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Pharmaceutical counterfeiting is one of the most pressing public health concerns in the United States and abroad, and recently an increasing amount of scholarly attention has been given to this issue. However, the extant literature lacks a systematic investigation of the specific roles undertaken within pharmaceutical counterfeiting schemes. We attempt to address this knowledge gap through an analysis of individuals convicted in federal court of counterfeiting offenses related to U.S.-based pharmaceutical counterfeiting incidents. From our investigation we identified six distinct roles that can classify an individual’s involvement in a pharmaceutical counterfeiting scheme: Key/Lead, Supporting, Sales/Distribution to Legitimate Others, Sales/Distribution to Illegitimate Others, Production, and Purchase. Through an examination of these roles and their distinct characteristics we propose several role-related crime prevention strategies. Additionally, we discuss the broader implications of our work for the study of pharmaceutical counterfeiting and identify directions for future research. [Journal of Qualitative Criminal Justice and Criminology]
Gun violence persists in the United States, claiming lives and escalating healthcare costs. This article seeks to contribute to social justice work on the " gun problem " by studying gun collectives. To understand gun culture and to identify gun violence reduction strategies, we study places where gun owners organize – legal (and sometimes illegal) settings that facilitate dialogue about gun issues. Based on participant observation and collaborative event ethnography at gun shows and a private shooting party, this analysis presents findings about the practices gun collective members use to manage stigma. We conclude that when participants in gun events attempt to subvert core stigma through everyday stigma management practices, they effectively facilitate the unfettered exchange of potentially dangerous goods, promote the invisibility of oppressive structures, and normalize violence.
This study examines the signals of trust in stolen data advertisements by analysing the structural and situational factors that influence the type of feedback sellers receive. Specifically, this article explores the factors associated with positive and negative buyer feedback from the purchase of stolen credit card data in a series of advertisements from a sample of Russian and English language forums where individuals buy and sell personal information. The results of zero-inflated Poisson regression models suggest that the sellers may influence their likelihood of receiving feedback by specifying the type of payment mechanism, choosing the advertisement language and selecting the type of market they operate within. The implications of this study for our understanding of online illicit markets, criminological theory and policy-making will be explored in depth.
From 1989 to 1995 my colleague Richard Wright and I studied hundreds and hundreds of active offenders. When I say “studied” I mean interviewed, followed, observed, created experimental conditions, re-interviewed, cross-validated results, obsessed about ethics, worried about their safety and ours, rode around with them in cars, read and reread transcribed interviews and most provocatively went on “walk-abouts” with them past the sites of their most recent crimes while they were “miked up.”
In this important new work, two respected criminologists challenge the characterization of the new 'bad girl' arguing that it is only a new attempt to punish girls who are not the stereotypical depiction of good. Through interviews with young women, educators and people in the criminal justice system, Beyond Bad Girls exposes the formal and informal systems of socio-cultural control imposed on girls.
This study looked at injuries that occur to law enforcement officers and citizens during use-of-force events. Most applications of force are minimal, with officers using their hands, arms or bodies to push or pull against a suspect to gain control. Officers are also trained to use various other force techniques and weapons to overcome resistance. These include less-lethal weapons such as pepper spray, batons or conducted energy devices (CEDs) such as Tasers. They can also use firearms to defend themselves or others against threats of death.
The state of computing's security measures and its vulnerability to hacking is described, and evidence is provided of the extent to which hacking gives rise to technical knowledge that could be of potential use in the fixing of security weaknesses. The division within the CSI between those broadly cooperative with hackers and those largely hostile to them is examined, and the reasons why hacking knowledge is not generally utilised are explored. Hackers are prevented from gaining legitimacy within computing in a process referred to as 'closure'. Examples include hackers being stigmatised through the use of analogies that compare their computing activities to conventional crimes such as burglary and tresspass.
This study examines the factors that are statistically associated with drug-dealing settings in Newark, NJ, and assesses whether there are systematic differences in these between street segments and on intersections. In doing so, it tests hypotheses consistent with a theory that there are higher and lower levels of social regulation by residents in the two kinds of settings, respectively.
Applying a matched case–control design yields 128 pairs of locations. McNemar’s test and conditional logistic regression are used to uncover statistical associations. Situational data on drug-dealing settings were collected using observations through Google Street View (GSV).
A variety of factors are associated with street drug-dealing hot spots, including mailboxes and churches, not previously identified in the literature on street crimes. While findings show differences between drug markets correlates on street segments and intersections, these are only partially consistent with study hypotheses.
This study contributes to our understanding of risk factors for drug markets, highlights variations between intersections and street segments in the way drug market risk factors operate, and demonstrates the value of GSV for spatial crime research.
This work was supported by the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Science and Technology Directorate, Cyber Security Division (DHSS&T/CSD) Broad Agency Announce- ment 11.02, the Government of Australia and SPAWAR Systems Center Pacific [contract number N66001-13-C-0131] (to 30 September 2016); and the UK Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) [grant EP/M020320/1] for the University of Cambridge, Cambridge Cybercrime Centre (from 1 October 2016).
Research on physical, that is, violent, terror attacks and extremism has increased dramatically over the last decade. The growth of the Internet and computer technology has also led to concern over the use of cyberattacks by ideologically motivated offenders to cause harm and further their political and social agendas. There is, however, a lack of empirical research on cyber-attackers limiting our knowledge of the factors that affect their behavior. This study addresses this empirical gap through a qualitative analysis of 10 interviews conducted with ideologically motivated Turkish computer hackers. The findings demonstrated that Turkish hackers motivated by an ideological agenda reflected the larger values of the hacker subculture, though the targets for their attacks were shaped directly by religious or political beliefs. We conclude by discussing in depth our findings and implications for counterterror and cybersecurity policy and practice.
This article presents a crime script for pharmaceutical counterfeiting schemes perpetrated by licensed health care professionals; we term these types of schemes occupational pharmaceutical counterfeiting. To date, there have been no empirical investigations of these schemes, nor any attempts to disentangle their many elements and components. Using qualitative content analysis techniques we examined data from the A-CAPP Product Counterfeiting database related to pharmaceutical counterfeiting schemes. We develop a crime script for pharmaceutical counterfeiting that describes key acts, scenes, actors, activities, and enforcement conditions. Occupational counterfeiters leverage their position as a health care provider to abuse patient trust and conceal their deviant acts.
Unlike other books of its kind, Understanding White-Collar Crime: An Opportunity Perspective uses a coherent theoretical perspective in its coverage of white-collar crime. Using opportunity perspective, or the assumption that all crimes depend on offenders having some sort of opportunity to commit an offense, allows the authors to uncover the processes leading up to white-collar crimes and offer potential solutions to this rampant issue, without being reductive in their treatment of the topic. With this second edition, Benson and Simpson have greatly expanded their coverage to include new case studies, substantive materials, and an annotated appendix of online resources to make this a core book for courses on white-collar crime.
Objectives: Neighborhood characteristics predict burglary targets, but target attractiveness may be colored by the conditions in which a potential offender resides. We test whether relative differences in concentrated disadvantage, racial/ethnic composition, and ethnic heterogeneity influence where burglars offend, controlling for distance. From a relative deprivation perspective, economically advantaged areas make more attractive targets to burglars residing in disadvantage neighborhoods, but a social disorganization perspective predicts areas lower in social cohesion are most attractive, which may be neighborhoods with greater disadvantage.
Examine how neighborhoods vary in the degree to which they experience repeat/near repeat crime patterns and whether theoretical constructs representing neighborhood-level context, including social ecology and structural attributes, can explain variation in single incidents and those linked in space and time.
Examine social, structural, and environmental design covariates from the American Community Survey to assess the context of near repeat burglary at the block group level. Spatially lagged negative binomial regression models were estimated to assess the relative contribution of these covariates on single and repeat/near repeat burglary counts.
Positive and consistent association between concentrated disadvantage and racial heterogeneity and all types of burglaries was evident, although the effects for other indicators, including residential instability, family disruption, and population density, varied across classifications of single and repeat/near repeat burglaries.
Repeat/near repeat burglary patterns are conditional on the overall level and specific dimensions of disorganization, holding implications for offender-focused as well as community-focused explanations. This study contributes greater integration between the study of empirically observed patterns of repeats and community-based theories of crime, including collective efficacy.
This research uses differential association, techniques of neutralization, and rational choice theory to study those who operate “booter services”: websites that illegally offer denial-of-service attacks for a fee. Booter services provide “easy money” for the young males that run them. The operators claim they provide legitimate services for network testing, despite acknowledging that their services are used to attack other targets. Booter services are advertised through the online communities where the skills are learned and definitions favorable toward offending are shared. Some financial services proactively frustrate the provision of booter services, by closing the accounts used for receiving payments.
Pharmaceutical manufacturing typically uses batch processing at multiple locations. Disadvantages of this approach include long production times and the potential for supply chain disruptions. As a preliminary demonstration of an alternative approach, we report here the continuous-flow synthesis and formulation of active pharmaceutical ingredients in a compact, reconfigurable manufacturing platform. Continuous end-to-end synthesis in the refrigerator-sized [1.0 meter (width) × 0.7 meter (length) × 1.8 meter (height)] system produces sufficient quantities per day to supply hundreds to thousands of oral or topical liquid doses of diphenhydramine hydrochloride, lidocaine hydrochloride, diazepam, and fluoxetine hydrochloride that meet U.S. Pharmacopeia standards. Underlying this flexible plug-and-play approach are substantial enabling advances in continuous-flow synthesis, complex multistep sequence telescoping, reaction engineering equipment, and real-time formulation.
Malicious hackers profit from the division of labour among highly skilled associates. However, duplicity and betrayal form an intrinsic part of their daily operations. This article examines how a community of hackers uses an automated reputation system to enhance trust among its members. We analyse 449,478 feedbacks collected over 27 months that rate the trustworthiness of 29,985 individuals belonging to the largest computer hacking forum. Only a tiny fraction of the forum membership (2.4%) participates in the vast majority (75%) of ‘trust exchanges’, limiting its utility. We observe a reporting bias where the propensity to report positive outcomes is 2.81 times greater among beginner hackers than among forum administrators. Reputation systems do not protect against trust decay caused here by the rapid expansion of the community. Finally, a qualitative analysis of 25,000 randomly selected feedbacks indicates that a diverse set of behaviours, skills and attitudes trigger assessments of trustworthiness.
In 2011, an estimated 14,610 persons were victims of homicide in the United States, according to FBI data on homicides known to state and local law enforcement (figure 1). This is the lowest number of homicide victims since 1968, and marks the fifth consecutive year of decline. The homicide rate in 2011 was 4.7 homicides per 100,000 persons, the lowest level since 1963. This homicide rate was also 54% below its peak of 10.2 per 100,000 persons in 1980 and 17% below the rate in 2002 (5.6 homicides per 100,000). These findings are based on analyses conducted by the Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) using data from the FBI's Supplementary Homicide Reports (SHR). The SHR collects detailed information on each homicide reported to state and local law enforcement in the United States, including victim and suspected offender demographic characteristics, the type of weapon used during the incident, and the number of victims killed during the incident. This report describes homicides known to law enforcement in 2011, the most recent year for which detailed data are available, and examines homicide trends from 1992 to 2011, with selected findings from 1960.
Crime and Everyday Life, Fourth Edition, provides an illuminating glimpse into roots of criminal behavior, explaining how crime can touch us all in both small and large ways. This innovative text shows how opportunity is a necessary condition for crime to occur, while exploring realistic ways to reduce or eliminate crime and criminal behavior by removing the opportunity to complete the act. Encouraging students to take a closer look at the true nature of crime and its effects on their lives, author Marcus Felson and new co-author Rachel L. Boba (an expert on crime prevention, crime analysis and mapping, and school safety) maintain the book's engaging, readable, and informative style, while incorporating the most current research on criminal behavior and routine activity theory. The authors emphasize that routine daily activities set the stage for illegal acts, thus challenging conventional wisdom and offering students a fresh perspective, novel solutions for reducing crime … and renewed hope. New and Proven Features Includes new coverage of gangs, bar problems, and barhopping; new discussion of the dynamic crime triangle; and expanded coverage of technology, Internet fraud, identity theft, and other Internet pitfalls; The now-famous “fallacies about crime” are reduced to nine and are organized and explained even more clearly than in past editions; Offers updated research on crime as well as new examples of practical application of theory, with the most current crime and victimization statistics throughout; Features POP (Problem-Oriented Policing) Center guidelines and citations, including Closing Streets and Alleys to Reduce Crime, Speeding in Residential Areas, Robbery of Convenience Stores, and use of the Situational Crime Prevention Evaluation Database; Updated “Projects and Challenges” at the end of each chapter Intended Audience This supplemental text adds a colorful perspective and enriches classroom discussion for courses in Criminological Theory, Introduction to Criminal Justice, and Introductory Criminology.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between two inventories that measure attribution of blame for a 'serious' act and the instruments' reliability and validity. These were the Gudjonsson Blame Attribution Inventory (BAI) and the Attribution of Blame Scale (ABS). Whereas the BAI is completed in relation to a specific 'criminal' act, the ABS aims to measure attribution of blame as a general characteristic of the individual. The two instruments were completed by 82 Icelandic undergraduate students, who also completed the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) and the Eysenck Impulsiveness Questionnaire (IVE). External attribution on the ABS correlated significantly with both external and mental attributions on the BAI, but the correlations were low. BAI attribution scores were significantly higher for 'interpersonal' than 'impersonal' acts. EPQ psychoticism was positively correlated with external attribution on the BAI and negatively with a feeling of remorse. Internal attribution on the ABS was negatively associated with psychoticism, impulsivity, and venturesomeness. The ABS, in contrast to the BAI, may predominantly reflect how the person attributes blame of other people's behaviour rather than his/her own. This may explain the poor correlations between the two inventories.
The 40% drop in crime that occurred across the U.S. from 1991 to 2000 largely remains an unsolved mystery. Even more puzzling then is the crime rate drop in New York City, which lasted twice as long and was twice as large. This 80% drop in crime over nineteen years represents the largest crime decline on record. This book sets off in search of the reason for the New York difference through a detailed and comprehensive statistical investigation into the city's falling crime rates and possible explanations. If you listen to City Hall, aggressive police created a zero tolerance law enforcement regime that drove crime rates down. Is this self-serving political sound bite true? Are the official statistics generated by the police accurate? The book shows the numbers are correct and argues that some combination of more cops, new tactics, and new management can take some credit for the decline, but zero tolerance policing and quality of life were never a consistent part of the NYPD's strategy. That the police can make a difference in preventing crime overturns decades of conventional wisdom for criminologists, but the book points out that the New York experience challenges the major assumptions dominating American crime and drug control policies that almost everyone else has missed. First, imprisonment in actually New York decreased significantly from 1990 to 2009 and was well below the national average, proving that it is possible to have substantially less crime without increases in incarceration. Second, the NYPD sharply reduced drug violence (over 90%) without any reduction in hard drug use. In other words, they won the war on drug violence without winning the war on drugs. Finally, the stability of New York's population, economy, education, demographics, or immigration patterns calls into question the long-accepted cultural and structural causes of violence in America's cities. That fact that high rates of crime are not hard wired into modern city life is welcome news for policy makers, criminal justice officials, and urban dwellers everywhere.
Though in recent years, a number of studies have been completed on hackers' personality and communication traits by experts in the fields of psychology and criminology, a number of questions regarding this population remain. Does Gottfredson and Hirschi's concept of low self-control predict the unauthorized access of computer systems? Do computer hackers have low levels of self-control, as has been found for other criminals in mainstream society? If low self-control can predict the commission of computer hacking, this finding would seem to support the generality argument of self-control theory and imply that computer hacking and other forms of cybercrime are substantively similar to terrestrial crime. This chapter focuses on the results of a study where we examined whether Gottfredson and Hirschi's general theory of crime is applicable to computer hacking in a college sample.
The article provides an overview of the current state of cyber criminological study with regard to theory, research, and teaching. In contrast to the vast knowledge about technical aspects of cyber crimes, behavioral research on these offenses is currently still in its infancy with few data sources or publication outlets. This article will detail the fundamental issues and problems facing researchers involved in the young discipline of cyber criminology, ranging from definitional to methodological problems. There remains argument amongst cyber crime scholars over how best to define the focus of the field and numerous theoretical explanations compete for preference with the scholarly community. These issues pose significant obstacles and need to be addressed for the discipline to advance. Suggestions of how to address some of the primary issues are provided and potential solutions are presented.
Research involving active offenders maintains a central place in the development of criminology. From Shaw’s (1930) depiction of Stanley the jack roller and Sutherland’s (1937) description of the professional thief to contemporary accounts of offenders on the street (Decker and van Winkle, 1996; Jacobs and Wright, 1999; Jacques and Wright, 2011; Wright and Decker, 1994, 1997), active offenders have been critical to elaborating on the mechanisms and processes conducive to crime, particularly street violence.1 Likewise, active offenders have played a key role in numerous theoretical debates in criminology. A number of important theoretical perspectives explaining crime emerged in the 1970s and 1980s and focus on the decision-making of active offenders. The past two decades have seen a sizeable growth in the number and scope of active offender studies, and this literature has contributed substantial insights into the mental states and processes of offenders. As such, research on active offenders has much to offer in the study of security.
The idea of the ‘hacker’ is a contested concept both inside and outside the hacker community, including academia. Addressing
such contestation the current study uses ethnographic field research and content analysis to create a grounded understanding
of ‘the hacker’. In doing so, hacking is revealed to parallel features found in craftwork, often sharing (1) a particular
mentality, (2) an emphasis on skill, (3) a sense of ownership over tools and objects of labour, (4) guild-like social and
learning structures, (5) a deep sense of commitment, (6) an emphasis on process over result, (7) a common phenomenological
experience, and (8) tendencies towards transgression. The final result is that hacking is identified as a kind of transgressive
craft or craft(y).
The purpose of this study is to better understand the online black market economy, specifically relating to stolen data, using
crime script analysis. Content analysis of 13 English- and Russian-speaking stolen data forums found that the different products
and services offered enabled the commodification of stolen data. The marketplace offers a range of complementary products,
from the supply of hardware and software to steal data, the sale of the stolen data itself, to the provision of services to
turn data into money, such as drops, cashiers and money laundering. The crime script analysis provides some insight into how
the actors in these forums interact, and the actions they perform, from setting up software to finalizing transactions and
exiting the marketplace.
There is widespread agreement that the Internet is a primary market for counterfeit pharmaceuticals, but this issue has been under-investigated by criminologists. In order to effectively control this dangerous trade, considerably more knowledge about it must be assembled. This study contributes to this domain by looking at how the Internet is used to facilitate the trade in counterfeit pharmaceuticals. Based on interviews and investigative cases analysed through a crime script, this study pinpoints the criminal opportunities made available by the specificities of the Internet, identifies what specific phases of the trafficking activity they facilitate, investigates how such opportunities are exploited, provides updated insights into how actors involved in the online market in counterfeit pharmaceuticals behave, and offers a reflection on the main challenges that have to be met to respond to this criminal phenomenon.