world has visited the Kumbh 2019 to
be a part of this religious festival.
2.1 GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION OF PRAYAGRAJ 2019
Prayagraj lies in the southern Uttar Pradesh and stands at the Sangam of the river Ganges, Yamuna and the
mythological river Sarasvati. It covers an area of 70.5 km2 (27.22 sq miles). Prayagraj lies in the humid subtropical
climate zone. It exhibit hot dry summer season from April to June, cool dry winter season from December to
February as well as warm humid monsoon season from July to September. It is well connected to other parts of
country by road, rail and by air facilities (Singh & Bisht, 2014).
2.2 MAKING OF KUMBH 2019
The pilgrims from around the globe assemble on the below mentioned dates in table 1 to take a holy dip on the
occasion of Kumbh Mela. The approximate visitors were estimated on these dates of Shahi Snan.
Table 1: Important Bathing Dates and Approximate Visitors
S.No
Occasion Date Approx. Crowd (in lakhs)
1 Makar Sankranti 15.01.19 140
2 Paush Purnima 21.01.19 35
3 Mauni Amavasya 04.02.19 181
4 Basant Panchami 10.02.19 125
5 Maghi Purnima 19.02.19 120
6 Maha Shivratri 04.03.19 110
Praygraj is well connected to other parts of the country by road, train and air. The airport is located at Bamrauli,
away from city center. The city has four major railway stations namely Prayag Station, Allahabad Junction, City
Station at Rambagh and Daraganj Station. During the Allahabad Kumbh Mela, inland waterways have been used for
transportation of pilgrims as well as tourists between Varanasi and Allahabad, a distance of 60 km. The
government has also set up four floating terminals, one each at Sujawan Ghat, Kila Ghat, Naini Bridge and
Saraswati Ghat. Additionally, two vessels - SL Kamla and CL Kasturba as small boats were also deployed for pilgrim
movement. Special trains were being run by the Indian Railways to Prayagraj during the Allahabad Kumbh Mela.
Similarly, several new flights have been operational from January 13 to March 30. Facilities were provided to
ensure that no problems occur during the stay of pilgrims for 55 day Kumbh Mela.
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Table 2: Facilities provided in Kumbh Mela 2019
S.No Services Provided Numbers
1 Toilets 1,22,000
2 Dustbins 20,000
3 Tent City 4200 Premium beds
4 Electricity 40,700 L.E.D Lights
5 Drinking Water 200 Water ATMs
Source: Kumbh Mela Official Website
2.3. TREATMENT OF DRAINS DISCHARGING INTO RIVER GANGA
National Mission for Clean Ganga (NMCG) , State Mission for Clean Ganga (SMCG) and Government of Uttar
Pradesh supported the treatment of drains projects in UP from December 2018 in light of Kumbh 2019. A total of
152 drains were being treated through different technologies which were polluting discharging wastewater into
river Ganga and polluting it. At Prayag, drains treated were namely Amitabh Bacchan Culvert- Salori Nala,
Mawaiya Nala, Old GT Road Nala, Rajapur Nala etc for reducing the pollution of river Ganga at Sangam area.
Table 3: Technology used for treatment of Drains
S.No Number of Drains treated Technology Used for Treatment
1 05 Modular Technology( Geo Bag)
2 06 NEERI Technology( Natural Attenuation based treatment Technology)
3 141 Bio- Remediation
Table 4: Performance monitoring parameters for treatment of drains decided by NMCG, New Delhi
Table 5: Analysis of Parameters between Inlet and Outlet samples collected from the drains treated by CSIR-NEERI
Parameters Inlet Samples Outlet Samples Percent Reduction
pH 7.27 7.29 -0.275
DO(mg/L) 9.27 9.76 -5.258
TSS(mg/L) 233.3 91.0 60.99
BOD(mg/L) 63.5 27.8 56.22
COD(mg/L) 332.7 100.7 69.73
Total Coliforms(MPN/100ml) 69472.7 55154 20.61
Fecal Coliforms(MPN/100ml) 31064.8 21559.5 30.59
Fig 2: Graphical Representation of post treatment reduction in tested parameters
-0.275 -5.258
60.99 56.22 69.73
20.61 30.59
-10
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
pH DO TSS BOD COD Total
Coliforms Fecal
Coliforms
Post Treatment Percent Reduction
Parameters
Post Treatment percent Reduction
S.No Parameters Permitted Value
1 BOD(mg/l) <= 30mg/l or 40% reduction in Initial value of BOD
2 COD (mg/l) <=100mg/l or 40% reduction in Initial value of COD
3 TSS(mg/l) <=100mg/l or 40% reduction in Initial value of TSS
4 pH 6.5 – 9.0
5 Fecal Coliform 2500 MPN/100 ml
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In Fig 2, pH and D.O have negative values for post treatment percent reduction. Increment in DO values at outlet
give a positive sign of treatment given to the drains.
2.4. INTRODUCTION OF NEW TECHNOLOGIES
Modular technologies like bioremediation and geo-bag modular STP is also used for making clean Kumbh.
Collaboration has been done with the National Environmental Engineering Research Institute (NEERI) in treating
the influents at some drains. It was expected that the effluents that enter in the Ganga from these drains are
treated up to the level of less than 30 Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD).
2.4.1. Bioremediation: It is a process in which living organisms are used such as micro organisms to rectify
contaminants from water. It was used to achieve some of the below mentioned objectives-
Reduction of B.O.D or C.O.D or T.S.S of the waste water of drains.
To increase the dissolved oxygen of the flowing waste water of drains.
Reduction of the Organic Build up or Sludge in the drains’s bottom.
To maintain the physical appearance of the waste water.
2.4.2. Geo-bag or Nonwoven Geotextile bag- This new system has been extensively used in the Kumbh Festival at
Prayagraj , wherein approximately 69 MLD of wastewater was subjected to treatment through
geosynthetic dewatering tubes with remarkable results. It is made out of porous synthetic fabric stitched
from three sides and is open from one side. It is filled with soil and is installed at the river bank or near sea
shores. It helps in protecting rivers and other water bodies from erosion by developing an embankment
and by filtering sludge from the wastewater. Since this system does not require any elaborate civil
construction, the deploying time is very less. In fact, a 30 MLD set up in Mawaiya during the Kumbh Mela
was set up in 13 days, without any civil construction.
2.4.3. Natural Attenuation Based treatment Technology-Natural attenuation is a treatment technology for the
contaminants and it also used for reducing the concentration and mass of petroleum hydrocarbons .It is
adopted for the protection of human health as well as the environment from their adverse effects. It is a
combination of physical, chemical, or biological processes. It is a natural technique to reduce the
concentration of contaminants, mobility, mass, volume, toxicity in groundwater or soil. Most prominent
disadvantage of this treatment technology is that it takes a longer duration to obtain the remediation
objectives as compared to other remediation techniques.
III. RIVER WATER QUALITY AT PRAYAG DURING KUMBH 2019
In India, water quality is affected by disposal of treated and untreated sewage and industrial runoff into rivers.
Upstream from the location of kumbh and its bathing sites which includes large number of factories including
leather tanneries, runoff from the agricultural farms, and small towns that continuously discharge waste directly
into the Ganga (Vortmann, & Balsari, Satchit & Holman, Susan & Greenough, (2015)).. Sangam is among the top
four highly polluted stretches in the longest Indian River, Ganga. The Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) has
recognized the water of river Ganga in Prayagraj as “Not Satisfactory”. The main reason of water pollution in this
city is lack of sewage system. According to the Namami Ganga Project reports, 70% of the pollution of river is due
to sewage, 20% is due to industrial waste and only 10% is due to non-point sources like throwing of garbage, open
defecation. Table 6: Primary Water Quality Standards for Bathing (CPCB)
S.No
Parameter Permissible Range
1 pH range 6.5-8.5
2 Dissolved Oxygen 4.0 mg/l or 50% saturation value whichever is higher.
3 Color And Odor No noticeable color.
4 Floating Matter Nothing Obnoxious
5 Fecal Coliform 100/100 ml(MPN)
6 Biochemical Oxygen Demand( 3 days at 27ºC)
3 mg/l
The quality of river was monitored regularly at monthly interval. The quality of river Ganga in Allahabad before,
during and after the Kumbh Mela is tabulated below:
Fig 2: Graphical Representation of post treatment reduction in tested parameters
Parameters Dec 2018 Jan 2019 Feb 2019 Mar 2019
u/s d/s u/s d/s u/s d/s u/s d/s
D.O( mg/L) 8.8 9.0 11.9 10.9 10.4 9.8 8.7 8.3
B.O.D(mg/L) 3.2 3.4 3.0 2.8 3.1 3.4 3.0 3.3
Total Coliform(MPN/100ml) 22000 21000 17000 20000 14000 17000 16000 20000
Fecal Coliform(MPN/100ml) 13000 11000 9300 11000 7800 9300 9200 11000
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It can be seen from the Fig 3 and 4 that before the start of the Kumbh the quality of water was not satisfactory. In
December 2018, the Total Coliform and the Fecal Coliform (MPN/100ml) were decreasing towards the
downstream of the region indicating that steps were taken to improve the quality of River at Prayag. The river
water can be considered suitable for bathing if the DO is more than 5 mg/l and BOD level is less than 3 mg/l, as per
CPCB. For January month the BOD level was quite satisfactory for bathing, but for February and March months the
B.O.D values were exceeding the permissible values, because of the important bathing events as Mauni Amavaysa,
Basant Panchami, Maghi Purnima and Maha Shivratri. But for each month during Kumbh (January-March) the
Total coliform and Fecal Coliform (MPN/100ml) were increasing towards downstream of the region. It shows that
the quality of river was degrading during the Kumbh.
Fig 3: Variation of D.O and B.O.D from December 2018 to March 2019 at Prayagraj
Fig 4: Variation of Total Coliform and Fecal Coliform from December 2018 to March 2019 at Prayagraj
The Government of Uttar Pradesh had ordered to shutdown leather factories in the cities lying upstream to the
Prayagraj like Unnao and Kanpur from December 15th to March 15th so that clean water can be provided to
devotees participated in the Kumbh 2019 at Prayag (The Financial Express,2019,Jan 2 ).
The river water was monitored by Uttar Pradesh Pollution Control Board (UPPCB) before and just after the first
day of Shahi Snan during Kumbh and the result is tabulated as below.
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
u/s
d/s
u/s
d/s
u/s
d/s
u/s
d/s
Dec
-
18
Jan
-
19
Feb
-
19
Mar
-
19
Values of Parameters(mg/L)
Months
D.O( mg/L)
B.O.D(mg/L)
0
5000
10000
15000
20000
25000
u/s
d/s
u/s
d/s
u/s
d/s
u/s
d/s
Dec
-
18
Jan
-
19
Feb
-
19
Mar
-
19
Valus of Parameters(MPN/100ml)
Months
Total Coliform(MPN/100ml)
Fecal Coliform(MPN/100ml)
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Table 8: Quality of River at Different Monitoring Stations, Prayag (UPPCB)
Name of the station Distance from Sangam Date of monitoring BOD (mg/l) DO (mg/l)
Sangam 0 8-1-2019 3.2 12.4
Sangam 0 15-1-2019 3.0 10.6
Rasulabadghat 10 km upstream 8-1-2019 3.8 12.5
Rasulabadghat 10 km upstream 15-1-2019 3.1 12.4
Shastri bridge 2 km upstream 8-1-2019 3.4 12.3
Saraswati ghat 2 km downstream 8-1-2019 2.7 9.8
Saraswati ghat 2 km downstream 15-1-2019 2.5 9.6
Chhatnag ghat 5 km downstream 8-1-2019 3.7 10.5
Chhatnag ghat 5 km downstream 15-1-2019 2.9 10.5
IV. CHALLENGES IN ORGANISATION OF KUMBH MELA 2019
Each of the below issues is quite important regarding the environmental approach of event management. These
issues are studied in detail. Following were the challenges faced in the organization of Kumbh Mela 2019 at
Prayag:
i. Drinking water supply
ii. Sanitation
iii. Solid Waste Management
iv. Sewerage
v. Public Health Hazards
vi. Failure of Modern Technologies used
4.1. DRINKING WATER SUPPLY
All water supplies for human consumption should follow the Guidelines of World Health Organization (WHO) on
Drinking Water Quality (WHO, 2015) as mentioned in Table 9.
Table 9: WHO guidelines on Drinking Water Standards
Parameters Highest Desirable Maximum Desirable
pH 7.0-8.5 6.5-9.2
Turbidity 5.0 JTU 25.0 JTU
Taste and Odour Nothing Disaggreable
Total Solids 500 mg/L 1500 mg/L
Coliform count in the water
entering the distribution system Zero in any sample of 100 mL Zero in any sample of 100 mL
The National Green Tribunal (NGT) had directed the Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand Pollution Control Boards to
display the quality of water of the river Ganga at all important locations on monthly basis, to indicate whether the
river water is fit for drinking (Sandrp 2019). The UP government have taken responsibilities for supplying
drinking water to the attendees at Kumbh Mela, 2019 by providing 5,000 stand posts, about 800 km
pipeline. Moreover, 200 water ATM’s based on reverse osmosis (RO) technique as well as 150 water tankers
had been made in use for Kumbh Mela. Also, about 100 hand pumps had been installed so that there is
no scarcity of water in the mass gathering at Prayagraj. 8,000 cusecs of clean water was released before
every Shahi Snan to ensure clean water during the entire Kumbh Mela. Building materials company HIL Ltd., a CK
Birla Group, with its roofing solutions brand Charminar had installed numerous water kiosks to serve clean
drinking water to the devotees at Kumbh Mela, Prayagraj (The Hindu Business Line, 2019,Jan 31)
4.2. SANITATION
The Kumbh Mela organized in 2013 had faced a lot of waste generation, people were forced to defecate in open
areas putting their lives in danger. That’s why Cleanliness and proper Sanitation was given the top priority in
Kumbh Mela 2019. The campaign used during the Kumbh Mela 2019 was “Swachh Kumbh”. The campaign combines
the messages of cleanliness and Clean Ganga and commitment of Swachhta. The Sanitation activities involves
installation of about 1.2 Lakh eco-toilets with proper management and disposal of waste, placement of about 15000
Manpower so to keep the streets and Mela area clean. It also includes the installation of about 20,000 dustbins for
solid waste collection (Kumbh Mela official website). The Global Interfaith WASH Alliance (GIWA) and UN’s Water
Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council (WSSCC) were also present in the Kumbh Mela. They were involved in
spreading awareness about the role of clean water, hygiene and sanitation in supporting human health and
enhancing prospects for a better healthy life (WSSCC, 2019).
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Table 10: Sanitation facilities provided at the Kumbh Mela 2019
S.No Facilities provided Numbers
1 Community toilets 62,500
Urinals 20,000
Institutional 40,000
Total 1,25,000
2 Dustbins 20,000
3 Swachhagrahis 15,00
4 Night Sweepers 9000
5 Tipper Vehicles 120
6 Compactors 40
Fig 5: Ecofriendly toilets at Kumbh Mela 2019, Prayagraj
4.3. SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT
Efforts were made to reduce the generation of waste during the mass gathering in Kumbh Mela 2019 held at Prayag
by setting up of more than 1.22 Lakhs of eco-toilets. Manpower was also enforced to take care of waste lying on the
roads. According to a report by Centre for Science and Environment (CSE), New Delhi, the amount of waste
generated during the 55 day long Kumbh was about 18 times more than what the district produces daily. The
existing sewage treatment capacity of the district was about 254 Million Litres per Day was not able to treat half of
the generated waste. This result in lying of the waste at the banks of river Ganga, thus making it more polluted
(Down To Earth's,2019, May 16-31).
More effects are:
i. The trash was left unattended on the roads which would attract files.
ii. Animals can swallow plastics putting their life in Danger.
iii. Waste Discharged in the river would lower its DO level thus making the existence of aquatic life difficult (Singh
& Bisht ,2014)
Fig 6: Garbage left at Sangam after the Kumbh Mela at Prayag
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The Jal Board deputed
46 engineers, one to monitor each
river.
The engineers appointed
and update the findings to the Ganga Pollution Control Unit in real time. They are also required to report the
volume of sludge added by the drain into the Ganga and the technology used to clean the drain water. Real
pictures of the drain are also supposed to be shared
Baswar
treatment plant
was untreated
was directly
receiving around 600
tons
therefore, unable to treat all the waste
4.4. SEWERAGE
SYSTEM
With a view of organizing a huge mass gathering in Kumbh Mela, three new Sewage Treatment Plants were setup at:
S.No
1
2
3
These projects were established to
directly into River
Ganga. Out of the total waste generated during the Kumbh Mela, 2000 Metric
transported to a STP located at
Management Plant. The Baswar STP has been non
installed to treat
solid
installment of new
Sewage Treatment Plants (
Prayagraj and
as a result, they were
bathing. The
Sewage Treatment Plant (STP)
capacity. But it was
capable of treating only half of the waste
remaining half was being allowed
from the drain
was directly entering
4.5.
PUBLIC HEALTH HAZARDS
Mass gathering
poses a risk to public health. Therefore, it
health for the devotees
. The type of
with the risk assessments as well as with the help of
control and mitigate
health risks are
especially on such a large scale
that around
540 injured casualties along wi
et.al ,2011).
Fig 7
: Predicted sewage pollution across the Ganges catchment including Allaha
In Kumbh mela 2019
, the main risk to attendees and the residents of the area
coliform
in the river Ganga. These
defecation activities.
Total coliforms
given by the
Central Pollution Cont
is 500 MPN/100 ml (MPN = most probable number).
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46 engineers, one to monitor each
The engineers appointed
were
given the task to report the condition of th
and update the findings to the Ganga Pollution Control Unit in real time. They are also required to report the
volume of sludge added by the drain into the Ganga and the technology used to clean the drain water. Real
pictures of the drain are also supposed to be shared
regularly.
treatment plant
which was not operational
since September
was directly
falling into the nearby
streams, which ultimately
tons
of waste per day
when it had been assigned
therefore, unable to treat all the waste
(IANS, 2019).
SYSTEM
With a view of organizing a huge mass gathering in Kumbh Mela, three new Sewage Treatment Plants were setup at:
Table 11
: Establishment of 3 New STPs
Locations of New STPs
Naini
Phaphamau
Jhunsi
These projects were established to
prevent 7.8 crore
litres
Ganga. Out of the total waste generated during the Kumbh Mela, 2000 Metric
transported to a STP located at
Baswar
village and dumped it in the premises of a non
Management Plant. The Baswar STP has been non
-
operational since September 2018. All the five machines
solid
waste were non-
functional ( IANS
Sewage Treatment Plants (
STPs),
large number of existing plants (STPs) were
as a result, they were
sending untreated
waste
Sewage Treatment Plant (STP)
located at Rajapur
capable of treating only half of the waste
remaining half was being allowed
to enter the G
anga without treatment.
was directly entering
the Ganga
because it had a bypass
PUBLIC HEALTH HAZARDS
poses a risk to public health. Therefore, it
. The type of
planni
ng for mass gathering is mainly
with the risk assessments as well as with the help of
resources
health risks are
proven to be
inadequate on execution to such
especially on such a large scale
(Sharma et.al, 2019). A
analysis
540 injured casualties along wi
th 936 dead
occurred in 27 traditional mass gathering events
: Predicted sewage pollution across the Ganges catchment including Allaha
, the main risk to attendees and the residents of the area
in the river Ganga. These
bacteria enter rivers through
Total coliforms
abbreviated as TC
is a
Central Pollution Cont
rol Board (CPCB) for
organized
is 500 MPN/100 ml (MPN = most probable number).
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of the 46
drains in order to curb the muck entering the
given the task to report the condition of th
e drains, ensure sample collection
and update the findings to the Ganga Pollution Control Unit in real time. They are also required to report the
volume of sludge added by the drain into the Ganga and the technology used to clean the drain water. Real
regularly.
The unsegregated solid waste was dumped into
since September
(2018).
On the other hand
streams, which ultimately
flows into the Ganga.
when it had been assigned
to treat only 400
tons per day
With a view of organizing a huge mass gathering in Kumbh Mela, three new Sewage Treatment Plants were setup at:
: Establishment of 3 New STPs
Capacity( in MLD)
42
14
16
litres
per day of sewage from flowing untreated
Ganga. Out of the total waste generated during the Kumbh Mela, 2000 Metric
village and dumped it in the premises of a non
operational since September 2018. All the five machines
functional ( IANS
, 2019). According to the
reports of NGT, d
large number of existing plants (STPs) were
waste
directly
into the Ganga, making it unfit even
located at Rajapur
was receiving
excess sewage than the installed
capable of treating only half of the waste
with the help of geo
tube technology and the
anga without treatment.
In the
Mawaiya Nala, the
because it had a bypass
.
poses a risk to public health. Therefore, it
is important to prev
ent or minim
ng for mass gathering is mainly
dependent on the
event
resources
available. Unfor
tunately, efficient
inadequate on execution to such
mass gathering events,
analysis
of 10 years
of public health safety
occurred in 27 traditional mass gathering events
: Predicted sewage pollution across the Ganges catchment including Allaha
bad – (
Milledge et al., 2018
, the main risk to attendees and the residents of the area
was through presence of
bacteria enter rivers through
disposal of
untreated sewerage and through open
is a
biological parameter which me
asure
organized
outdoor bathing
. Its maximum permissible limit
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Page -32
drains in order to curb the muck entering the
e drains, ensure sample collection
and update the findings to the Ganga Pollution Control Unit in real time. They are also required to report the
volume of sludge added by the drain into the Ganga and the technology used to clean the drain water. Real
-time
The unsegregated solid waste was dumped into
On the other hand
, the waste which
flows into the Ganga.
The plant was
tons per day
, and was,
With a view of organizing a huge mass gathering in Kumbh Mela, three new Sewage Treatment Plants were setup at:
per day of sewage from flowing untreated
waste
Ganga. Out of the total waste generated during the Kumbh Mela, 2000 Metric
Tons of waste was
village and dumped it in the premises of a non
-functional Sewage
operational since September 2018. All the five machines
reports of NGT, d
espite of
large number of existing plants (STPs) were
overflowing in
into the Ganga, making it unfit even
for
excess sewage than the installed
tube technology and the
Mawaiya Nala, the
untreated water
ent or minim
ize the risk of poor
event
conducted along
tunately, efficient
methods to
mass gathering events,
of public health safety
in India shows
occurred in 27 traditional mass gathering events
( Sanyal
Milledge et al., 2018
)
was through presence of
Faecal
untreated sewerage and through open
asure
s quality of water,
. Its maximum permissible limit
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The Total coliform count in January in the river Ganga at Prayagraj was found out to be around 20,000 MPN/100
ml and 17,000 MPN/100 ml downstream and upstream respectively, which was around 40 times more than the
maximum permissible limit. The high numbers of faecal coliform indicate that the pathogens are present in water,
usually contributed through excreta of human and animals. Their presence can cause water borne diseases such as
diarrhea ("Hindustan Times, 2018, March 28).
4.6. FAILURE OF MODERN TECHNOLOGIES USED
Modern technologies like Bioremediation, Non-woven geobags or geotubes are used to reduce the discharge of
waste into the river. But to some extent only they were effective. National Green Tribunal (NGT) stated that the use
of Geotubes were completely waste of money. The technology involves treatment of waste water with the help of
activated carbon and polymers. It is introduced inside 50 meter or 25 meter bags commonly known as Geotubes,
where waste is filtered with the help of membranes. Then the solid waste gets collected inside these bags. But the
Activated carbon and polymer reduces odor only, they didn’t reduce the dissolved BOD of the waste. Moreover, the
installation of Geotube technology is done at only five out of the 85 drains flowing into the Ganga and even at
installed stations they treat only some portion of the waste and the rest is discharged into the river untreated
("Item No. 06 Court No. 1 PRINCIPAL BENCH, NEW DELHI NCR ...").
V. MEARSURS AND INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGIES WHICH CAN BE USED TO PREVENT POLLUTION
DURING KUMBH MELA
There are so many innovative technologies which are introduced to treat the commercial, residential as well
as industrial wastewater and solid waste so as to make the environment pollution free. In such mass
gatherings, pollution such as air pollution, water pollution, soil pollution as well as noise pollution are very
common. To rectify such issues, various emerging and innovative technologies can be opted for the event
of Kumbh at Haridwar which would be effective and inexpensive at the same time.Various measures
and technologies include:
5.1. VERMIFILTERATION
Vermifilter is a biofilter which removes contaminates in the waste water using Earthworms. It is very similar
to a trickling filter. The earthworms secrete certain kind of enzymes from their gut and digest the microbial
biomass as a result of which the organic matter is converted into humus and can be used to improve
soil fertility. The wastewater gets purified and is discharged as effluent passing though the Vermi bed
containing worms. This technology is cheap, requires less space and has low maintenance. It can be used at
nearby treatment plants to decontaminate waste water.
5.2. PHYTOREMEDIATION
Phytoremediation is a technique of removing contaminants from the wastewater using living green plants. It is a
low cost, natural technique which uses solar energy. Removal of contaminants from surface water, groundwater as
well as from soil can be done. It is a technology which is environmentally sound for prevention and control of
pollution. Plants like Jetropha Curcas, Ficus Microcarpa, Alyssum Lesbiacum, Arabidopsis Halleri etc can be used to
remove contaminants specially metals from the wastewater. This technology can be installed at the banks of the
River at suitable distance.
5.3. SEGREAGATION OF WASTE AT SOURCE
Solid waste generation in such mass gatherings are so much that it sometimes become very difficult to manage the
waste and thus pollution occurs along with several diseases. People do a lot of littering on such mass events like
polyethene bags, rags, garlands, leftover food etc, and to curb such issues, dustbins should be provided at various
locations. Each spot should have two dustbins (one green for biodegradable waste and one blue for non-
biodegradable waste) so that the waste gets separated at source only. To make the people aware of following the
rule of throwing the waste in bins, certain public awareness posters can be made and announcements can be made
at regular basis.
5.4. MEASURES TO CONTROL AIR POLLUTION
Several people visit the Kumbh by their own transportation, which leads to air pollution. Therefore, to prevent air
pollution, battery cars can be used to avoid fuel burning. Use of Carpool by the attendees is another option to
control air pollution. Also, more and more trees can be planted to maintain the beauty of Kumbh Mela.
VI. CONCLUSION
India is well known for its rich culture and traditions. So many festivals are celebrated in our country and
Kumbh Mela is no less than a festival here. Kumbh Mela had been a bench mark to other countries and is
always a success at all 4 sacred places Haridwar, Ujjain, Nasik and Prayag. Kumbh mela is the assemblage
of millions of people on the banks of rivers Ganga, Godavari, Shipra and Confluence of Ganga, Yamuna and
Mythological Sawarsati. People gather from all round the globe to participate and witness the stream of
knowledge, religion and spirituality. The Kumbh Mela organized at Prayagraj, 2019 was based on the theme
“Swachh Kumbh for a Swachh Bharat”.
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Arrangements such as Eco-toilets, Drinking water ATMs, tents, installation of dustbins, establishment of new
sewage treatment plant (STPs), renovation of already installed STPs, various swachhagirhis were deployed in
order to regulate the waste generated during the Kumbh Mela. UP Govt. along with CPCB has monitored the Ganga
basin before, during and after the Kumbh to analyze the water quality and to conclude whether the efforts made
were up to the point or not. New techniques like Bio-remediation, Geotubes and Natural Attenuation based
treatment technologies are also used to prevent the solid waste being discharged into the river, but they were
partially effective. Three Sewage Treatment Plants were also installed and several existing Sewage Treatment
Plants were upgraded in order to ensure a clean Kumbh. Sanitation was given a top priority and to ensure that
approximate 1.22 lakhs eco-toilets were installed, to avoid open-defecation.
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Article
This study evaluates the changes in the water quality of the River Ganga and the Yamuna due to the mass bathing events on the occasion of Kumbh-2019 at Sangam in Prayagraj district, Uttar Pradesh, India, by using multivariate statistical techniques and Water Quality Index (WQI). Water samples were collected from 15 locations and analyzed for 17 water quality parameters during the Kumbh-2019 period. The concentration of water quality parameters was used to estimate the WQI. A change in the value of WQI during the studied period was used to interpret the effect of mass bathing. The result of the Analysis of variance (ANOVA) analysis indicates significant variation in the concentration of Electrical conductivity (EC), Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), anions (HCO3⁻, Cl⁻, SO4²⁻, PO4³⁻, NO3⁻), H4SiO4 and Most Probable Number (MPN) count during Kumbh-2019 event. The concentration of water quality parameters COD, NH4⁺, NO3⁻ and H4SiO4 showed an increase of 31%, 55%, 40%, and 16%, respectively, during the Kumbh-2019 period. The high MPN count (920 - >1800/100ml) observed during the Kumbh period makes it unfit for drinking and bathing. The pH, COD, NH4, and MPN counts are primary factors contributing to the water quality index (WQI) during the Kumbh period. The WQI value observed during the Kumbh period was relatively higher and ranged between 59 to 132, indicating the degradation of water quality from very poor to unsuitable for drinking purposes during the Kumbh-2019.
Article
Full-text available
Background: Religious mass gatherings (MGs) have always been an integral part of our society. At the outset, mass-gathering events provide challenging settings to plan a suitable emergency public health response. Published studies basically talk about retrospective reviews, case studies of the public health preparedness, or health care provided at individual events. Developing an understanding of the variables associated with MGs is the first step for public health managers. Risk assessment (RA) is a crucial part of pre-event planning as it helps foresee potential risks. Based on RA, one can develop preventive measures and ensure that the infrastructure to control the potential problems is in place. This study is an attempt to systemize RA process during MG events in a country that is culturally rich but with poor resources to handle such events. A RA tool will be developed for planning and management of religious MG events of India. Methods/design: Various strategies will be used to develop the risk assessment tool (RA tool). Extensive review of literature clubbed with key informant interviews will be done in order to identify the risk variables and decide the domains and items of the tool. Further, this tool will be developed as a mobile-based application. The feasibility of the mobile-based RA tool will be tested in real-time MG event in one part of the country. Concurrently in the same event, a community survey of residents and visitors will be done in order to assess public perceptions of public health and environmental risks associated with MG events. Discussion: The findings of this study will provide insights into the public health and environmental concerns that need to be considered if preventive strategies and intervention programs are to be designed for MG events. A "RA Tool," which can be used in the planning and management of MG events by the public health managers will strengthen the existing health systems preparedness plans for MGs.
Article
Full-text available
The 2013 Kumbh Mela, a Hindu religious festival and the largest human gathering on earth, drew an estimated 120 million pilgrims to bathe at the holy confluence of the Ganga (Ganges) and Yamuna rivers. To accommodate the massive numbers, the Indian government constructed a temporary city on the flood plains of the two rivers and provided it with roads, electricity, water and sanitation facilities, police stations, and a tiered healthcare system. This phenomenal operation and its impacts have gone largely undocumented. To address this gap, the authors undertook an evaluation and systematic monitoring initiative to study preparedness and response to public health emergencies at the event. This paper describes the water, sanitation, and hygiene components, with particular emphasis on preventive and mitigation strategies; the capacity for surveillance and response to diarrheal disease outbreaks; and the implications of lessons learned for other mass gatherings.
Article
Full-text available
A mass gathering is an essential important aspect of modern society. There are various types of gatherings where thousands of people actively participate. A mass gathering is an effortless way to interact and socialize among the various groups of people. There are various challenges that usually come across while conducting an event which leaves an undesirable impact on the environment. This paper discusses the environmental management in a mass gathering by taking a case study of Maha Kumbh 2013 at Prayag, India. By analyzing the data and information collected regarding the event, a conclusion can be drawn that although such gatherings can entail significant health risks, but there are ways of curbing the ill effects. Also some technological advancement in the field of treatment has made, which can be implemented in other rallies, political events, sporting events, conferences, award ceremonies, other religious gatherings like Haj, Rath Yatra, fairs and fates etc.
Article
Introduction In the past decade, India has witnessed many lapses in crowd safety during mass gatherings. The high casualty rate in stampedes during traditional mass gatherings has prompted the study of these events. Wide variations exist in casualty rates for similar events, and key issues in healthcare services in these special situations were addressed in the Indian context. Methods From 2001–2010, Mass gathering data were collected from news items reported in the archives of newspapers, “The Times of India”, “The Hindu” and “The Indian Express”. The keywords used were: “stampede”, “mass gathering”, “mass-gathering events”, “mass-gathering incidents”, “crowd”, and “crowd management”. The study included triggers for the incident and the number of casualties (dead and injured) in each incident. Results In 27 separate mass gatherings in India, there were 936 dead and 540 injured casualties. The unique characteristics of mass gatherings in India included a predominance of old and vulnerable people in traditional mass gatherings, in contrast to the young and middle-aged groups who gather for music and sporting events elsewhere. Further, alcohol/substance abuse, brawls, and violent behavior were absent at traditional Indian mass gatherings. Non-traditional mass gatherings accounted for a lesser number of incidents in India, and were located in movie theatres and railway stations. Conclusions In a populous country like India, traditional mass gatherings predominate, and ensuring the health, safety, and security of the public at such events will require an understanding of crowd behavior, critical crowd densities, and crowd capacities in the Indian context. However, planning for mass gatherings can be developed using the existing body of knowledge of mass-casualty preparedness, food safety, and health promotion.
E-Governance, viewed 01 st
Central Pollution Control Board (2019). E-Governance, viewed 01 st December 2019. Available at: http://www.cpcb.nic.in/.
Bathing in Ganga Can Expose People to High Levels of Faecal Coliform Bacteria
Hindustan Times (2018). "Bathing in Ganga Can Expose People to High Levels of Faecal Coliform Bacteria.", viewed 05 th December 2019. Available at: https://www.hindustantimes.com/india-news/bathing-in-gangacan-expose-people-to-high-levels-of-faecal-coliform-bacteria/story-UZlLeZk6eNGjI9OWh22L0H.html.
Prayagraj 'On Verge of Epidemic' as 2000 Tones of Kumbh Garbage Pile Up
IANS (2019). "Prayagraj 'On Verge of Epidemic' as 2000 Tones of Kumbh Garbage Pile Up." Viewed 15 th December 2019. Available at: https://weather.com/en-IN/india/pollution/news/2019-05-21-prayagrajkumbh-mela-garbage-pollution-health
Why over 350 Million People in the Ganges Catchment Live near Rivers Too Polluted for Bathing
  • David Milledge
Milledge, David (2019). "Why over 350 Million People in the Ganges Catchment Live near Rivers Too Polluted for Bathing" viewed 5 th December 2019. Available at: https://medium.com/@d.g.milledge/why-over-350-million-people-in-the-ganges-catchment-live-near-rivers-too-polluted-for-bathing-or-2eefd145087e.
National Mission for Clean Ganga(NMCG),Ministry of Jal Shakti, Department of Water Resources, River Development & Ganga Rejuvenation, Government of India
  • Clean Ganga
National Mission for Clean Ganga, et al.." National Mission for Clean Ganga(NMCG),Ministry of Jal Shakti, Department of Water Resources, River Development & Ganga Rejuvenation, Government of India, https://nmcg.nic.in/.
Citizens Act on Worsening Water Pollution
SANDRP (2019). "DRP News Bulletin 18 March 2019: Citizens Act on Worsening Water Pollution.", viewed 2 nd December 2019. Available at: https://sandrp.in/2019/03/18/drp-news-bulleting-18-march-2019-citizensact-on-worsening-water-pollution