Article

Rumination Antara Usia Remaja Dan Dewasa

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Article
Full-text available
Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui hubungan antara School Well-being dengan rumination. Teori School Well-being dikemukakan oleh Konu dan Rimpela dan teori rumination dikemukakan oleh Susan Nolen-Hoeksema. School well-being adalah penilaian individu berkaitan dengan keadaan lingkungan sekolah tempat belajar, sedangkan rumination adalah pola pikir yang berulang yang berakar pada mood negatif (seperti kesedihan) dan tidak memotivasi seseorang untuk menyusun rencana untuk menghilangkan pemikiran tersebut. Penelitian ini melibatkan 126 responden. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode kuantitatif. Hasil penelitian menunjukan bahwa tidak terdapat hubungan (r = -0.016, p >0.05). Namun, dari hasil penelitian pada dimensi ruminasi indikator depresi, terdapat hubungan dengan School Well-Being (r = -0.191, p < 0.05). Demikian pula dengan perhitungan untuk indikator Brooding dalam ruminasi dengan indikator health dalam School Well-Being terdapat hubungan yang signifikan (r = 0.211, p <0.05).Kata kunci: School Well-being, Rumination, Depresi, Brooding, Health
Article
Full-text available
This study was designed to examine structural validity and reliability of short version of The Ruminative Response Scale (RRS) developed by Treynor, Gonzalez, and Nolen-Hoeksema (2003). Participants were 549 (307 girls, 242 boys) volunteering high school students. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA), Internal Consistency Coefficient (Cronbach Alpha), and Convergent validity were used to assess cross-cultural equivalence of this particular instrument. Based on these results, The Ruminative Response Scale appears to be valid and reliable scale for Turkish samples.
Article
Full-text available
G*Power is a free power analysis program for a variety of statistical tests. We present extensions and improvements of the version introduced by Faul, Erdfelder, Lang, and Buchner (2007) in the domain of correlation and regression analyses. In the new version, we have added procedures to analyze the power of tests based on (1) single-sample tetrachoric correlations, (2) comparisons of dependent correlations, (3) bivariate linear regression, (4) multiple linear regression based on the random predictor model, (5) logistic regression, and (6) Poisson regression. We describe these new features and provide a brief introduction to their scope and handling.
Article
Full-text available
In an attempt to eliminate similar item content as an alternative explanation for the relation between depression and rumination, a secondary analysis was conducted using the data from S. Nolen-Hoeksema, J. Larson, and C. Grayson (1999). After constructing a measure of rumination unconfounded with depression content, support for a two factor model of rumination was found. These analyses indicate that the 2 components, reflective pondering and brooding, differentially relate to depression in terms of predictive ability and gender difference mediation. The results presented here support the general premise of Nolen-Hoeksema's Response Styles Theory (S. Nolen-Hoeksema 1987) that rumination can contribute to more depressive symptoms and to the gender difference in depression, but suggest important refinements of the theory. Such refinements include the need to differentiate between the reflective pondering component of rumination and the brooding component in rumination research. Peer Reviewed http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/44342/1/10608_2004_Article_464752.pdf
Article
Full-text available
A ruminative response style has been shown to predict depressive symptoms among youth and adults, but it is unclear whether rumination is associated specifically with depression compared with co-occurring symptoms of anxiety and externalizing behaviors. This prospective, multiwave study investigated whether baseline rumination predicted prospective elevations in depressive symptoms specifically. Rumination was assessed at baseline in a sample of early and middle adolescents (N = 350, 6-10th graders). Symptom measures of depression, anxious arousal, general internalizing, and conduct/externalizing problems with good discriminant validity were assessed at four time points over a 5-month period. Results using hierarchical linear modeling show that rumination predicted prospective fluctuations in symptoms of depression and general internalizing problems specifically but not anxious arousal or externalizing problems. Rumination predicted increasing prospective trajectories of general internalizing symptoms. Baseline rumination interacted with prospective co-occurring fluctuations of anxious arousal and externalizing behaviors over time to predict the highest levels of prospective depressive symptoms. Rumination partly mediated the sex difference (girls > boys) in depressive and internalizing symptoms.
Article
Full-text available
As people get older, they experience fewer negative emotions. Strategic processes in older adults' emotional attention and memory might play a role in this variation with age. Older adults show more emotionally gratifying memory distortion for past choices and autobiographical information than younger adults do. In addition, when shown stimuli that vary in affective valence, positive items account for a larger proportion of older adults' subsequent memories than those of younger adults. This positivity effect in older adults' memories seems to be due to their greater focus on emotion regulation and to be implemented by cognitive control mechanisms that enhance positive and diminish negative information. These findings suggest that both cognitive abilities and motivation contribute to older adults' improved emotion regulation.
Article
Full-text available
The authors examined the reciprocal relations between rumination and symptoms of depression, bulimia, and substance abuse with longitudinal data from 496 female adolescents. Rumination predicted future increases in bulimic and substance abuse symptoms, as well as onset of major depression, binge eating, and substance abuse. Depressive and bulimic, but not substance abuse, symptoms predicted increases in rumination. Rumination did not predict increases in externalizing symptoms, providing evidence for the specificity of effects of rumination, although externalizing symptoms predicted future increases in rumination. Results suggest rumination may contribute to the etiology of depressive, bulimic, and substance abuse pathology and that the former two disturbances may foster increased rumination. Results imply that it might be beneficial for prevention programs to target this cognitive vulnerability.
Article
Full-text available
This study examined nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) in a community sample of young adolescent girls. Potential moderators of the relationships between different types of distress (internal and interpersonal) and particular functions of NSSI (emotion-regulation and interpersonal) were explored. Participants included 94 girls (49% Hispanic; 25% African American) ages 10-14 years who completed questionnaires regarding self-injurious behavior and other constructs of interest. Fifty-six percent of girls (n = 53) reported engaging in NSSI during their lifetime, including 36% (n = 34) in the past year. Internal distress (depressive symptoms) was associated with engaging in NSSI for emotion-regulation functions, and rumination moderated the relationship between depressive symptoms and engaging in NSSI for automatic positive reinforcement. Interpersonal distress (peer victimization) was associated with engaging in NSSI for social reinforcement, and quality of peer communication moderated this relationship. The clinical implications of these findings include designing preventions that address the particular contexts of self-injurious behavior.
Article
Rumination has a crucial role in the onset, severity and maintenance of depression in adolescent and adult populations. The Ruminative Responses Scale (RRS) is the most widely self-report instrument used to assess individual differences in the tendency to engage in ruminative responses style. This paper aims to test the factor structure of the 10-item RRS and the gender-based measurement invariance, in a community sample of adolescents, using a Confirmatory Factor Analysis. Participants were 542 adolescents (53% females) with a mean age of 14 years old ( SD = 1.75) from middle and secondary schools (years of education’s mean = 9.46, SD = 1.60) in Portugal. Results confirm the two-factor structure of the RRS composed by brooding and reflection dimensions (GFI = .93, CFI = .90, TLI = .87, SRMR = .05, RMSEA = .11, 90% C.I. [0.092 to 0.121]) and the invariance across gender (GFI = .91, CFI = .89, TLI = .85, RMSEA = .08, 90% C.I. [0.069 to 0.090], p < .001). RRS and their dimensions presented a good internal reliability (Brooding: α = .80; Reflection: α = .75; RRS total: α = .85). Brooding and reflection dimensions revealed moderate correlations with depression, anxiety and stress symptoms ( p < .001). Multiple Regression Analysis through Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) showed that brooding is significantly and strongly associated with internalizing symptoms ( p < .001). Female adolescents reported more levels of rumination than male adolescents. Overall, these findings support the usefulness of the Portuguese version of RRS and suggest that this short version is an economical, valid and reliable measure to assess ruminative response styles in adolescence.
Article
Depression from childhood through adolescence and adulthood: A developmental vulnerability and stress perspective Depression is one of the most commonly occurring of the major psychopathologies. It is a prototypical multifactorial disorder that profoundly affects individuals’ emotions, thoughts, sense of self, behaviors, interpersonal relations, physical functioning, biological processes, work productivity, and overall life satisfaction. Indeed, given the multiple effects that depression has, it has been ranked as the fourth leading cause of disability and premature death worldwide (Murray & Lopez, 1996). There are clearly numerous developmental pathways by which certain individuals have greater liability to experience elevations in depression, including various risk factors such as negative life events, predisposing genetic influences, disturbed family environment, particular personality traits, environmental adversities, other emotional and behavioral symptoms and problems, cognitive influences, interpersonal behaviors, and biological factors. Recently, the importance of combining these disparate risk factors and etiological processes together into a coherent, integrative model ...
Article
The primary goal of the current study was to examine the link between rumination (brooding and reflective rumination) and the history of suicide attempts in adult psychiatric inpatients. As predicted, psychiatric inpatients reporting histories of suicide attempts exhibited higher current levels of brooding, but not reflective, rumination than did those with no prior suicide attempts. These results were maintained even after statistically controlling for patients' current depressive symptom levels. These results support the hypothesis that rumination, particularly brooding rumination, may be a risk factor for suicide attempts.
Article
Rumination is a vulnerability factor for the onset and maintenance of emotional distress. This study examined whether writing about life goals is associated with a decrease in ruminative thinking and a reduced cortisol awakening response. 68 healthy participants either wrote about their personal life goals or a control topic. Writing about life goals was associated with a modest decrease in ruminative thinking and a reduced cortisol awakening response at the post-intervention assessment. Results provide initial evidence that writing about life goals can be a helpful aid in decreasing rumination and physiological stress reactivity.
Article
The role of ruminative coping and gender as potential moderators of cultural differences in suicide ideation among 194 college students from Ghana and the United States were studied. Participants completed the Adult Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire and the Rumination scale of the Response Style Questionnaire. Significant main effects for cultural group and gender were found for suicide ideation. Furthermore, gender and rumination together accounted for significant portions of the variance in suicide ideation scores. Implications for future research are discussed.
Article
Rumination is a well-established risk factor for the onset of major depression and anxiety symptomatology in both adolescents and adults. Despite the robust associations between rumination and internalizing psychopathology, there is a dearth of research examining factors that might lead to a ruminative response style. In the current study, we examined whether social environmental experiences were associated with rumination. Specifically, we evaluated whether self-reported exposure to stressful life events predicted subsequent increases in rumination. We also investigated whether rumination served as a mechanism underlying the longitudinal association between self-reported stressful life events and internalizing symptoms. Self-reported stressful life events, rumination, and symptoms of depression and anxiety were assessed in 2 separate longitudinal samples. A sample of early adolescents (N = 1,065) was assessed at 3 time points spanning 7 months. A sample of adults (N = 1,132) was assessed at 2 time points spanning 12 months. In both samples, self-reported exposure to stressful life events was associated longitudinally with increased engagement in rumination. In addition, rumination mediated the longitudinal relationship between self-reported stressors and symptoms of anxiety in both samples and the relationship between self-reported life events and symptoms of depression in the adult sample. Identifying the psychological and neurobiological mechanisms that explain a greater propensity for rumination following stressors remains an important goal for future research. This study provides novel evidence for the role of stressful life events in shaping characteristic responses to distress, specifically engagement in rumination, highlighting potentially useful targets for interventions aimed at preventing the onset of depression and anxiety. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).
Article
We examined the relationships between rumination and depressive symptoms and rumination and alcohol-related coping and problems as a function of gender. Rumination was associated with more depressive symptoms for both women and men in both cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses. Similarly, for both women and men, rumination was associated with a greater tendency to turn to alcohol and other drugs to cope in cross-sectional analyses. Longitudinal analyses showed that rumination was a significant predictor of alcohol-related problems in women, but not in men, although the gender difference in the strength of this relationship was not significant. We discuss these results in light of the social conditions and pressures associated with gender role norms.
Article
The response styles theory (Nolen-Hoeksema, 1991) was proposed to explain the insidious relationship between rumination and depression. We review the aspects of the response styles theory that have been well-supported, including evidence that rumination exacerbates depression, enhances negative thinking, impairs problem solving, interferes with instrumental behavior, and erodes social support. Next, we address contradictory and new findings. Specifically, rumination appears to more consistently predict the onset of depression rather than the duration, but rumination interacts with negative cognitive styles to predict the duration of depressive symptoms. Contrary to original predictions, the use of positive distractions has not consistently been correlated with lower levels of depressive symptoms in correlational studies, although dozens of experimental studies show positive distractions relieve depressed mood. Further, evidence now suggests that rumination is associated with psychopathologies in addition to depression, including anxiety, binge eating, binge drinking, and self-harm. We discuss the relationships between rumination and worry and between rumination and other coping or emotion-regulation strategies. Finally, we highlight recent research on the distinction between rumination and more adaptive forms of self-reflection, on basic cognitive deficits or biases in rumination, on its neural and genetic correlates, and on possible interventions to combat rumination. © 2008 Association for Psychological Science.
Article
The current study examines the hypothesized interaction between certain dimensions of both perfectionism and rumination as diatheses for depressive symptoms. Three hundred and five participants completed measures of perfectionism, rumination, and depressive symptoms at Time 1, and then returned 4weeks later at Time 2 to complete measures of stress and depressive symptoms. In line with our hypotheses, results indicated that individuals with high levels of certain dimensions of perfectionism (i.e., self-oriented and socially prescribed, but not other-oriented), high levels of brooding rumination (but not the reflection dimension of rumination), and high stress experienced the greatest increases in depressive symptoms over time. Moreover, results revealed that the role of self-oriented and socially prescribed perfectionism as diatheses for depression is dependent upon brooding rumination. This work has potential benefits for understanding the cognitive mechanisms that lead to depression.
Article
Several studies have shown that people who engage in ruminative responses to depressive symptoms have higher levels of depressive symptoms over time, after accounting for baseline levels of depressive symptoms. The analyses reported here showed that rumination also predicted depressive disorders, including new onsets of depressive episodes. Rumination predicted chronicity of depressive disorders before accounting for the effects of baseline depressive symptoms but not after accounting for the effects of baseline depressive symptoms. Rumination also predicted anxiety symptoms and may be particularly characteristic of people with mixed anxiety/depressive symptoms.
Psikologi Perkembangan. Bandung: Remaja Rosdakarya Offset
  • Desmita
Desmita. (2005). Psikologi Perkembangan. Bandung: Remaja Rosdakarya Offset.
Analisis Data Penelitian dengan Statistik Edisi Ke-2
  • Misbahuddin
  • I Hasan
Misbahuddin., Hasan, I. (2013). Analisis Data Penelitian dengan Statistik Edisi Ke-2. Jakarta: Bumi Aksara.
Metode Penelitian Kuantitatif
  • Sugiyono
Sugiyono. (2013). Metode Penelitian Kuantitatif, Kualitatif, dan R&D. Bandung: Alfabeta.