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Purpose With the coronavirus outbreak, the preventive measures include staying at home and isolation, increasing sedentary behaviours and risk for worsening of chronic diseases. To explore alternative forms of home-based physical activity, the study aim was to evaluate physiological (heart rate [HR], respiratory exchange ratio [RER], oxygen consumption [V̇O2], Energy expenditure [EE], metabolic equivalent task [MET]) and psychological (session rating of perceived exertion [sRPE], enjoyment) parameters of real (Zumba® class [ZC]) and exergame (Zumba® Fitness Rush [ZFR]) activities in relation to sex. Methods Overall, 12 female (age: 24.7 ± 0.9 years) and 8 male (age: 25.3 ± 2.1 years) college students randomly performer 2 experimental 60-min sessions, ZC and ZFR, during which HR (expressed as percentage of individual maximal HR [%HRmax]), V̇O2, RER, MET and EE were measured. After each session, sRPE and Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale (PACES) were used to monitor exercise intensity and enjoyment, respectively. Results Main effects for sex (p = 0.02) and modality (p < 0.0001) emerged for %HRmax, with women showing higher values than men and ZC showing higher values than ZFR. EE presented main effects for sex (p < 0.0001) and modality (p = 0.0002), with higher values in men and in ZC. Main effect (p = 0.0001) for modality emerged also for V̇O2 and MET, with higher values in ZC regardless of sex. No significant differences were observed for RER, sRPE, or PACES. Conclusions Although ZC elicited higher cardiovascular and metabolic responses, ZFR, classified as a moderate-to-vigorous activity, could be used to maintain regular physical activity in a safe home environment during the coronavirus crisis.
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1 Department of Human Sciences, Society and Health, University of Cassino and Lazio Meridionale, Cassino, Italy
2 Department of Psychology, Educational Science and Human Movement, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy
Purpose. With the coronav irus outbreak, the preventive measures include st aying at home and isolation, increasing sedentary
behaviours and risk for worsening of chronic diseases. To explore alternative forms of home-based physical activity, the
study aim was to evaluate physiological (heart rate [HR], respiratory exchange ratio [RER], oxygen consumption [ O2], energy
expenditure [ EE], metabolic equivalent task [MET]) and psychologica l (session rating of perceived exer tion [sRPE], enjoyment)
parameters of real (Zumba® class [ZC]) and exergame (Zumba® Fitness Rush [ZFR]) activities in relation to sex.
Methods. Overall, 12 female (age: 24.7 ± 0.9 years) and 8 male (age: 25.3 ± 2.1 years) college students randomly performed
2 exper imental 60-min sessions, ZC and ZF R, during wh ich HR (expressed as percentage of individual maximal HR [%HRmax]),
O2, RER, MET and EE were measured. After each session, sRPE and Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale (PACES) were used
to monitor exercise intensity and enjoyment, respectively.
Results. Main effects for sex (p = 0.02) and modality (p < 0.0001) emerged for %HRmax, with women showing higher values
than men and ZC showing higher values than ZF R. EE presented main effects for sex (p < 0.0001) and modality ( p = 0.0002),
with higher values in men and in ZC. Main effect ( p = 0.0001) for modality emerged also for O2 and MET, with higher values
in ZC regardless of sex. No significant differences were observed for RER, sRPE, or PACES.
Conclusions. Although ZC elicited higher cardiovascular and metabolic responses, ZFR, classified as a moderate-to-vigorous
activity, could be used to maintain regular physical activity in a safe home environment during the coronavirus crisis.
Key words: COVID-19, home training, energy expenditure, heart rate, oxygen consumption, Zumba
original paper
2020; 21(4):
Correspondence address: Cristina Cortis, Department of Human Sciences, Society and Health, University of Cassino
and Lazio Meridionale, Via S. Angelo – Località Folcara, 03043 Cassino (FR), Italy, e-mail:
Received: March 19, 2020
Accepted for publication: April 23, 2020
Citation: Cortis C, Giancotti GF, Rodio A, Bianco A, Fusco A. Home is the new gym: exergame as a potential tool to maintain
adequate fitness levels also during quarantine. Hum Mov. 2020;21(4): ; doi:
© University School of Physical Education in Wroclaw
Although regular levels of physical activity (PA) have
significant health benefits and contribute to preventing
non-communicable diseases, 1 in 4 adults and more
than 80% of the adolescent population in the world are
not active enough [1]. Insufficient PA is one of the lead-
ing risk factors for death worldwide and according to
the World Health Organization (WHO), policies to ad-
dress insufficient PA are operational in 56% of WHO
member states with the aim to reduce insufficient PA
by 10% by 2025 [1]. To increase the amount of PA in
the general population, guidelines and recommenda-
tions are available [2, 3]; to achieve and maintain good
health, adults should include moderate-intensity (met-
abolic equivalent task [MET] values ranging from 4.8
to 7.1) activity for 150–300 minutes per week or vigor-
ous-intensity (MET values ranging from 7.2 to 10.1)
activity for 75–150 minutes per week, or an equiva-
lent combination, on 2 or more days per week [2, 3].
With the on-going coronavirus outbreak [4, 5], direc-
tives against participating in several activities, includ-
ing sport, exercise, and PA, have been put in place by
the health authorities [6], thus increasing sedentary
behaviours, reducing regular PA, and leading to an
increased risk for and potential worsening of chronic
health conditions [7]. In this context, to encourage PA,
not only exercise, but also other forms of home-based
activities are recommended as effective measures to
stay healthy and maintain the immune system func-
C. Cortis et al., Home-based physical activity
Human Movement, Vol. 21, No 4, 2020
tion in the current precarious environment [7]. While
the usage of media such as video games has tradition-
ally been associated with sedentary lifestyles and in-
activity [8], the combination of video games and gross
motor activity (active video games [AVGs] or exergam-
ing) could contribute to meeting PA recommendations
[9, 10], especially when exercise at home is the only
option to avoid the airborne coronavirus while main-
taining adequate fitness levels [7].
AVGs have been reported to improve mood and en-
joyment compared with conventional forms of exercise
[11, 12], providing encouragement to exercise, partic-
ularly for those who may be reluctant to engage in more
traditional forms of PA [13]. As psychological factors
such as fun and enjoyment are direct determinants of
engagement in PA [14], AVGs seem to be a potential
strategy to be used in reducing physical inactivity time,
increasing adherence to exercise programs, and pro-
moting the enjoyment of PA [15, 16], even in the current
situation, when coping stress and anxiety is of partic-
ular concern [6].
Measurements of PA intensity, rating of perceived
exertion (RPE), session RPE (sRPE), and energy expend-
iture (EE) have shown that AVGs elicit physiological
intensity levels equal to those of moderate and/or vig-
orous PA in healthy adults [12, 17]. In particular, MET
values ranging from 2.8 to 3.8, RPE (on a 6–20 scale)
ranging from 9.6 to 11.4, and EE ranging from 24.6 to
32.2 kcal have been reported in adventure and dance
games [12], while MET values ranging from 5.7 to 6.4,
RPE (on a category-ratio 10 scale) ranging from 4.2 to 4.7,
and EE ranging from 5.3 to 8.3 kcal · min–1 have been
observed in single- and multi-player dancing games [17].
When compared with traditional exercise such as tread-
mill walking [18], whole-body AVGs of same duration
(i.e., 10 minutes) have been reported to contribute to
higher peak heart rate (HR) (115 ± 18 vs. 138 ± 23
beats · min–1), MET (7 ± 2 vs. 11 ± 4), and oxygen con-
sumption ( O2) (25 ± 5 vs. 40 ± 13 ml · kg–1 · min–1).
As opposed to the motion sensors characterizing
several AVGs (i.e., gyroscopes, accelerometers, pressure-
sensitive tables and mats, modified ergometers, and
laser beams), the Xbox 360 associated with Kinect
(Microsoft, Redmond, USA) uses a camera combined
with an infrared-based 3D depth sensor for full-body
3D motion capturing and joint tracking. Without the
need to attach markers on the body, Kinect gives the
tremendous opportunity to replicate real movements
without interferences, capturing players’ actual move-
ment and giving instant feedback, especially during
dance-based fitness activities. Aiming to provide a total
body interactive workout while dancing naturally
hands-free, Xbox Kinect 360 has released different
AVGs focusing on Zumba®, a fitness dance that com-
bines Latin rhythms and aerobics and incorporates
elements of strength, balance, and endurance training.
Therefore, Zumba® Fitness, Zumba® Fitness Rush (ZFR),
and Zumba® Fitness Core AVGs have been developed,
enabling single- and double-player modality [17, 19].
Evaluating short-term effects of virtual Zumba® (22-mi n
session), Da Silva Neves et al. [20] reported a signifi-
cant increase in diastolic and systolic blood pressure
and HR values, supporting the feasibility of AVG use in
PA programs, although no information related to energy
cost was provided. Investigating EE and intensity of dif-
ferent forms of AVGs, Howe et al. [21] showed in Zumba®
Fitness AVG an average exercise HR of 139 beats · min–1,
O2 above resting of 19.6 ml · kg–1 · min–1, 7.4 MET,
and EE of 6.8 kcal · min–1, suggesting that AVGs quali-
fied as moderate-to-vigorous PA and could contribute
to the recommended dose of PA for weight manage-
ment in young adults. However, these researches in-
cluded only short bouts of exercise performed with
AVGs (7–22 minutes), thus not reflecting the typical
duration of a PA session, namely 45–60 minutes, or the
real use of AVGs. Only recently, Schneekloth and
Brown [19] observed no differences in maximal HR,
minutes of light and moderate PA, or number of steps
taken in a small sample (i.e., 8 adult women) engaging
in ca. 60 minutes of a real and AVG Zumba® class.
However, PA intensity was only estimated by means of
HR and accelerometer data, and no EE data were re-
When prolonged home stay is necessary, such as
during the current coronavirus outbreak, the develop-
ment of AVG and technological solutions could play
a crucial role in exercise [7, 22, 23]. Therefore, aiming
to provide an alternative, feasible, and engaging form
of PA, able to give an efficient stimulus to improve the
individuals’ fitness levels, the purpose of this study was
to evaluate sex-related physiological (i.e., HR, O2, res-
piratory exchange ratio [RER], and EE) and psychologi-
cal (i.e., sRPE and enjoyment) parameters of Zumba®
class (ZC) and ZFR.
Material and methods
Experimental approach to the problem
To evaluate the sex-related physiological and psycho-
logical parameters of ZC and ZFR, the study was per-
formed over an 11-day period, during which familiari-
zation, preliminary assessments, and experimental
sessions were organized, as shown in Figure 1.
Familiarization sessions were held to ensure ade-
quate training with ZC and ZFR choreography in order
C. Cortis et al., Home-based physical activity
30 Human Movement, Vol. 21, No 4, 2020
to avoid any potential learning effect on the results, and
to familiarize subjects with the entire experimental
protocol and procedures.
During the preliminary assessments session, data
regarding anthropometric characteristics, aerobic ca-
pacity ( O2max), and PA level were recorded. To avoid
any inter-observer variability, a single experienced re-
searcher (G.F.G.) carried out all data collection, per-
formed in the afternoon in the Sport and Exercise
Physiology Laboratory (temperature: 27.1 ± 1.6°C,
humidity: 43.8 ± 10.3%). Body weight and height were
measured by using scales with integrated stadiometer
with a precision of 0.1 kg and 0.1 cm (Seca, model 709,
Vogel & Halke, Hamburg, Germany), while Queens
College Step Test (QCST) was administered to estimate
O2max. The test required stepping up and down
a 41.3-cm step at the frequency of 22 steps · min–1
(88 beats · min–1) for women and 24 steps · min–1
(96 beats · min–1) for men, for a total of 3 minutes (met-
ronome was used to monitor the stepping cadence) [24].
After completion of the exercise, the carotid pulse rate
was measured for 15 seconds, from the 5th to the 20th
second (HRQCST) of the recovery period. The following
equations were used for the estimation of O2max
(ml · kg–1 · min–1) [24]:
Women: O2max = 65.81 – [0.1847 · (HRQCST · 4)]
Men: O2max = 111.33 – [0.42 · (HRQCST · 4)]
The results showed estimated O2max values of
39.5 ± 4.1 ml · kg–1 · min–1 for women and 52.5 ±
7.0 ml · kg–1 · min–1 for men, indicating a good cardio-
respiratory fitness level [2].
A short version (7 items) of the Italian version of the
International Physical Activity Questionnaire [25] was
administered to evaluate the level of PA for each sub-
ject. Women reported 6.0 ± 3.9 hours · week–1 of vigor-
ous and 4.2 ± 3.5 hours · week–1 of moderate PA, while
men reported 8.3 ± 4.4 hours · week–1 of vigorous and
6.1 ± 4.0 hours · week–1 of moderate PA.
Then, the subjects randomly performed 2 experi-
mental sessions: ZC (a regular 60-min group class with
an instructor) in the University gym (temperature:
26.9 ± 2.1°C; humidity: 46.0 ± 10.1%) and ZFR
(a 60-min interactive lesson with Xbox Kinect 360,
lesson one, long version) in the Sport and Exercise
Physiology Laboratory (temperature: 27.2 ± 2.9°C;
humidity: 45.0 ± 10.1%), organized with at least 3 days
in between, during which the participants were re-
quired to refrain from moderate-to-vigorous PA. The
power analysis performed on O2 values from the pilot
phase required a minimal sample size of 15 subjects.
Twenty healthy college students (age: 24–30 years;
12 women [age: 24.7 ± 0.9 years; body weight: 52.3
± 3.3 kg; body height: 159.5 ± 4.3 cm; BMI: 20.6 ±
1.2 kg · m–2] and 8 men [age: 25.3 ± 2.1 years; body
weight: 77.1 ± 7.3 kg; body height: 175.0 ± 5.2 cm;
BMI: 25.3 ± 3.3 kg · m–2]) volunteered to participate
in the study. Each subject was informed about the
testing procedures. Participants were included if re-
porting no previous experience in ZC or ZFR and ex-
cluded if they reported any current or pre-existing
condition such as a cardiovascular, respiratory and/
or metabolic disease or physical injury.
Figure 1. Temporal sequence of the experimental protocol
Experimental session 2
Experimental session 1
Preliminary assessments
Recover y Recover y
1 4 5 6 7 10 11
C. Cortis et al., Home-based physical activity
Human Movement, Vol. 21, No 4, 2020
During each experimental session, HR response
was continuously recorded (Polar T31 transmitter,
Polar Electro, Kempele, Finland) as average values of
5 seconds. The data were subsequently expressed as
percentages of individual theoretical maximal HR
(208 – 0.7 · age, %HRmax) [26]. A telemetric open-cir-
cuit measurement system (K4b2, Cosmed, Rome, Italy)
was used to continuously record O2 data and esti-
mate RER, MET, and EE (kcal · kg–1 · min–1). EE was
computed as a caloric equivalent for the average RER
for time duration adopting the total net O2 as the mean
O2 for each session. Before each experimental session,
known gas mixtures (O2: 16.0% and 20.9%; CO2: 5.0%
and 0.03%) were used to calibrate the gas analyser,
while a 3-litre syringe (Hans Rudolph Inc., Dallas, USA)
served to calibrate the flow meter. K4b2 showed intra-
class reliability coefficients ranging from 0.7 to 0.9 [27].
HR and O2 data of a representative subject are de-
picted in Figure 2.
Since recent evidence suggests that RPE scales are
interchangeable [28, 29], in the present study the cate-
gory-ratio 10 scale was used to monitor exercise inten-
sity. Standardized instructions were provided prior
to each session [30] and sRPE was collected approxi-
mately 30 minutes after the end of the session to en-
sure that the perceived exertion referred to the whole
session rather than to the most recent exercise inten-
sity, in line with similar research [17, 31]. sRPE train-
ing load was not calculated due to the fixed duration
of each experimental session.
A 5-item Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale (PACES)
was administered at the end of each ZC and ZFR ses-
sion to evaluate the individuals’ enjoyment while im-
plementing the activities. The students rated the ex-
tent to which they agreed with each item on a 7-point
Likert scale. Total responses were summed to give
a score ranging from 5 to 35, and a percentage enjoy-
ment score (%PACES) was calculated, in line with sim-
ilar research [11].
Statistical analysis
Normal distribution was verified by the Shapiro-
Wilk test and means and standard deviations were
calculated for all variables. Statistical significance was
set at p < 0.05. A two (sex: women vs. men) by two (mo-
dality: ZC vs. ZFR) analysis of variance (ANOVA) for
repeated measures was applied to %HRmax, O2, RER,
MET, EE, sRPE, PACES, and %PACES values. If the
overall F test was significant, the post-hoc Fisher pro-
tected least significant difference comparisons were
used. Cohen’s (d) effect sizes (ES) were also calculated.
An ES less than 0.2 was considered trivial, from 0.2
to 0.5 small, greater than 0.5 to 0.8 moderate, and
greater than 0.8 large [32]. The Stata statistical soft-
ware version 14.1 (StataCorp, College Station, USA)
was used for statistical analysis.
Ethical approval
The research related to human use has complied
with all the relevant national regulations and institu-
tional policies, has followed the tenets of the Declara-
tion of Helsinki, and has been approved by the Institu-
tional Review Board of Department of Human Sciences,
Society and Health of the University of Cassino and
Lazio Meridio nale (approval No.: 26898.2019.11.27;
date: December 4, 2019).
Informed consent
Informed consent has been obtained from all indi-
viduals included in this study.
Figure 1. Temporal sequence of the experimental protocol
Figure 2. Heart rate (HR) (a) and oxygen consumption ( O2)
(b) during Zumba® class (ZC) and Zumba® Fitness Rush
(ZFR) in a representative subject
HR (beat · min–1)
VO2 (ml · kg–1 · min–1)
C. Cortis et al., Home-based physical activity
32 Human Movement, Vol. 21, No 4, 2020
Table 1. Means, standard deviations, percentages of differences, p values, and effect sizes (d) of physiological
and psychological parameters of Zumba® class and Zumba® Fitness Rush in women and men
Varia ble ZC ZFR % diff pCohen’s d
%HRmax 80.3 ± 6.3 72.1 ± 5.6* –10.2 0.004 1.382 (large)
O2 (ml · kg–1 · min–1)25.5 ± 1.6 23.0 ± 2.8* –9.8 0.004 1.096 (large)
RER 0.95 ± 0.03 0.91 ± 0.06 –4.2 0.17 0.843 (large)
MET 7.3 ± 0.5 6.6 ± 0.8* –9.6 0.004 1.049 (large)
EE (kcal · min–1) 6.6 ± 0.6 5.9 ± 0.9* –10.6 0.005 0.915 (large)
sRPE 4.7 ± 1.4 4.1 ± 2.2 –12.8 0.32 0.325 (small)
PACES 30.7 ± 4.2 28.2 ± 5.6 –8.1 0.26 0.505 (moderate)
%PACE S 87.8 ± 12.1 80.5 ± 15.9 –8.3 0.26 0.517 (moderate)
Varia ble ZC ZFR % diff pCohen’s d
%HRmax 73.5 ± 5.0 65.0 ± 8.2*#–11.6 0.01 1.245 (large)
O2 (ml · kg–1 · min–1)25.6 ± 4.7 21.7 ± 4.0* –15.2 0.02 0.894 (large)
RER 0.95 ± 0.05 0.93 ± 0.06 –2.1 0.42 0.362 (small)
MET 7.3 ± 1.3 6.2 ± 1.1* –15.1 0.02 0.914 (large)
EE (kcal · min–1) 9.7 ± 1.5#8.2 ± 1.3*#–15.5 0.02 1.069 (large)
sRPE 3.8 ± 1.3 4.5 ± 1.0 18.4 0.18 0.604 (moderate)
PACES 31.7 ± 4.0 31.3 ± 4.7 –1.3 0.75 0.092 (trivial)
%PACE S 90.5 ± 11.4 89.3 ± 13.6 –1.3 0.75 0.096 (trivial)
ZC – Zumba® class, ZFR – Zumba® Fitness Rush, % diff – percentages of differences, %HRmax – percentages of heart rate
maximum, O2 – oxygen consumption, RER – respiratory exchange ratio, MET – metabolic equivalent task,
EE – energy expenditure, sRPE – session rating of perceived exertion, PACES – Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale score,
%PACES – Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale percentage score
* differences from ZC
# differences from women
The %HRmax, O2, RER, MET, EE, sRPE, PACES,
and %PACES data of ZC and ZFR in women and men
are presented in Table 1.
Main effects for sex (p = 0.02) and modality (p <
0.0001) emerged for %HRmax (Figure 3), with women
showing higher values than men and ZC showing higher
values than ZFR. EE presented main effects for sex
(p < 0.0001) and modality (p = 0.0002), with higher
values in men and in ZC. Main effect (p = 0.0001) for
modality emerged also for O2 and METs (Figure 4),
with higher values in ZC regardless of sex.
Finally, no significant differences were observed for
RER, sRPE, PACES, or %PACES in relation to modality
and sex.
Aiming to explore alternative and engaging forms
of home-based PA during the on-going coronavirus
disease quarantine, this study compared physiological
and psychological responses in ZC with those in ZFR.
The main findings showed that: (a) ZC elicited higher
cardiovascular and metabolic responses than ZFR;
(b) men presented lower HR responses and higher EE
values than women regardless of modality game; and
(c) no differences emerged for RER, sRPE, PACES, and
%PACES. Regardless of sex, in the present study, sig-
nificantly higher physiological responses were found in
ZC. Although ZC elicited higher cardiovascular and
metabolic responses regardless of sex, ZFR, classified
as a moderate-to-vigorous activity, could be used to
maintain regular PA and routinely exercising in a safe
home environment, maintaining safe distances among
individuals during the coronavirus outbreak.
Differences in ZC and ZFR could be expected due
to the enthusiasm of the instructor providing real-time
feedbacks and encouragements and other participants
practising simultaneously during ZC, resulting in a fur-
ther stimulus towards subjects, helping and encour-
aging them to improve exercise intensity. However,
C. Cortis et al., Home-based physical activity
Human Movement, Vol. 21, No 4, 2020
in ZFR, players follow the instructors’ clues and the
choreography, collecting stars when playing well to in-
crease their score, and before every movement change,
players receive a visual cue, thus being able to follow
the instructor in due time, without feeling lost [17].
Moreover, a previous study reported no difference be-
tween single- and multi-player modality [17], which
suggests that the rhythm of the music in ZFR plays
a crucial role in imposing a time constraint, ensuring
the player to follow the virtual instructor and the cho-
reography and thus limiting the variability owing to
the presence of a real instructor and other people ex-
ercising [19].
In accordance with %HRmax, ZFR could be clas-
sified [2] as a moderate-intensity activity in men and
women, whereas ZC as vigorous and moderate in
women and men, respectively. In line with a previous
study [21], significantly higher HR and O2 values were
found in ZC than in ZFR. Both activities showed MET
values comparable with the acute cardiovascular re-
sponses during a session of ZC [33, 34] and Zumba®
played with several forms of AVGs [21, 33], respectively.
* differences from ZC, # difference s from women
Figure 3. Mean and standard deviation of the exercise intensity expressed as percentage of maximum heart rate
(%HRmax) during Zumba® class (ZC) and Zumba® Fitness Rush (ZFR) in women and men. Dash lines represent the
intensity classification according to American College of Sports Medicine [2]
Intensity (%HRmax)
Women Men
Very light
* differences from ZC
Figure 4. Mean and standard deviation of the exercise intensity expressed in metabolic equivalent tasks (METs)
during Zumba® class (ZC) and Zumba® Fitness Rush (ZFR) in women and men. Dash lines represent the intensity
classification according to American College of Sports Medicine [2]
Intensity (METs)
Very light
Women Men
C. Cortis et al., Home-based physical activity
34 Human Movement, Vol. 21, No 4, 2020
In particular, with regard to MET values, findings sug-
gest that independently of sex, ZC and ZFR could be
classified [2] as vigorous activity. Finally, RER data,
as a surrogate of substrate utilization, indicate a car-
bohydrate oxidation ranging from 70 to 84% and fat
oxidation ranging from 29 to 16% [35]. Regardless of
the modality, men rated the lessons as ‘somewhat hard’
according to the category-ratio 10 scale, correspond-
ing to 13 on the 6–20 RPE scale [29], whereas women
rated ZC as ‘hard’ and ZFR as ‘somewhat hard’ accord-
ing to the category-ratio 10 scale, corresponding, re-
spectively, to 14 and 13 on the 6–20 scale [29]. Only
a few studies used sRPE to evaluate training load
during ZC and ZFR [17], reporting results comparable
with the present study (average values of 4).
To maintain a healthy lifestyle, an EE of at least
300 kcal per session is suggested [2]. According to the
findings of the present study, men will need 31 minutes
of ZC or 36 minutes of ZFR, whereas women will need
45 minutes of ZC or 51 minutes of ZFR in each training
session. Although ZFR sessions will need to be longer
than those of ZC, the difference is minimal, thus mak-
ing AVG suitable to reach adequate PA levels, espe-
cially when preventive measures are needed to ensure
isolation and limit interpersonal contacts.
Some limitations should be acknowledged for this
study. The sample size was relatively small, but in line
with recent similar research studies. Only an adult
sample was analysed; thus, future studies should in-
vestigate also youth and older subjects. The activity was
limited to Zumba®, so future research should include
other forms of PA focusing on selected aspects of the
fitness components, such as aerobic, strength, endur-
ance, power. In the present study, a cross-sectional ap-
proach was favoured, and future longitudinal studies
should be carried out to provide information also re-
garding long-term effects of such forms of PA. AVGs
are a non-supervised PA, while during quarantine, also
other forms of distance PA, such as the ones super-
vised by an instructor online, have become popular.
Therefore, future studies should look at the impact of
non-supervised vs. online-supervised forms of PA.
From a practical point of view, companies and stake-
holders should foresee the possibility to modify cho-
reographies and routines by adjusting the physiological
demands of the proposed activity to ensure the EE
required [2]. For example, if the interaction between
AVGs console and HR monitor were possible, based
on the real-time HR data of the player, the AVG could
increase or decrease velocity of execution, choreogra-
phy, and movement to ensure a proper EE during the
session. Alternatively, as sRPE is recommended to pre-
scribe, monitor, and regulate exercise intensity [2],
being easier to collect than HR, sRPE values could be
monitored (by showing the RPE scale on the screen,
with the player indicating their perceived exertion),
thus adapting the intensity of a session in accordance
with the player’s actual perception and fitness status.
Moreover, as during the quarantine and isolation pe-
riod, interpersonal contacts should be limited [6],
physicians could use the collected data to monitor the
fitness status and progress of people without needing
to get in contact. More generally, playing AVGs could
be used to counteract sedentary behaviours as it may be
an attractive fitness activity for those who do not feel
comfortable exercising in a public or group settings,
not only when isolation is necessary.
This research received no external funding.
The authors would like to express their gratitude to
the subjects involved in the study for their committed
Disclosure statement
No author has any financial interest or received any
financial benefit from this research.
Conflict of interest
The authors state no conflict of interest.
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... It is possible that this shift in the location of exercise (and potentially, the mode of exercise) contributed to the change in exercise intensity. Cortis et al. recently examined differences between a Zumba class (60 min class at a gym with an instructor) vs. a Zumba Exergame session (also 60 min) and demonstrated that the exercise heart rate was higher during the in-person Zumba class, suggesting that the increased exercise intensity during the class compared to the game could be due to the real-time feedback and the encouragement and enthusiasm of the instructor and other participants [23]. In the current study, more at-home workouts may have resulted in less vigorous exercise if the individual was used to feedback and encouragement from instructors, trainers, or peers in a gym setting. ...
... Importantly, just under half (41%) of participants reported that they stopped exercising in an indoor/public setting because of a mask mandate in their region. Therefore, we observed that mask mandates do have an impact on the decision to participate in physical activity at a traditional gym or indoor fitness facility, which may influence the intensity of physical activity during exercise [23]. ...
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There is limited research examining the perception of exertion during exercise while wearing a facemask. The current study examined if mask usage during moderate or vigorous physical activity (MVPA) changed the self-reported perception of exertion. Seventy-two adults (18 years and older) who were physically active before the COVID-19 pandemic completed a questionnaire that assessed exercise habits and perceptions of mask wearing during MVPA. Participants reported their ratings of perceived exertion (RPE, on a scale of 1–10) while exercising. Wearing a mask resulted in higher RPE vs. no mask during both vigorous (8.4 ± 0.2 vs. 7.4 ± 0.1; p < 0.001) and moderate PA (6.6 ± 0.2 vs. 5.6 ± 0.2; p < 0.001). Qualitative analysis revealed mostly negative perceptions of exercising while wearing a mask, including respiratory issues, detriments to cardiovascular endurance, and general discomfort. A total of 40% of participants reported that they stopped exercising in an indoor/public setting because of a mask mandate in their region. Participants reported participating in less vigorous PA (4.7 ± 0.4 vs. 4.0 ± 0.4 h/week; p = 0.046), but not less moderate PA (3.3 ± 0.3 vs. 3.0 ± 0.3 h/week; p = 0.443) pre vs. during the pandemic. Our study suggests that facemask usage during MVPA causes an increase in RPE and may be one reason for a decrease in vigorous PA during the COVID-19 pandemic.
... To counteract inactivity and sedentary behaviours, experts recommend taking any chance to walk and stand up, do home-based physical activities and exercise, and try to be regular [42]. Playing active video games (AVGs) could also be a valuable strategy to reduce sedentary behaviours when it is not possible to do other physical activities outside of the house [43]. ...
... Items 15-20 investigated physical activity behaviours (type, frequency, motivation) with the same questions as the first version of the questionnaire. Information about eating habits (same questions as the first version) was requested in items 21-31, while the last part of the questionnaire investigated the use of media and leisure time during the pandemic (items [32][33][34][35][36][37][38][39][40][41][42][43][44][45][46][47][48][49]. Questions about the perception of changes in PA and eating behaviours during the COVID-19 pandemic were added to this version of the questionnaire. ...
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The COVID-19 pandemic has forced schools and universities to shift their activities online, influencing the adoption of health-related behaviours such as physical activity and healthy dietary habits. The present study investigates the changes in adherence to a healthy diet and regular physical activity in university students in Italy before and during the COVID-19 pandemic and understands the role of sociodemographic variables in creating the changes above. We conducted a repeated cross-sectional survey performing the same sampling strategy at the first data collection (T0) and second data collection (T1) with a combination of convenience and snowball sampling approaches. The sample is composed of a total of 2001 students, 60.2% women and 39.8% men, with an average age of 22.7 (±5.5 SD). At T1, 39.9% of the students reported regular physical activity. During the pandemic, however, many, especially male students, abandoned or reduced physical activity practice (T1 40%), with an increase in social media use (T0 52.1%; T1 90%). A direct association between very low frequency of physical activity and increased sedentary time (r = 0.2, p = 0.001) and between change in dietary style and increased Body Mass Index (BMI) value (r = 0.3, p = 0.002) was found. The multivariate analysis for the total sample showed that some sociodemographic variables such as gender, age, parents’ level of education, area of study, household type, and perception of one’s body influence eating behaviours and physical activity. Our findings suggest that universities should invest in the protection and promotion of the health of their students with specific awareness programmes, and further research should repeat the survey in the post-lockdown period to investigate the long-term effects on health-related behaviours.
... A crucial boost to telemedicine's spread has been provided by the COVID-19 pandemic: in many countries, people were forced to social distance, and all recurrent monitoring activities, such as diabetic monitoring [4], rehabilitation, the evolution of pharmacological treatments, and checking the progression of a pathology [5], were mostly performed with telemedicine. During the pandemic period, the need for remote monitoring not only concerned medical applications but also the sports field: E.g., Cortis et al. [6] performed data collection during a home exercises campaign. The aim was to collect and analyze physiological data such as heart rate, energy expenditure, and oxygen consumption while performing sports activities. ...
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The detection analysis of neurodegenerative diseases by means of low-cost sensors and suitable classification algorithms is a key part of the widely spreading telemedicine techniques. The choice of suitable sensors and the tuning of analysis algorithms require a large amount of data, which could be derived from a large experimental measurement campaign involving voluntary patients. This process requires a prior approval phase for the processing and the use of sensitive data in order to respect patient privacy and ethical aspects. To obtain clearance from an ethics committee, it is necessary to submit a protocol describing tests and wait for approval, which can take place after a typical period of six months. An alternative consists of structuring, implementing, validating, and adopting a software simulator at most for the initial stage of the research. To this end, the paper proposes the development, validation, and usage of a software simulator able to generate movement disorders-related data, for both healthy and pathological conditions, based on raw inertial measurement data, and give tri-axial acceleration and angular velocity as output. To present a possible operating scenario of the developed software, this work focuses on a specific case study, i.e., the Parkinson’s disease-related tremor, one of the main disorders of the homonym pathology. The full framework is reported, from raw data availability to pathological data generation, along with a common machine learning method implementation to evaluate data suitability to be distinguished and classified. Due to the development of a flexible and easy-to-use simulator, the paper also analyses and discusses the data quality, described with typical measurement features, as a metric to allow accurate classification under a low-performance sensing device. The simulator’s validation results show a correlation coefficient greater than 0.94 for angular velocity and 0.93 regarding acceleration data. Classification performance on Parkinson’s disease tremor was greater than 98% in the best test conditions.
... Those limitations have led to an increase in sedentary behavior and reduced levels of PA (65 min per week), which has increased the risk of chronic health conditions in older adults [6]. In this context, PA carried out in the home setting is recommended as an effective measure to stay healthy [7][8][9], boost immune system functioning [10,11], improve general physical functioning [12] and physical fitness [13]. Home-based PA programs represent a potentially effective strategy for reducing sedentary behaviors, social isolation/distancing health consequences and promoting enjoyable forms of PA during the COVID-19 pandemic. ...
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The role of physical activity in improving overall aspects of health regardless of age is well documented. Due to the coronavirus disease 2019 outbreak, preventive measures to limit airborne infection have been introduced, with people, especially older adults, advised to stay at home, thus increasing sedentary lifestyle and the risk of chronic diseases. As one of the few possible ways to stay active is home-based training, this review aims to provide evidence on alternative and feasible home-based activity programs as a tool to improve the fitness level in older adults, especially when preventive measures are needed to ensure isolation and limit interpersonal contacts. During quarantine, older adults, especially those with chronic diseases, are recommended to regularly exercise. Combined balance and muscle-strengthening training has proven to be particularly useful in limiting falls and mobility limitations. In addition, the use of virtual reality systems seems to be a potential strategy in remaining physically active, reducing physical inactivity time and significantly increasing the compliance of the older adults with physical activity programs. In conclusion, home-based programs induce improvements in physical functions in general and quality of life in older people with or without co-morbidities, and it can be considered in the future as one of the feasible and economic ways to increase physical well-being. This may be of unique importance in the setting of coronavirus disease 2019 enforced limitations in out-of-home activity.
... To mitigate the negative impacts of COVID-19 on the health and well-being of older adults (with and without cognitive impairment), various remote and technological solutions have been suggested, such as [47][48][49][50]. Concurrently, literature indicates the growing feasibility of using exergaming strategies to enhance physical activity among older adults during the COVID-19 pandemic [51][52][53][54]. For example, VR exergaming has been introduced as a coping strategy to facilitate older adults' at-home physical activity and enhance favorable health outcomes among this population [55,56]. ...
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Background: Advancements in supporting personalized health care and well-being using virtual reality (VR) have created opportunities to use immersive games to support a healthy lifestyle for persons living with dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Collaboratively designing exercise video games (exergames) as a multistakeholder team is fundamental to creating games that are attractive, effective, and accessible. Objective: This research extensively explores the use of human-centered design methods that involve persons living with dementia in long-term care facilitates, exercise professionals, content developers, game designers, and researchers in the creation of VR exergames targeting physical activity promotion for persons living with dementia/MCI. Methods: Conceptualization, collaborative design, and playtesting activities were carried out to design VR exergames to engage persons living with dementia in exercises to promote upper limb flexibility, strength, and aerobic endurance. We involved a total of 7 persons living with dementia/MCI, 5 exercise professionals, 5 community-dwelling older adults, a VR company for content creation, and a multidisciplinary research team with game designers, engineers, and kinesiology experts. Results: An immersive VR exergame called Seas the Day was jointly designed and developed and it is freely available to be played in state-of-the-art VR headsets (Oculus Quest 1, 2). A model for the triadic interaction (health care institution, industry partner, academia) is also presented to illustrate how different stakeholders contribute to the design of VR exergames that consider/complement complex needs, preferences, and motivators of an underrepresented group of end users. Conclusions: This study provides evidence that a collaborative multistakeholder design results in more tailored and context-aware VR games for persons living with dementia. The insights and lessons learned from this research can be used by others to co-design games, including remote engagement techniques that were used during the COVID-19 pandemic.
... To mitigate the negative impacts of COVID-19 on the health and well-being of older adults (with and without cognitive impairment), various remote and technological solutions have been suggested, such as [47][48][49][50]. Concurrently, literature indicates the growing feasibility of using exergaming strategies to enhance physical activity among older adults during the COVID-19 pandemic [51][52][53][54]. For example, VR exergaming has been introduced as a coping strategy to facilitate older adults' at-home physical activity and enhance favorable health outcomes among this population [55,56]. ...
BACKGROUND Despite the proven benefits of exercise in older adults, challenges such as access and motivation can deter older adults’ engagement. Interactive virtual reality games that are combined with exercise (VR exergames) are a plausible strategy to encourage physical activity among this population. However, there has been little research regarding the feasibility, acceptability, and potential benefits of deploying at-home VR exergames among community-dwelling older adults. OBJECTIVE The objectives of this pilot study are to i) estimate the feasibility, usability, and acceptability of a co-designed VR exergame in community-dwelling older adults; ii) examine the feasibility of the intervention and assessment protocols to use them in a future large-scale trial; and iii) provide pilot data on outcomes of interest including physical activity, exercise self-efficacy, mood, cognition, perception, and gameplay metrics. METHODS The pilot study will be a remote, 6-week intervention study consisting of an experimental and a control group. A sample of at least 12 community-dwelling older adults (with no or mild cognitive impairment) will be recruited for each group. Both participant groups will follow the same study procedures and assessment methods. However, participants in the experimental group will engage with a co-designed VR exergame (Seas The Day) three times/week for approximately 20 minutes, using the Oculus Quest 2 VR headset. Those recruited for the control study will not have exposure to the exergame and instead they will read thrice/week for approximately 20 minutes over the 6-week period. A mixed-methods evaluation will be used. Changes in physical activity, exercise self-efficacy, mood, cognition, and perception will be analyzed pre- and post-acute as well as pre- and post-6 weeks between the experimental (exergaming) and control (reading) groups. Qualitative data from post-intervention focus groups/interviews, as well as informal notes and reports from all participants, will be analyzed to assess the feasibility of the study protocol. Qualitative data from the experimental group will also be analyzed to assess the feasibility, usability, and acceptability of at-home VR exergame and explore perceived facilitators and barriers of uptaking VR systems among community-dwelling older adults. RESULTS The screening and recruitment process for the experimental group started in May 2021 and the data collection process will be ongoing until September 2021. Recruitment process for the control group has not started, however, data collection will be complete by December 2021. CONCLUSIONS This pilot study with an experimental and control group will provide important information on the feasibility, acceptability, and usability of a custom-made VR exergaming intervention to promote older adults’ well-being. Findings from this study will be useful to inform the methodology, design, study procedures, and assessment protocol for future large-scale trials of VR exergames with older adults as well as deepening the understanding of remote deployment and at-home use of VR for older adults exercise.
... To mitigate the negative impacts of COVID-19 on the health and well-being of older adults (with and without cognitive impairment), various remote and technological solutions have been suggested, such as [47][48][49][50]. Concurrently, literature indicates the growing feasibility of using exergaming strategies to enhance physical activity among older adults during the COVID-19 pandemic [51][52][53][54]. For example, VR exergaming has been introduced as a coping strategy to facilitate older adults' at-home physical activity and enhance favorable health outcomes among this population [55,56]. ...
Previous studies demonstrate that semantics, the higher level meaning of multi-modal stimuli, can impact multisensory integration. Valence, an affective response to images, has not yet been tested in non-priming response time (RT) or temporal order judgement (TOJ) tasks. This study aims to investigate both semantic congruency and valence of non-speech audiovisual stimuli on multisensory integration via RT and TOJ tasks (assessing processing speed (RT), point of subjective simultaneity (PSS), and time-window when multisensory stimuli are likely to be perceived as simultaneous (Temporal Binding Window; TBW)). Forty participants (mean age: 26.25; females=17) were recruited from Prolific Academic resulting in 37 complete datasets. Both congruence and valence have a significant main effect on RT (congruent and high valence decrease RT) as well as an interaction effect (congruent/high valence condition being significantly faster than all others). For TOJ, images high in valence require visual stimuli to be presented significantly earlier than auditory stimuli in order for the audio and visual stimuli to be perceived as simultaneous. Further, a significant interaction effect of congruence and valence on the PSS revealed that the congruent/high valence condition was significantly earlier than all other conditions. A subsequent analysis shows there is a positive correlation between the TBW width ( b -values) and RT (as the TBW widens, the RT increases) for the categories that differed most from 0 in their PSS (Congruent/High and Incongruent/Low). This study provides new evidence that supports previous research on semantic congruency and presents a novel incorporation of valence into behavioural responses.
Sport and physical activity are very closely related to people’s health. The COVID-19 pandemic has made everyone aware of the importance of maintaining regular physical activity. The lockdowns and mandatory social distancing experienced during the epidemic underlined the importance of new sports platforms that bring traditional sports, such as cycling, to the virtual world. This work focuses on the ZWIFT cycling application as an exemplary mixed-reality sport platform. Sentiment analysis (or opinion mining) aims to explore the emotions behind the opinions expressed in texts on different topics. We used sentiment analysis of social media platforms (Twitter and Reddit) to provide valuable information on the culture surrounding mixed reality sports platforms.KeywordsMixed realityVirtual sportsSentiment analysisSocial networkCOVID-19
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A kutatás a "Korszerű egyetem a modern városban: Értékközpontúság, nyitottság és befogadó szemlélet egy 21. századi felsőoktatási modellben" c. pályázat keretében került megvalósításra
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We studied how usability and playability of sport exergames affect future intentions of participation in physical activity or actual sport. We employed questionnaires to measure participants’ enjoyment, usability, game-experience, and future intentions of physical activity and real sport. We compared the outcomes based on players’ gender, previous real-swimming, and exergame experience. Psychological parameters were not different between groups but players without exergame experience enjoyed the game more. Physical activity intentions increased for all participants but not swimming intentions. The limitations of current gaming systems and their effects on players’ gaming experience and intentions are discussed.
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The on-going Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak in China has become the world's leading health headline and is causing major panic and public concerns. On January 30, 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared that the new coronavirus outbreak is a public health emergency of international concern.1 The virus has already had a direct impact on more than 10 million people in the city of Wuhan and has reached other parts of China as well, posing a health threat of unknown magnitude globally. As of February 8, 2020, WHO reported 34,886 confirmed cases of COVID-19 globally, with 34,589 of them occurring in China (including 6,101 severe cases and 723deaths). A total of 288 other confirmed cases (with 1 death) have been reported in 24 countries, including Japan, Australia, Germany, and United States
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The Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE) is an important measure of exercise intensity, which is useful both as a primary and adjunctive method of exercise prescription. However, there are multiple variants of the Borg RPE scale, primarily the Borg 6-20 RPE scale (BORG-RPE) and the Borg Category-Ratio-10 scale (BORG-CR10). There are inadequate data available to address the comparability and interchangeability of these two widely used scales. Well-trained non-athletes performed two increment cycle tests, with each scale used in a random sequence. Subjects also performed interval sessions at three intensities (50, 75 and 85% of peak power output) with each scale used in a random sequence. There were very large correlations during the incremental exercise between the conventional physiological measures (% heart rate reserve – r=0.89 & r=.87); and %VO2reserve (r=.88 & r=.90) and RPE measured by either the BORG-RPE or the BORGCR10, respectively. This pattern was also evident during the interval exercise (% heart rate reserve – r=.85 & r=.84; and blood lactate concentration – r=.74 & r=.78) and RPE measured by either the BORG-RPE or the BORG-CR10, respectively. The relationship between RPE measured by the BORG-RPE and the BORGCR10 was large and best described by a non-linear relationship for both the incremental (R2=.89) and the interval (R2=.89) exercise. The incremental and interval curves were virtually overlapping. We concluded that the two most popular versions of the RPE scale, BORG-RPE and BORG-CR10, were both highly related to the conventional physiological measures and very strongly related to each other, with an easily described conversion.
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This study evaluated the effects of exergaming on college students’ energy expenditure (EE), moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), light physical activity (LPA), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), and enjoyment compared to traditional treadmill exercise, and sex differences. Sixty college students (30 female; X ¯ age = 23.6 ± 4.1 years) completed three 20-min exercise sessions on Xbox 360 Kinect Just Dance (Microsoft, Redmond, WA, USA), Xbox 360 Kinect Reflex Ridge (Microsoft, Redmond, WA, USA), and treadmill walking. Their EE and PA were assessed by ActiGraph accelerometers (ActiGraph Co.; Pensacola, FL, USA); RPE every four min; enjoyment via an established scale. Significant exercise-type by sex interaction effects were observed for RPE (p < 0.01): females reported significantly lower RPE during exergaming sessions but significantly higher RPE during treadmill walking. Results revealed significant main effects for all outcomes between exercise sessions (all p < 0.01): treadmill walking resulted in significantly higher metabolic equivalents (METs), MVPA, and EE (p < 0 .01), yet lower LPA (p < 0.01), compared to the two exergaming sessions. Participants’ RPE was significantly higher during treadmill walking than during exergaming sessions, with exergaming eliciting significantly higher enjoyment (all p < 0.01). College students find exergaming more enjoyable and report lower RPE compared to traditional treadmill exercise, though not yet matching the moderate physiological intensity level.
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Using a physically active video game presents an opportunity for a person to engage in exercise in the privacy of their own home, yet still receive some feedback on the quality of their exercise performance. The purpose of this project was to compare the physical activity between participating in a Zumba exercise class led by a human and using a Zumba video game. Eight women (33.0 ± 3.0 y, 34.8 ± 8.1 % body fat) who regularly participated in a Zumba exercise class were measured for heart rate, number of steps taken, and minutes of sedentary, light, moderate, and vigorous physical activity while participating in a 60-minute human led Zumba exercise class (HZ) or while playing Zumba on the Xbox Kinect video game system (VZ). There were no differences between HZ or VZ (respectively) in light intensity (11.0 ± 7.3 vs. 11.9 ± 9.6 minutes) or moderate intensity (24.7 ± 7.1 vs. 27.6 ± 8.1 minutes) physical activity, or number of steps taken (5337 ± 899 vs. 5001 ± 1141). HZ resulted in less (P<0.05) sedentary time and more (P<0.05) vigorous intensity physical activity (22.0 ± 12.0 vs. 14.2 ± 12.8 minutes) and higher (P<0.05) average heart rates (149.0 ± 14.8 vs. 125.0 ± 10.9 beats/minute) than did VZ (respectively). The present data indicate that participating in Zumba led by a human or played as a video game can contribute to health promoting moderate intensity physical activity, but human led Zumba produces more vigorous intensity physical activity.
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Active video games (AVG) increase energy expenditure (EE) with respect to sedentary video games. Although several AVG consoles allow playing in single-player (SP) or multiplayer (MP) mode, few studies investigated differences in relation to game modality in men and women. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate gender-related psycho-physiological responses during Zumba Fitness Rush (ZFR) played in SP vs. MP mode. Twenty-four college students (women: 14, men: 10; age: 24.6±2.0 years; body weight: 60.2±12.5 kg; body height: 167.8±11.5 cm; BMI: 21.2±2.1 kg·m-2) participated in two experimental sessions: SP (a subject playing ZFR alone) and MP (two subjects playing ZFR simultaneously). Heart rate (HR), oxygen consumption (VO2) and EE (MET and kcal∙min-1) were continuously measured and averaged every 10 seconds, while Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE) was recorded 30 minutes after the end of each session. A two (gender: women vs. men) by two (modality: SP vs. MP) ANOVA for repeated measures was applied. No differences emerged in relation to gender and game mode for %HRmax, VO2, MET, and RPE. Conversely, a main effect (p=.0007) for gender was found in EE, with significantly (p<.004) higher values in men in SP (women: 5.5±0.6 kcal·min-1; men: 8.3±1.4 kcal·min-1) and MP (women: 5.3±0.7 kcal·min-1; men: 7.6±1.9 kcal·min-1). Present findings suggest that ZFR could be classified as a moderate physical activity, proving to be an alternative form to traditional exercise. Although an effect of number of players could be expected, different player modes did not affect EE, probably because the rhythm of the music imposes a time constraint, independently of the presence of other players.
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Exercise relative to health/fitness and sports performance has displayed an evolutionary role over time. Large scale, overriding, factors are present which are likely to help us understand the likely future evolutionary path of health/fitness and sports performance. These factors include: 1) the history of exercise, 2) exercise in its’ relationship to health, 3) the need for fitness in the military and first responders, 4) the conflicted relationship between top sport (representing the apex of the human genomic capacity for exercise) versus the overly competitive and compensated nature of top sport. Dominantly, the need for exercise as preventive medicine in a progressively more sedentary society, the need to provide social integration and inclusion in a highly mobile society, the risk of undesireable social outcomes related to top sport and the likelihood of human-cyber interactions are likely to drive the evolution of exercise in the future.
An unprecedented outbreak of pneumonia of unknown aetiology in Wuhan City, Hubei province in China emerged in December of 2019. A novel coronavirus was identified as the causative agent and was subsequently termed COVID-19 by the World Health Organization (WHO). Considered a relative of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), COVID-19 is a betacoronavirus that affects the lower respiratory tract and manifests as pneumonia in humans. Despite rigorous global containment and quarantine efforts, the incidence of COVID-19 continues to rise, with 50,580 laboratory-confirmed cases and 1,526 deaths worldwide. In response to this global outbreak, we summarise the current state of knowledge surrounding COVID-19.
Tietjen, AMJ and Devereux, GR. Physical demands of exergaming in healthy young adults. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2017-The efficacy of whole-body exergaming (WBE) in healthy young adults remains largely unknown. This study aimed to: (a) compare the physical demands of WBE in healthy adults with traditional exercise; (b) determine whether the physical demands of WBE were reproducible. Twenty-five healthy adults (age: 22.9 ± 6.4 years; height: 1.7 ± 0.1 m; mass: 69.1 ± 12.2 kg) completed two 10-minute experimental conditions (WBE on the Xbox Kinect and treadmill walking) in a randomized cross-over design study. Whole-body exergaming produced a significant increase in the peak heart rate (138 ± 23 b·min), oxygen consumption (40 ± 13 ml·kg·min), metabolic equivalents (METs) (11 ± 4) compared with treadmill walking (115 ± 18 b·min, 25 ± 5 ml·kg·min, 7 ± 2 MET) and a modest increase in the mean heart rate (111 ± 19 b·min vs. 104 ± 15 b·min). Whole-body exergaming produced significantly greater vertical (381 ± 118 vs. 127 ± 14 % body weight [%BW]), anterior (70 ± 22 vs. 27 ± 4 %BW), and medial (56 ± 21 vs. 7 ± 2 %BW) ground reaction forces. No difference was present in mean oxygen consumption and MET. The reproducibility of WBE was assessed in a subgroup of 11 participants (age: 24.2 ± 6.7 years; height: 1.8 ± 0.1 m; mass: 75.3 ± 10.0 kg), who completed 2 additional 10-minute WBE sessions. No difference was observed between all outcome measures. These findings indicate that WBE can reliably replicate, or surpass, the physical demands of treadmill walking and may serve as an effective addition to a health-focused exercise program.