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CRM Platforms, Automation, & Autonomation Scenarios

Authors:
  • The Hague International business school

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Goal: This paper tried to envision the plausible future of CRM customer relationship management platforms, Automation, and "Autonomation" scenarios based on the current CRM apps features, technological market advancements and signals, and possibilities and also considering the cognition advancements of the Machines for a timeframe of the next three years. Reviews CRM application features in academia are not defined as updated as in the professional world (market), and real-life scenarios. I've considered the professional world and real-life scenarios to find the top and most known CRM apps companies. The result of my deep web search, data crawling, and classification of the ranking of the results pointed to the following apps; Zoho, Bitrix24, Complexica's, Pipedrive Agile CRM. I studied the official resources for the features of the mentioned apps besides testing them again in trial/demo for the purpose of this study. The result indicates that all of the apps have one primary automated feature, and that is Marketing. In none of the earlier mentioned apps, the term Autonomation nor its concept in a CRM system has mentioned. Secondly, I studied and investigated some academic sources for CRM automation. The previously published papers did not assess each feature of CRM apps and platforms individually nor studied automation scenarios of each feature except the marketing feature; As it has mentioned in a few of the reviewed papers, predictive scenarios play a significant role in the Automation of CRM systems. In none of the previous CRM researches, the term Autonomation and CRM somehow are linked. There is not an article defining the relating the cognition to Autonomation and linking that to CRM systems. With this research, I tried to fill the gaps of what those earlier mentioned papers sources missed to describe or to introduce in their papers regarding the CRM features. I have also added the features which are in the professional and enterprise environment but not mentioned in the academic environments. Autonomation Definition At the time of writing the article, Most of the definitions of Autonomation referred back to the definition used by Toyota in the production environment. Considering the researches I have conducted, I gathered the concepts into one definition into ono and defined Autonomation as the modern definition of Autonomation as a state where a machine or device is capable of making a decision; a robot can make a decision or analyze the data, like any living creature. 4th revolution and cognitive Chipsets The fourth revolution is paralleled by scientific advancements of Fin-Tech (cryptocurrencies), Autonomation, Cognitive-Computing, developments in Robotics sciences, and the "Internet of Things" ecosystem. The next Industrial Revolution has been started at the co-current of AI (artificial intelligence), cryptocurrencies, and cognitive-science (Kourosh Maheri, 2017). By the end of this cognitive evolution, machines (robots) can think like a human, or they think the way that human wants them to think. We call machines with cognition by the pronoun he/she. He or she (the robot) not automatically but autonomously will perform the process. At this point, we use autonomous systems; it means the machines will have the cognition (souls). Autonomation simply can happen by the Soulification of the Machines (giving life). Entities' cognition, the cognitive processes by the human brain or Machine's hardware as the central processing units, are the sign of their soul (Kourosh Maheri, 2017). Chipsets, Cognition, and Autonomation I have done a deep web-search, utilized different data crawling, indexing, extraction methods through various search-engines and news portals, research platforms to extract the list of the currently available and publicly announced autonomous machines which are developed or are under developments. The 15.7 Gigabytes of text has been analyzed. There are pieces of evidence and patterns of military, governmental, and private companies' usage and development of cognitive chipsets. Still, their general usage is not happening at the time of writing this article. There is no evidence (signal) promising a release of cognitive chipset technology for public usage in the near future (three years), but a gradual implementation in autonomous machines. The fully autonomous devices are still under development. The human is not able to make chipsets/processors programmed for a full cognition (human-Like) of the Machine yet. In the near future, in the timeframe of three years, we will have machines with a minimum of the human cognition for Autonomation of some processes, these machines which (who) can partially think like humans to get things done autonomously. Until 2023 machines will have limited cognitive capabilities compared to humans and consequently limited autonomated features. The signals have been extracted in my (2017) foresight research; "Envisioning the plausible scenarios of Cryptocurrency-based, IoT, transactions: cognitively computed by Autonomous Smart (Cognitive) Machines & aligned with an updated hierarchy of human needs." Predictability & Machine's Cognition in Automation & Autonomation Predictive scenarios play a big role in both Automation and Autonomation of CRM systems. "Predictability" has a big role in "automation" as the "Machine's cognition" has in "Autonomation." If the feature deals with predictive data inputs and processes, then Automation is more likely. In short, the Autonomation relies on Automation processed by the Machine's cognition. Autonomation happens with the minimum of the Machine's cognition. Whenever we have enough cognition of the machines to deal, run, process with a feature, then at that point, we have Autonomation of the Machine running the CRM application. Creativity, Design & Autonomation Creativity, customization, and designs by humans are the areas where, according to research timeframe, the Autonomation by machines is less likely to happen, especially talking a near-future timeframe. In this paper, we have assessed the CRM features then categorized them. Then, possible automation and autonomation scenarios have been evaluated. Lastly, The Table Below contains most of the CRM app features followed by the plausibility of automation and autonomation scenarios on each with a short explanation.
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Running head: CRM PLATFORMS, AUTOMATION, & AUTONOMATION SCENARIOS 1
CRM (customer relationship management) platforms, Automation, & Autonomation
scenarios
Ph.D. in Business and Management Studies
By Kourosh Maheri
Contact: kourosh@maheri.co
Course: CRM (Customer Relationship Management)
Lecturer: Dr. Andrew R. Thomas Ph.D.
International Business School The Hague (IBSH)
2020
CRM PLATFORMS, AUTOMATION, & AUTONOMATION SCENARIOS 2
0. Introduction
This paper tries to envision the future of CRM customer relationship management platforms,
automation, and "Autonomation" scenarios. This paper does not propose the strategies to
build customer relationships nor about the ways that a CRM platform can be utilized to
attract more customers or the ways it may help a business to attract more leads. This paper
assesses the platforms and features to understand what could be the features of a future CRM
software.
The timeframe of this research covers the near future, which is the next three years
from the date of writing this paper.
Keywords: CRM, Autonomation; Jidoka, Automation, Autonomous Smart-Machines,
Cognitive, Cognitive-Computing, Internet of Things, IoT, Robot, Robots, Cryptocurrencies,
Crypto, Crypto-based, Fin-Tech, Financial, Transaction, Financial Transactions, Smart,
Machine
CRM PLATFORMS, AUTOMATION, & AUTONOMATION SCENARIOS 3
1.1 Literature Review-Professional/Market sources
A CRM application features in academia are not defined as updated as in the professional
world (market) and in real-life scenarios. To extract the list of CRM primary features, besides
academic sources, we have to look into the professional world and real-life scenarios. These
features are currently offered by top CRM apps companies and the ones which are mainly
used and frequent and known on the internet.
CRM Apps have been evolving to be more efficient, user-friendly, and, most
importantly, be the frontier and initial one offerings the best features all in a professional,
competitive, but less academic environment. Proceeding with the data-gathering steps and
extracting processes, a few CRMs come for in our list of the most common CRM apps on the
web; deep web searching, data crawling, extracting, and filtering the results coming out of
multiple search engines like Google, Bing, Yahoo, DuckDuckGo, and Yandex. The Apps
were reviewed to extract the CRM features and what is missing regarding the integration and
implementation of the automation, and Autonomation (if there exists).
The first popular CRM is Zoho. Zoho CRM's notable features that are automated or
have automation integrated are automated email campaigns, marketing operations, automatic
import of data, all based on Zoho CRM's marketing automation tools, which help running
campaigns efficiently and to improve the ROI. Zoho Automation in building web-to-lead
forms, capturing information about the visitors, and push the data directly into Zoho CRM.
Zoho involves sales, marketing, and operational automation.
The next CRM to address is Bitrix24 CRM. Bitrix24 CRM automation is integrated
into marketing, workflow, email, call-center features.
The third CRM on the list is Complexica's Touchless CRM, which helps the company
with customer data, interaction history, and a variety of reports, alerts, and notification. It
CRM PLATFORMS, AUTOMATION, & AUTONOMATION SCENARIOS 4
relies on Artificial Intelligence to monitor the user, analyzing their plans, tasks, and executed
activities, then automatically updating the relevant customer records. Artificial Intelligence
can be used for the optimization of sales, marketing, & supply chain decisions. The platform
is scalable and modularised. The automation is integrated into the marketing campaigns,
personalization of communications based on core-metrics, workflow automation,
automatically send a personalized email and keeps Keep leads, prospects and close the loop
on sales results optimization of ongoing digital marketing activity.
The fourth CRM to review is Pipedrive, which its Workflow Automation helps better
multitasking and automation on sales-processes and adding the related activities updates
alongside the pipeline.
The fifth CRM to mention is Lead Guerrilla CRM, which has automation mostly
integrated into marketing.
The sixth CRM is Agile CRM's, which its automation is also more about marketing
automation, email marketing with newsletters, personalization, A/B testing. Some detailed
examples are web popups email newsletters, autoresponders, automation on score leads, and
segment contacts automatically based on email opens, links clicks, web browsing activity,
custom tags, and more.
As studied in this section of the literature review, Most of the platforms rely on their
contact management system as their main feature.
CRM software was designed to help sales and customer service professionals tracking
their activities. Over time they added automation on logging all customer interactions,
including the phone calls and all interactions; the automated features continued to Customer
service automation (Chatbot) and automated campaigns. Currently, more than before, We can
see more overlaps in features of marketing automation software and CRM software, which
CRM PLATFORMS, AUTOMATION, & AUTONOMATION SCENARIOS 5
were initially designed to focus more on Sales and customer services. Most current CRM
apps offer marketing automation, periodically data measuring data, campaign performance,
and Automated lead nurturing.
Most apps offer the marketing part automated and not Autonomated. Marketing
automation in a CRM app brings more control when integrated with other elements of CRM.
It is the primary automated feature: of all the apps reviewed above. In none of the earlier
mentioned apps, the term Autonomation nor its concept in a CRM system has mentioned.
CRM PLATFORMS, AUTOMATION, & AUTONOMATION SCENARIOS 6
1.2 Literature Review-Academic sources
For the purpose of the literature review, I've done a deep web-search, data-crawling,
extracting, and filtering the results coming out of multiple research sources such as Google
Scholar, JSTOR using Mendeley and Endnote beside search-engines like Google, Bing,
Yahoo, DuckDuckGo, and Yandex utilizing DevonAgent pro. Following that, I extracted and
categorized the brief of papers according to their concept related to the terms used in this
research; CRM features and what is missing regarding the integration and implementation of
the automation and Autonomation (if there exists).
Relying on the online search engines and the most notable research portals, at the time
of writing this paper, there is no research on the combination of the CRM features and
Autonomation in the academic world. Internationally "automation is more recognized than
Autonomation and search engines will suggest the automation instead of Autonomation.
Searching Google scholar suggests to us "CRM Automation" instead of "CRM Automation."
For example, as can be seen in the image below, when we search Google Scholars for the
term "Autonomation," the search engine suggests "Automation" instead.
CRM PLATFORMS, AUTOMATION, & AUTONOMATION SCENARIOS 7
Figure 1. Google scholars search results on the term “CRM Autonomation”!(2020)
After in-depth research on academic portals and libraries, I found the following studies in
academia most relevant to the intersection of the CRM features, automation, and
Autonomation.
Implementation
Tanner, J., and others (2005) discussed how the implementation of (CRM) strategies
had gained its importance with many implications for sales-intensive organizations. The
CRM strategies, analytical CRM, and operational CRM have been discussed. My paper fills
the gaps of knowledge where we want to know how the implementation of some of the
common CRM usage and strategies can be utilized with automation and Autonomation.
Integration and Utilization
CRM PLATFORMS, AUTOMATION, & AUTONOMATION SCENARIOS 8
Saini, A, and others (2010) studied the challenges for the integration and utilization of
the CRM technologies into the marketing processes to improve the business activities'
performances. Their proposed model reflects the key drivers for higher CRM performance.
Their model focuses more on business-to-business rather than business-to-consumer
relationships. Their study includes the central concepts, such as utilization, and top
management championship practices, CRM knowledge, employee IT skills, and the ways to
impact strategic utilization through buy-in and expertise. There is no direct categorization of
CRM features in this study but the utilization of strategies related to some features of a better
CRM.
CRM strategy, analytical CRM, and operational CRM
Tanner, J. (2005) says technology advancement brought better customer tracking,
more robust knowledge management, and direct customer communication. CRM strategies
gained their importance more than ever for sales-intensive organizations. In his paper, the
Implications of CRM strategy, analytical CRM, and operational CRM are discussed,
particularly in terms of research opportunities. This paper investigates the edges of better
CRM features according to available strategies.
Operations & Technology
Lynn Jurewicz and Todd Cutler (2003) emphasized more on technology, particularly
on specific elements of operations in which it makes sense for public libraries to automate
notification of new programs, services, materials, and calendars. Those, as mentioned earlier,
are the only focused areas on automation. The article includes project automation grounds,
based on reasons such as higher accuracy, convenience for staff and users, portable access via
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the Web, and many similar improvements. This paper analyzed the current CRM operations
and the linkings to desired improvements in the defined area, such as a library.
Environments and the operational CRM and Automation
Budiardjo, E, and others (2017) assessed the CRM in the higher education
environment and supposed the "higher education environment" as a "business environment"
where customers are students and graduates. They tried to classify the business processes and
the feature groups into operational, collaborative, and analytical social CRM. They discussed
how operational CRM, which consists of marketing automation, sales-force automation, and
service automation, has to deal with automation. Their viewpoint is different than the view
that is going to be mentioned in my article with the focus on Autonomation and machine
cognition. I consider these parts as gaps that overtime needed to be filled by Autonomation
scenarios besides the current automation scenarios.
Consumer world vs. the enterprise world automation
Clara Shih (2016) initially started with a comparison of the ways data would be
handled in the consumer world against the enterprise world. She mentioned that retailers' data
real-time analyses help them predict purchasing behaviors and optimize understanding which
products have to be available, on the other side, in the enterprise world, data may
traditionally and manually being entered into database systems such as customer relationship
management software. At the time of writing the paper, she declared that CRM had not
changed much since its origin in the 1990s, and Artificial intelligence, decision-support
algorithms, and the predictive data-driven suggestions help bringing more focus on the most
important matters, better improvements, and productivity. She adds that machine learning
CRM PLATFORMS, AUTOMATION, & AUTONOMATION SCENARIOS 10
and predictive data engines made automation possible by setting the majority of sales reps
frequent tasks, making the interaction between reps and customers toward more digital
reporting, and concentrating on the effective factors and weak-points. Today's automated,
predictive world breaks the limitations of traditional CRM. Predictive analytics plays a
significant role in the next CRM systems. She believes CRM isn't dead, but reps will halt
using it unless it can get smarter.
CRM Primary functions & Automation
Zajačko I. and others (2019) said that CRM systems in cases of having hundreds,
thousands, or millions of customers should facilitate recognizing customer's wishes, needs,
and preferences adding appointment notes, important customer information, and relevant
documents. They discuss the primary function of CRM systems is to enable individual
customers to understand, tailor the offerings according to their needs and wishes, know, and
manage their value for society. He adds automation of the business processes, such as
logistics or human resource management comes with the automation of customer contact.
Features & Profitability
Kim, S. (2011) says in spite of the fact that companies have spent lots of money to
implement CRM technologies, many have not reached satisfactory results on their CRM
implementations. In this study, she mentioned some strategies and the impact of CRM
investments on profitability. The relevance of this article is about the central CRM features
leading to the profitability of a firm. The first feature under review is the marketing feature.
Autonomation definition & control
CRM PLATFORMS, AUTOMATION, & AUTONOMATION SCENARIOS 11
David Romero (2019) paper is one of the most relevant ones to my research literature
review. His paper proposes Jidoka (autonomation-automation with a human touch) as the
main guiding principle for SMEs' digital transformation. However, the concept of
Autonomation has been introduced as its very old and early definition. The paper explains the
continuous increase of automation and intelligence levels happens in an economic, social,
and technological sustainable way. The writer explained how the dual nature of Jidoka is
missing; as an "automation approach" and also a "learning system" that brings improvements
and the efficiency to manufacturing processes meanwhile developing the workforce skills
needed to develop and/or adopt advanced automation solutions. The paper continues to this
point that the developments of automatic control systems in the Industry 4.0 era can be
achieved through human-machine mutual learning characterized by cyber-physical-social
interactions in this way, sustainable higher levels of automation and intelligence. It also adds
that Human operators need to be aware of the processes that are being automated; this leads
to consistent, proper, and continuous updates of information and, consequently, the
improvements of the processes and evolvement of digital technologies. It is briefed in the
following sentence, "Incorporating human learning, gives automation its human touch." This
is the point where the article halted describing the evolvement of Autonomation. In my paper,
I try to accomplish the modern definition of Autonomation and its connection with cognition,
which is not only limited to humans and machines but the machines themselves and the self-
training of them.
Autonomation
Lastly, I want to review the literature that I wrote in 2018 in a continuation of
researching about Autonomation, cognition of Robots, Cryptocurrency-based, IoT. It
CRM PLATFORMS, AUTOMATION, & AUTONOMATION SCENARIOS 12
described how a machine with cognition and power of human-like processing in any zone of
life and level of human activities could be done autonomously. The modern definition of the
Autonomation and autonomous systems, Machines cognition (Soul) have been mentioned
and well-defined and mentioned in that paper.
Results
Reviewing the literature, Most of the definitions of Autonomation refer back to the
definition used by Toyota. However, they are mostly in the production environment. There is
not an article defining the relating the cognition to Autonomation and linking that to CRM
systems. Secondly, The reviewed academic papers suggest the importance of the better CRM
systems is about how they deal with data and predictive analysis of the data given manually
or automatically kept in those systems. Even regarding CRM automation, the previous papers
did not assess each feature of CRM individually and applied and assessed the automation
scenarios in the marketing phase. The solution would be the assessment of the CRM features
categorizing them and assessing the possible automation and autonomation scenarios on that.
With this research, I try to fill the gaps of what those earlier mentioned papers sources missed
to describe or introduce in their papers regarding the CRM features, and also add the new
features which are in professional and enterprise environment, but not mentioned in the
academic environments. Lastly, I give the latest understanding of the definition of the
Autonomation and cognitive systems and its relation with the next or more advanced CRM
systems and the ways it is connected to the features of CRM systems.
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2. CRM
What is CRM?
CRM stands for customer relationship management. Today's top CRM applications
are usually structured in three forms; in the cloud, e.g., Salesforce, Google CRM (G-Suit), a
combination of the cloud-based and desktop/mobile applications (e.g., openCRX, Daylite) or
custom ones by developments/customizations done by companies; developing in-house CRM
apps or by asking for the development of the customized ones.
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3. CRM Applications
What can we do with the CRM application?
The activities of CRM applications can be categorized into four, relying on four
fundamentals; sales, service, support, and quality. Business entities sell products or offer
services to customers. Consequently, the support comes, and after, the entities maintain the
procedure to understand if they are doing okay and if the customer is happy doing business
with that entity. This is a cycle of convergence and divergence toward betterment and quality
increase. That is a way that businesses do maintain their activities.
Most of the CRM applications offer the following features or have them integrated in
a way; calendar, projects, tasks & to do(s), contacts section, groups, emails management
(archiving, extracting, etc.), email marketing, trade/business panel/pipelines, information-
center, integration/add-ons, Knowledge-base/tutorial/training, files/documents sections, and
followups panel. Each CRM has different features and, of course, different costs or pricing.
The cloud infrastructure that the platform is built on and the development time spent on
features will mostly affect the pricing. For in-house made CRMs, the pricing is affected more
by the development costs rather than the infrastructure costs. Choosing what the user needs
and which CRM to choose, on a macro level, depends mostly on the size of the company,
whether if it is a small, medium, large-sized enterprise or for a self-employed person.
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4. Automation
The second term is Automation; Automation is simply to make anything "automatic." It is an
old-fashioned way of describing and defining the rules, patterns for different systems to make
things automated. Merriam-Webster's defines automation as "the technique of making an
apparatus, a process, or a system operate automatically." In the state of being automatic, the
human-beings, the human factor, is very important. Because the human will start to define the
patterns for the machine to make them automatic, if there is no human, machines will not do
these things on their own. Humans have to tell them what to do, how to do, and when to do to
make tasks automated and make progress in a project, setting a path forward.
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5. Autonomation
The next term is "Autonomation." This term was utilized by Toyota. In Japanese, the
equivalent word for that is "Jidoka." So what does it mean? For the first time that I conduct
in-depth research about this term (2017), I searched the first pages and indexes utilizing
online search engines like Google and other general online dictionaries; there was be no
tangible result for this term. Still, if you search on technical dictionaries, mostly it will
redirect to results referring to the definition practiced by Toyota. Japanese holds three
alphabet systems Hiragana, Katakana, and Kanji. Logographic kanji are adopted Chinese
characters and were influenced by the Chinese. Autonomation is defined in Hiragana. From
(Hiragana: , Ji, "auto") and  (Hiragana: , dokasu, "to remove").
According to this definition, automation and humans are the elements of autonomation. The
manufacturing process can be an automated process, producing a product just after another.
When we have human supervision in the manufacturing process, then we will have
autonomation. It means processes are automatic, but humans will find the issues if this
system does not function well in automatic order, so there is a human who finds the possible
issues and will fix them. The aforementioned is the old definition by Toyota, but nowadays,
with the fourth Industrial Revolution that we faced about three years ago (2017), these things
have changed; human supervision is now replaced by the Machine's cognition to understand
and self-detect the issues.
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6. Cognition & Soulification
What is the fourth Industrial Revolution?
Today, most of the people in the society and connected to the World Wide Web have
heard of cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin, Robotics, and Artificial Intelligence. The next
Industrial Revolution has been started at the co-current of AI (artificial intelligence),
cryptocurrencies, and cognitive-science (Kourosh Maheri, 2017). By the end of this cognitive
evolution, machines (robots) can think like a human, or they think the way that human wants
them to think. For example, if a Human wants a machine to think like him/her, the human
would do only the initial programming of the machine, the machine will learn the further
steps by herself/himself. To differentiate between cognitive and non-cognitive machines, We
call machines with cognition by the pronoun he/she. He or she (the robot) not automatically
but autonomously will perform the process. At this point, we use autonomous systems; it
means the machines will have the cognition (souls). Autonomation simply can happen by the
Soulification of the Machines (giving life). Entities' cognition, the cognitive processes by the
human brain or machine's hardware as the central processing units, are the sign of their soul
(Kourosh Maheri, 2017).
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7. Full Autonomation/Autonomous Chipsets
The fully autonomous devices are still under development. The human is not able to make
chipsets/processors programmed for a full cognition of the machine yet. I have done an in-
depth deep web search, crawling, and indexing, and different data extraction methods have
been utilized through various search engines and news portals, research platforms to extract
the list of the currently available and publicly announced autonomous machines which are
developed or are under developments. The 15.7 Gigabytes of text has been analyzed. There
are pieces of evidence and patterns of military, governmental, and private companies' usage
and development of cognitive chipsets. Still, their general usage is not happening at the time
of writing this article. There is no evidence (signal) promising a release of cognitive chipset
technology for public usage in the near future (three years), but a gradual implementation in
autonomous machines.
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8. Minimum Autonomation/Machine's Cognition
In the near future, in the timeframe of three years, we will have machines with a minimum of
the human cognition for full autonomation, which (who) can partially think like humans to
get things done autonomously. The signals have been extracted in my (2017) foresight
research on Condition and autonomous machines. To make a fresh conclusion and include the
recent results, another recent in-depth web search and data extraction, as explained in the
previous section, was done. Considering the researches I have conducted, at this point, I
define autonomation as a state where a machine or device is capable of making a decision; a
robot can make a decision or analyze the data, like any living creature.
CRM PLATFORMS, AUTOMATION, & AUTONOMATION SCENARIOS 20
9. CRM Features
Until now, the three terms CRM, Automation, and Autonomation have been discussed. At this
point, we are going to see what could be near-future scenarios of future CRM systems in
terms of automation. The essential features of every CRM are about contacts, projects, and
tasks. There are some additional features like opportunity management, quote management
account management, finances, integration with 3rd part platforms, and reports. Every CRM
system has a few basics and most useful features as below:
CRM PLATFORMS, AUTOMATION, & AUTONOMATION SCENARIOS 21
10. Contact/account management and subscriptions
One of the features of every CRM is the contact section. Contact management is simply
about the information of the customers and the connections to them. Account management is
when businesses deal with suppliers. Businesses usually have their own partners. The account
management section of a CRM application is covering the partners. Contact management,
account management, subscriptions can be autonomated, but they will be less likely to be
autonomated. The reason is that in near future machines will not have enough cognition to
decide about each individual contact. As for example, the cognition of the machine can not
think and find a plausible customer and decide if a person is a promising customer to add it
automatically to its database (autonomous circle of processes). Still, machines are able to find
patterns as for example, patterns of which contact can be a customer.
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11. Time/Task/Calendar/Projects:
The next important part of the CRM is about time; it is about the tasks, project, calendar,
events, almost anything which is related to time and scheduling. Considering a near-future
timeframe, the only element among those mentioned above, which can be autonomated, is
recurring events. Predictable things, then they can be autonomated. An autonomation initially
can happen in a "predictable scenario." For example, when the machine can predict a scenario
and make a decision relying on the machine's cognition; consequently, a machine can
schedule the tasks (set the jobs) as ABCD; make it autonomated. Above is plausible when a
machine can think about what can be predicted.
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12-Sales Process
The next part to discuss is the "sales process," which can be automated but not fully
autonomated. A good example is Amazon's sales processes and approaches in its warehouses,
which are automated but not fully autonomated, relying on the information extracted by me
in Data-Crawling and extraction process explained before.
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13. Invoicing
Invoicing can be fully autonomated. Machines have enough condition to process the
autonomous invoice generating. The format, context, and patterns of the invoices make them
highly predictable.
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14. Reports
Although the context of the reports is usually prepared as templates by the developer and the
content may have been according to the patterns, but the reports requests and generation
cannot be autonomated. The processes on reports may need manual actions or confirmation.
The C-level and the people in charge may need to decide on the type of report and the actions
related to them. The machines may recognize the patterns of the previous request but can't
process these and decide to request or generate a specific kind of report. As an example, a
CEO at a point of time may need a specific type of report because maybe she/he may need a
specific term that the robots can't decide for her/him.
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15. Support
The next part is about support. Suppose that, when a customer visits a website, she/he faces a
popup message asks how the support person, which is a bot, can help her/him; people may
think of it as another automated reply by a bot. This scenario of an automatic chatbot is
widely used in companies to decrease their staff costs. It is not convenient, helpful, pleasant
for some people. Customers ask for human attention; it even can be a reply by ones who
think like humans, entities who are responsible and attentive; attention, care, the human
connection are the main three necessitated qualities that customers expect from the support
team. General autonomous assistants machines are among the rare machines which may bring
the feeling of human connection, interaction, and the human touch, but it would not be
extensive, and it's not plausible for public usage within the near-future timeframe.
CRM PLATFORMS, AUTOMATION, & AUTONOMATION SCENARIOS 27
16. Knowledge-base
As we understood earlier, a full Autonomation may not happen in regard to decisions on
mechanical activities; The next section that can be totally autonomous is decision-making,
which is according to the patterns on the predefined data; the knowledge-base in CRM
platforms. The database that a user can search for her/his questions. The reason for that is the
database interactions are mostly about inputs and outputs, patterns, whether by typing or by
voice or any means of searching for a keyword. The user fills a field, and it will give her/him
the data, the outputs. For the near future timeframe, the human can reach a fully autonomated
knowledge-base receiving and sending the information based on the user inputs and needs.
CRM PLATFORMS, AUTOMATION, & AUTONOMATION SCENARIOS 28
17. Training
The next section of this article is about training. Following installing a CRM, the user falls in
a learning curve. Like any other application, it takes some time to get used to that CRM
software. The CRM applications' first launch usually comes with a notification/popup
window describing the application and platform features, tips, tricks, and channels to contact
the support team. The first issue is that it lacks the human interaction; very automatic, no
human touch and care is involved. It is not that helpful to many people if they get it
automatic. A user may need to call a consultant or support team to ask for help. They may
prefer to pay for the support to get a task process done. Usually, the top-level people of the
companies do not have enough time to search in the directory or archives to find the solution
but prefer a direct method to reach a solution. Some of the training procedures are
customized and designed to help the users; they are by contacting the user by email, phone,
or else. The development team may contact the users asking how they feel about the platform
and what features do they need to be added to future releases. It worthy of mentioning that
the more customized the training process, the more intervention in the development process
would be possible. When we talk of Customization and human-designed applications, the
autonomation by machines is less likely to happen, especially talking a near-future time
frame. Fully autonomated training is less plausible during the timeframe of the research.
CRM PLATFORMS, AUTOMATION, & AUTONOMATION SCENARIOS 29
18. Marketing/Creative content
Marketing needs C-level decision making. The C level (the CEO and the top level of people
in the company) need to make a decision and confirm what should be the content of a
marketing campaign. Machines currently cannot create creative content for a marketing
campaign, although they can recognize the patters and send the relevant ads. But the
cognition of the machines in a near-future time frame is less likely to be capable of producing
creative content, Beside it is less likely that the top-level people in a company give the
machines a full authorization to send the content that machines created based on their
machines schedule, decisions and confirmations. However, the more the science develops,
content creation by machines is gaining its more human-like quality, as for example, the
music created by machines, although this is also more based on patterns rather than a creative
output of a cognitive process.
Customers are less interested in receiving an automatically generated advertisement
email based on their previous shopping patterns; there will be more rate of unsubscription.
However, customized and human-made content is more appealing to customers. Quality
content is the output of Human cognition and soul, and it will receive more attention even if
it is short in two or three sentences; This could be something meaningful in the eyes of the
customer, so it is more likely to receive a reply. The machines can't perform a creative
thinking process to create some campaigns and send them to people and lists. It may need a
C-level decision and confirmation. The near future Autonomation is not plausible to happen.
CRM PLATFORMS, AUTOMATION, & AUTONOMATION SCENARIOS 30
19. Design, extensibility, integration with 3rd parties, add-on (s), plugins
Other elements of a CRM, such as the UI design (user interface), adding features,
development, cannot be autonomated. UI designing needs creativity; the above, just like
support, cannot be fully autonomated in the near-future timeframe. A manual action can be
done by humans and relying on human creativity, which in the near future, it is less plausible
to be entirely in the hands of machines. Development and extensibility are based on human
decisions, whether when an entity, user, the team C-level, or else asks for a feature or decides
to add remove, change.
CRM PLATFORMS, AUTOMATION, & AUTONOMATION SCENARIOS 31
20. Maintenance and Quality
Quality control, maintenance, and assessment are processes that need humans to decide and
are relying on human logic and reasoning. They need a minimum of human cognition.
CRM PLATFORMS, AUTOMATION, & AUTONOMATION SCENARIOS 32
21. Inventory and Product Management
The product and inventory management in any CRM software can be automated by
categorization and reports, but the management and decisions on the product or service
cannot be autonomated. Data can be processed by machines, but which data and the means of
the process need to be defined by a human.
CRM PLATFORMS, AUTOMATION, & AUTONOMATION SCENARIOS 33
22. Files & Documents
Documents and office files should be handled analyses and comprehended by humans as
humans are the ones who rely on the information and need them most. Although Machines
make automated decisions based on the data analyses and data extraction processes, Still the
majority of cognition process is by humans, and the needs and requests will be from the
human in the near future. The decision on access level also needs human thought.
CRM PLATFORMS, AUTOMATION, & AUTONOMATION SCENARIOS 34
23. Security
A top field of the future carriers is security; conglomerates top jobs cover the term "security."
Human factor holds its importance in security-related jobs as management and administration
or specializations. There will be human decisions on access and human definitions of the
access-levels. This field relies more on human cognition than machines for top-level decision
makings. Security is about human intelligence, so machines again cannot have that job in
their hand autonomously. The autonomous machines will be utilized to detect the data
breaches and do the automated tasks to protect systems. The human will not rely on their
cognition to give them control of the security systems for the next three years. Despite heavy
usage of automation, the top-level decisions and operations and system-level security (system
of Systems) will be in the hand of a human and will not be autonomated in the near-future.
CRM PLATFORMS, AUTOMATION, & AUTONOMATION SCENARIOS 35
24.1 Conclusion
Goal
This paper tried to envision the plausible future of CRM customer relationship
management platforms, Automation, and "Autonomation" scenarios based on the current
CRM apps features, technological market advancements and signals, and possibilities and
also considering the cognition advancements of the Machines for a timeframe of the next
three years.
Reviews
CRM application features in academia are not defined as updated as in the
professional world (market), and real-life scenarios. I've considered the professional world
and real-life scenarios to find the top and most known CRM apps companies. The result of
my deep web search, data crawling, and classification of the ranking of the results pointed to
the following apps; Zoho, Bitrix24, Complexica's, Pipedrive Agile CRM. I studied the
official resources for the features of the mentioned apps besides testing them again in trial/
demo for the purpose of this study. The result indicates that all of the apps have one primary
automated feature, and that is Marketing. In none of the earlier mentioned apps, the term
Autonomation nor its concept in a CRM system has mentioned.
Secondly, I studied and investigated some academic sources for CRM automation.
The previously published papers did not assess each feature of CRM apps and platforms
individually nor studied automation scenarios of each feature except the marketing feature;
As it has mentioned in a few of the reviewed papers, predictive scenarios play a significant
role in the Automation of CRM systems. In none of the previous CRM researches, the term
Autonomation and CRM somehow are linked. There is not an article defining the relating the
CRM PLATFORMS, AUTOMATION, & AUTONOMATION SCENARIOS 36
cognition to Autonomation and linking that to CRM systems. With this research, I tried to fill
the gaps of what those earlier mentioned papers sources missed to describe or to introduce in
their papers regarding the CRM features. I have also added the features which are in the
professional and enterprise environment but not mentioned in the academic environments.
Autonomation Definition
At the time of writing the article, Most of the definitions of Autonomation referred
back to the definition used by Toyota in the production environment. Considering the
researches I have conducted, I gathered the concepts into one definition into ono and defined
Autonomation as the modern definition of Autonomation as a state where a machine or
device is capable of making a decision; a robot can make a decision or analyze the data, like
any living creature.
4th revolution and cognitive Chipsets
The fourth revolution is paralleled by scientific advancements of Fin-Tech
(cryptocurrencies), Autonomation, Cognitive-Computing, developments in Robotics sciences,
and the "Internet of Things" ecosystem. The next Industrial Revolution has been started at the
co-current of AI (artificial intelligence), cryptocurrencies, and cognitive-science (Kourosh
Maheri, 2017). By the end of this cognitive evolution, machines (robots) can think like a
human, or they think the way that human wants them to think. We call machines with
cognition by the pronoun he/she. He or she (the robot) not automatically but autonomously
will perform the process. At this point, we use autonomous systems; it means the machines
will have the cognition (souls). Autonomation simply can happen by the Soulification of the
Machines (giving life). Entities' cognition, the cognitive processes by the human brain or
CRM PLATFORMS, AUTOMATION, & AUTONOMATION SCENARIOS 37
Machine's hardware as the central processing units, are the sign of their soul (Kourosh
Maheri, 2017).
Chipsets, Cognition, and Autonomation
I have done a deep web-search, utilized different data crawling, indexing, extraction
methods through various search-engines and news portals, research platforms to extract the
list of the currently available and publicly announced autonomous machines which are
developed or are under developments. The 15.7 Gigabytes of text has been analyzed. There
are pieces of evidence and patterns of military, governmental, and private companies' usage
and development of cognitive chipsets. Still, their general usage is not happening at the time
of writing this article. There is no evidence (signal) promising a release of cognitive chipset
technology for public usage in the near future (three years), but a gradual implementation in
autonomous machines. The fully autonomous devices are still under development. The
human is not able to make chipsets/processors programmed for a full cognition (human-Like)
of the Machine yet. In the near future, in the timeframe of three years, we will have machines
with a minimum of the human cognition for Autonomation of some processes, these
machines which (who) can partially think like humans to get things done autonomously. Until
2023 machines will have limited cognitive capabilities compared to humans and
consequently limited autonomated features. The signals have been extracted in my (2017)
foresight research; "Envisioning the plausible scenarios of Cryptocurrency-based, IoT,
transactions: cognitively computed by Autonomous Smart (Cognitive) Machines & aligned
with an updated hierarchy of human needs."
Predictability & Machine's Cognition in Automation & Autonomation
CRM PLATFORMS, AUTOMATION, & AUTONOMATION SCENARIOS 38
Predictive scenarios play a big role in both Automation and Autonomation of CRM
systems. "Predictability" has a big role in "automation" as the "Machine's cognition" has in
"Autonomation." If the feature deals with predictive data inputs and processes, then
Automation is more likely. In short, the Autonomation relies on Automation processed by the
Machine's cognition. Autonomation happens with the minimum of the Machine's cognition.
Whenever we have enough cognition of the machines to deal, run, process with a feature,
then at that point, we have Autonomation of the Machine running the CRM application.
Creativity, Design & Autonomation
Creativity, customization, and designs by humans are the areas where, according to
research timeframe, the Autonomation by machines is less likely to happen, especially talking
a near-future timeframe.
In this paper, we have assessed the CRM features then categorized them. Then,
possible automation and autonomation scenarios have been evaluated.
Lastly, The Table Below contains most of the CRM app features followed by the
plausibility of automation and autonomation scenarios on each with a short explanation.
CRM PLATFORMS, AUTOMATION, & AUTONOMATION SCENARIOS 39
24.2 Table
Table 1
CRM app features followed by the plausibility of automation and autonomation scenarios!(2020)
Leve
lFeatures Automa
tion
Autonom
ation Why? (Until the Year 2023)
1.0 Contacts Management/
Customer Segmentation/
Call-center
Partial No Entities may manually add a contact or
opportunity; the future machines will Over
the research's time-frame, a Machine, can
not manage the contacts the same as
humans, make human-made changes,
decisions, bring up the discussions, nor has
the full authorization to do aforementioned
on behalf of a human.
1.1 Subscriptions Yes No Viewing, managing, and maintenance of
the list need human supervision.
1.2 Account Management/
Partner Management
Partial No Needs stakeholders decision to choose/add/
remove partners/suppliers. Unpredictable
situations are possible/Customization may
be needed.
2.0 Calendars, Timesheets;
Project, Tasks, To-Dos,
meetings, and Calls
Partial No Input would be done both autonomously
and manually. However, until 2023, Most
of the tasks will be added manually. Inputs
& actions mostly should be defined by a
human.
2.1 Events Appointment
Scheduling
Yes No May need human input
2.2 Recurring Events Yes Yes Predictable scenarios make the
autonomation of recurring Events possible.
3.0 Sales Process Yes No Sales can not be a machine only process.
(e.g., Sales Quotes)
3.1 Territory management
Purchase/Point of Sale
Partial No Manual input by the customer may be
needed and also a manual transfer of the
customer’s concern to a department. The
customer may change the order details
manually.
3.2 eCommerce Yes No Changes/Add-Ons for the platform may
come by a human
3.3 Order Management/
Quote
Partial No May need human actions.
3.4 Accounting Yes No Manual returns/Exceptions will happen.
3.5 Payments/Expenses Yes No Manual payments would happen in cases
and are very plausible. An automated
purchase is possible, but an autonomated
one which machine cognition decides on
behalf of a human is less probable.
CRM PLATFORMS, AUTOMATION, & AUTONOMATION SCENARIOS 40
4.0 Invoicing/Invoices Yes Yes Automation is possible, although It is
needed for all the other units to inform and
submit any unpredicted change of the
invoice terms manually. The format,
context, and patterns of the invoices make
them highly predictable, and the
predictability makes the autonomation
possible.
5.0 Reports, Dashboards/
Key MetricsActivities
History/Management/
Forecasting
Partial No Reports requests and generation cannot be
autonomated. It is needed for all the other
units to inform and submit any
unpredicted change manually. Reports
correctly are more for human supervision
rather than the robotic cognition to rely on
and decide accordingly.
5.1 Templates Pre-built
reports and dashboards
No No Human will make templates, dashboards;
It is a human job.
6.0 Customer Support &
Service/Helpdesk/Ticket
management
Partial No Urgent cases may come, or customized
reply may be needed. General autonomous
assistants machines are among the rare
machines which may bring the feeling of
human connection, interaction, and the
human touch, but it would not be extensive,
and it's not plausible for public usage
within the near-future timeframe.
6.1 Customer Self-Service
Portal
Yes No Users may face difficulties, and it may
continue to request for human member
support & followup.
7.0 Knowledge Base Yes Yes Autonomous chatbots. Although it needs
all the other units to add/modify/ remove
the content; knowledge-base receiving and
sending the information based on the user
inputs and needs
8.0 Training/Learning
curve/Strategies
Yes No The platform can be designed to put the
users in a learning curve. It is also
applicable for the customers as it can put
them into a predesigned and predefined
smart learning-procedure (e.g., by email,
catalogs, media, etc.)
9.0 Marketing: Email
Marketing/Campaigns
Management/Creative
content
Partial No The platform can be designed to put the
users in a learning curve. It is also
applicable for the customers as it can put
them into a predesigned and predefined
smart learning-procedure (e.g., by email,
catalogs, media, etc.). Total autonomation
of the training process is not possible as
machines will not reach that level of
cognition to provide the learning to
individuals according to personal qualities
or a specific situation.
CRM PLATFORMS, AUTOMATION, & AUTONOMATION SCENARIOS 41
9.1 Opportunity
Management/Lead
Management
Partial No It needs human decisions, manual input,
and actions on the funnels.
Lead>Contact>opportunity>Customer
9.2 Notifications (Apps,
Emails, etc.)
Partial No It may need human manual input.
9.3 Appraisal/assessment Yes No C-level or management decisions may be
needed.
9.4 Website Yes No The connection between two platforms
(CRM and Website) needs time to time
human intervention. (e.g. Connections/
Online appointments/Orders)
10.0 Design/Extensibility/
API/Productivity Add-
ons/Customization/
configurability options/
Equipments/Workflows/
Mobility
No No Adding manual changes of features and
bringing creativity to the platform need
human intervention. It eases the
extensibility of the app. A human user
should do customization (e.g., User
Interface/Customizable Reports/Report
Folders-Active users actions and Leaves).
Modern CRM apps are hosted in the cloud
and based on Software-as-a-Service (SaaS)
model.
11.0 Maintenance & Quality
Control
No No A machine can only report the other units
about the system deficits, not maintaining
the processes such as delivery time or else.
These processes need human supervision.
They depend on human perception on the
quality and human understandings of the
advancements. These processes need a
minimum of human cognition reasoning
and logic for decisions.
13.0 Inventory Management/
Product or service
Lifecycle Management
Partial No This part deals with the digital panel and
also with the physical goods and logistics.
These processes need human management
to define timeframes. Management and
decisions on the product or service cannot
be autonomated. Data can be processed by
machines, but which data and the means of
the process need to be defined by a human.
14.0 Documents, File, Office,
notes
Partial No Machines make automated decisions based
on data analyses and data extraction
processes. Still, the majority of cognitive
processes will be done by humans, and the
needs and requests will be from the human
in the near future. Data, files, and
document management need human
cognition; management, input,
classification, arrangement, supervision,
tagging, etc. Human interaction and
actions are necessary to process office data.
The autonomations would be less plausible.
CRM PLATFORMS, AUTOMATION, & AUTONOMATION SCENARIOS 42
15.0 Security Management Partial No A security specialist would be needed to
analyze the system defects. the top-level
decisions and operations and system-level
security (system of Systems) will be in the
hand of a human and will not be
autonomated in the near-future.
CRM PLATFORMS, AUTOMATION, & AUTONOMATION SCENARIOS 43
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Thesis
Full-text available
This research tries to envision plausible futures scenarios of Cryptocurrency-based financial transactions computed by Autonomous Smart Machines in the Internet of Things (IoT) ecosystem (objective). A few presumptions have been scrutinized as the fundamentals of this research. The first one is the cryptocurrency as primary means of payment, the second one is the significant role of smart machines in future of humanity, increasing integration and application of cognitive computing for everyday activities, and the increasing IoT developments. Cryptocurrencies, smart machines, and cognitive computing are the three fundamentals of the shift from the traditional financial system forming a new one (body of knowledge/gap). The general importance of this study can be indicated by the fourth revolution which permeates, improve, and expand all areas of the human living realm, and also the envisionings of the plausible scenarios in the revolution era (importance, section 1.7). This output of this study can be helpful in different ways when exposed to entities and individuals. The entities and individuals, as stakeholders, can be categorized, arrayed, and arranged narrowly and broadly, micro and micro, primary or secondary; directly or indirectly affected. The spectrum of the stakeholders starts from Rotterdam University of Applied Sciences (primary) to institutes, legislators, a wide range of business people, professionals, researchers, and individuals who have interest, or need research-based information to understand the plausible scenarios of this specific financial transaction or the content and frameworks used in this paper. The results can answer the information needs on the subject, help or enable them to observe, plan, think, orient, decide, act in any necessary way (stakeholders-benefactors, section 1.8). The output of this paper can help or enable entities, systems, institutes, individuals, and practitioners with their individuals/businesses information needs around the world. It may also prevent a forced usage of a prescribed, proprietary or patented technology or service (going with the flow). It can be informative before confronting an unexpected situation, reducing the issues and incompatibilities among different systems in different industries when other revolutionary technologies are being introduced to the market or being implemented into a different system (output-benefits). The methodology of this paper, as a Futures Studies (futurology), covers the “futurizing process” of concepts; future envisioning, projection, and prediction. The futurology and scenario planning are becoming necessary tools and means of exploring new depths both in theory and practice. There are various methods that can be used researching the futures, such as technology-monitoring, Delphi, other mixed methods or even methods which are not well-defined in academia. It has been impossible to follow only one approach to achieve good results. This paper is based on multiple methods. Multiple methods were all necessary in order to be able to study scenarios made on the elements of this study. A combination of multiple methods such as technology-monitoring, trend-monitoring, signal-senders detection, and extraction have been used (figure 2). The methodology of this research starts with data gathering process, literature review, signals detection; finding plausible causes and settings of plausible future scenarios in companies as signal-senders (appendix 1). The study is followed by filtering processes, shortening the scope, defining the context in which the signal-senders may occur, farming the key-zone according to an updated proposed model of the human hierarchy of needs. and finally, the scenarios chapter which describes what signals of which signal-senders are significant guiding the author to propose scenarios (methodology). The scenarios are considered to happen in the era of the fourth industrial revolution. The fourth revolution is paralleled by scientific advancements of Fin-Tech (cryptocurrencies), autonomation, Cognitive-Computing, developments in Robotics sciences, and the “Internet of Things” ecosystem (scope/frame). Each scenario is devoted to a specific industry. The scenarios can help, predict, and understand phenomena within the limits of critical bounding assumptions, and in many cases, to challenge and extend status-quo of the firms and develop new technologies. A few scenarios are the results of the futures multi- methodologies and foresight filter. In response to the research question, it can be understood that until 2021, the primary scenarios would be made the “personal devices” as the core of cognitive computing and cognition. The decision making on everyday life issues and routine business activities will be made and computed by the smart device. Until the end of 2021, the crypto-based, IoT, financial transactions would be limited to “Core of Cognition”. The “Personal Cognitive Device (PCD)” would be the core of cognitive computing, smart machines and most of the crypto-based financial transactions would be computed on PCDs. Different entities would develop payment platforms, options, product or service by focusing on the smart machines relied on the ecosystem of IoT. It means that most likely majority of other machines and systems will not self-compute (themselves) the transactions, but send the data for computation to PCDs as the core of cognition (result/scenarios). The main recommendation of this research is to conduct future transdisciplinary, and interdisciplinary studies, filling the suggested gaps of knowledge (mentioned at the end of study), or to study other aspects of these financial transactions (e.g., the social aspect) via a different combination of methodologies. The second recommendation is about the promotion of the knowledge to different entities in form of consultation projects and consultancy services. RBS may introduce the scenarios and models used in this paper to possible customers in the form of information packages or consulting sessions or projects. The output may help the client entities to conceptualize a needed product or service (recommendations). Keywords: Autonomation, Autonomous Smart-Machines, Cognitive, Cognitive-Computing, Internet of Things, IoT, Robot, Robots, Cryptocurrencies, Crypto, Crypto-based, Fin-Tech, Financial, Transaction, Financial Transactions, SMART, Smart, Machine, Machines,
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With the advent of technology enabling greater customer tracking, more robust knowledge management, and direct customer communication, the implementation of customer relationship management (CRM) strategies has grown in importance with many implications for sales-intensive organizations. Implications of CRM strategy, analytical CRM, and operational CRM are discussed, particularly in terms of research opportunities. Although there are, no doubt, many other interesting and worthwhile research opportunities available, the nexus of technology, CRM, and sales-intensive go-to-market strategies provide myriad opportunities for exciting research.
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This paper proposes Jidoka (automation with a human touch) as the main guiding principle for SMEs digital transformation; understood as the continuous increase of levels of automation and intelligence at their shopfloors in an economic, social and technological sustainable way. It stresses the forgotten dual nature of Jidoka as an ‘automation approach’ as well as a ‘learning system’, capable of simultaneously improving the efficiency of manufacturing processes and cultivating the workforce skills needed to develop and/or adopt advanced automation solutions. The paper aims to remind the developers of automatic control systems in the Industry 4.0 era that it is only through human-machine mutual learning, characterized by cyber-physical-social interactions (cf. Jidoka 4.0 Systems), that sustainable higher levels of automation and intelligence can be achieved. Human operators need to know the processes that are being automated, so that, at the same time, this knowledge can be continuously updated and processes improved as digital technologies evolve: “Incorporating human learning, gives automation its human touch”.
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Higher Education (HE) institution as a social business entity is necessary to keep update to the business practices. It is necessary to drive the involvement of their customer in their business chain activities via. social media, hereinafter referred to as Social CRM (S-CRM). The value chain of a HE business processes consist of education, research and community services (HEVC). Those HEVC is derived based APQC cross industry process classification framework. The social CRM itself is a business process of HEVC in which involving a face-to-face to its customer (student and graduates). This study describes the identified social CRM features that are intended to work to support those business processes. Those software features groups into operational, collaboration and analytical social CRM. The operasional CRM itself consist of marketing automation, sales-force automation and service automation.
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Although companies have spent a great deal of money to adopt CRM (customer relationship management) technologies, many have not seen satisfactory returns on their CRM implementations. We study optimal CRM implementation strategies and the impact of CRM investments on profitability. For our analysis, we classify CRM technologies into two broad categories: targeting-related and support-related technologies. While targeting CRM improves the success rate of distinguishing between nonloyal and loyal customers, support CRM increases the probability of retaining the loyalty of existing customers. We also consider the costs of implementing each CRM type separately as well as both types simultaneously. We show that the optimal CRM implementation strategy depends on the initial mass of loyal customers and diseconomies of scale in simultaneous implementation. We also find that the two types of CRM technologies are substitutive rather than complementary in generating revenue. We discuss why it is difficult to avoid overinvestments in CRM when the nature of the investments is misunderstood. We study the optimal CRM implementation scope and the impact of different types of CRM on customers. We develop a model that not only considers both the revenue and costs sides but is also helpful in determining the deployment of right CRM technology in the right scope.
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A large proportion of firms that adopt customer relationship management (CRM) technology find it challenging to integrate CRM technology into their core marketing processes and utilize CRM strategically to appreciably improve their performance. The authors conceptualize a model to understand the drivers of superior CRM performance after CRM technology has been adopted by a firm and examine strategic utilization of CRM technology as driven by user acceptance and proficiency in the form of employee buy-in and expertise. Top management championship practices, employee information technology (IT) skills, and CRM knowledge are identified and examined as key building blocks toward strategic utilization. The empirical test of the conceptual model is based on a mail survey of North American firms that have adopted information technology-based CRM systems. The results, based on random effects model, show that strategic utilization of CRM technology leads to higher performance when there is an emphasis on using it to manage business-to-business rather than business-to-consumer relationships, user expertise (but not buy-in) impacts CRM performance through strategic utilization, and top management championship practices, CRM knowledge, and employee IT skills impact strategic utilization through buy-in and expertise. KeywordsCRM-CRM knowledge-Employee IT skills-Top management championship-CRM performance-Buy-in-Expertise-Strategic utilization-Customer relationship management
CRM Automation: The Ultimate Guide
  • L Alfred
Alfred, L. (n.d.). CRM Automation: The Ultimate Guide. Retrieved from https:// blog.hubspot.com/sales/crm-automation
High tech, high touch : library customer service through technology
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Jurewicz, L. & Cutler, T. (2003). High tech, high touch : library customer service through technology. Chicago: American Library Association.
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