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Reading from print, laptop computer, and e-reader: Differences and similarities for college students’ learning

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Abstract

Digital and print readings differ in their affordances. Past research supports a print advantage, but few studies have used within-subjects approaches or compared handheld devices and multiple reading genres. We compared college students’ reading of several excerpts on paper, a laptop, and an e-reader. Students read on all platforms, completed comprehension tasks, and answered questions on their perceptions and preferences. Results indicated that students’ learning experience with print was superior, with the laptop a close second. In contrast, students’ learning from and perceptions of the e-reader were lower. There was no interaction with reading genre. This research suggests that students’ preference for print remains strong. When digital materials are used, e-readers appear to be a less viable option for academics relative to laptops.

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... Otros estudios también han encontrado que, cuando los dispositivos móviles se usan con fines académicos -tomar notas y usar diferentes programas de software (véanse, por ejemplo, Driver, 2002; Kay y Lauricella, 2014), buscar información adicional o verificar determinados hechos/datos (véanse, por ejemplo, Aguirre et al., 2019;Berry y Westfall, 2015;Gay et al., 2001;Leyrer-Jackson y Wilson, 2018;Roberts y Rees, 2014), acceder a recursos suplementarios y a actividades basadas en la web (véanse, por ejemplo, Albó et al., 2019;Debevec et al., 2006), organizar y proporcionar acceso a materiales relacionados con la materia en cuestión (véanse, por ejemplo, Aguirre et al., 2019;Carter et al., 2017), o, incluso, ver diapositivas (véanse, por ejemplo, Aguirre et al., 2019;McVay et al., 2005; Roberts y Rees, 2014)-, pueden contribuir de manera significativa a aumentar el compromiso, la satisfacción y la motivación de los estudiantes (véanse, por ejemplo, Aguirre et al., 2019;Albó et al., 2019;Fried, 2008;Hyden, 2005;Samson, 2010;Weaver y Nilson, 2005). Algunos estudios también han Parece obvio que ha habido una Parece obvio que ha habido una necesidad de modificar las nuevas necesidad de modificar las nuevas prácticas educativas porque las prácticas educativas porque las competencias y habilidades digitales competencias y habilidades digitales están desempeñando un papel cada están desempeñando un papel cada vez más relevante en la forma en vez más relevante en la forma en que las personas aprenden que las personas aprenden confirmado que el uso de los dispositivos móviles puede marcar una diferencia sustancial en los hábitos de estudio de los estudiantes y, en última instancia, en sus vidas académicas y sociales, ya que su uso puede ayudar a promover una mayor colaboración entre ellos, un intercambio de recursos e incluso una mejor organización personal (véanse, por ejemplo, Aguirre Por contra, un gran número de investigaciones sugieren que los estudiantes que usan dispositivos móviles en clase exhiben más bajos niveles de satisfacción con su educación, obtienen peores experiencias de aprendizaje en comparación con los estudiantes que no los utilizan, tienen más probabilidades de realizar múltiples tareas en clase y, en consecuencia, están más distraídos (véanse, por ejemplo, McCabe y Meuter, 2011;Sage et al., 2020;Witecki y Nonnecke, 2015;Wurst et al., 2008;Zhang, 2015). Y todo ello sin tener en cuenta los problemas de adicción que su uso puede generar también, con las consiguientes consecuencias negativas ya no solo a nivel académico, sino también desde un punto de vista social. ...
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Este trabajo se hace eco de un animado debate, que está presente en los últimos años en el ámbito de la educación superior, sobre si hay que permitir o se debe prohibir el uso de dispositivos móviles por los estudiantes en el aula. A fin de facilitar una toma de decisiones más informada, se revisa en profundidad la evidencia empírica existente hasta la fecha sobre la relación entre el uso de dispositivos móviles en las aulas y el rendimiento académico de los estudiantes. Se proporciona también nueva evidencia empírica sobre dicha relación, considerando ciertos aspectos que han sido ignorados por la investigación previa, como son la asignatura que se enseña, las características/intereses de los docentes, el año de estudio o el tamaño de la clase. Los resultados dispares del análisis empírico realizado, así como de la evidencia disponible, sugieren que el uso de estos dispositivos móviles y su relación con el rendimiento académico es un asunto complejo que debe ser analizado cuidadosamente. Se sugiere que la cuestión de si el uso de dispositivos móviles debe permitirse o prohibirse en el aula debería reemplazarse por cómo los docentes pueden sacar el mejor partido posible del uso de tales dispositivos en sus clases. Además, se presentan otras propuestas que pueden ser especialmente útiles en un contexto educativo como el actual, que está muy condicionado por la crisis de la COVID-19.
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Academic libraries invest millions of dollars to make electronic resources such as e-books available to students for free. However, free access might not necessarily result in students' sustained interest in and use of e-books. This interdisciplinary, mixed methods research investigates the factors influencing the intention of 279 undergraduate students to use e-books at a land-grant university in the southern US. Structural equation modeling of the survey responses suggests that organizational environment for information technology, external locus of control, subjective norm, perceived enjoyment (i.e., joyfulness), and information technology features play a significant role in influencing the intention of students to use e-books. Based on a combination of quantitative results and qualitative findings, this study identifies eight activities that libraries need to undertake in order to increase the use of e-books by undergraduate students.
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This meta-analysis looked at 17 studies which focused on the comparison of reading on screen and reading on paper in terms of reading comprehension and reading speed. The robust variance estimation (RVE)- based meta-analysis models were employed, followed by four different RVE meta-regression models to examine the potential effects of some of the covariates (moderators) on the mean differences in comprehension and reading speed between reading on screen and reading on paper. The RVE meta-analysis showed that reading on paper was better than reading on screen in terms of reading comprehension, and there were no significant differences between reading on paper and reading on screen in terms of reading speed. None of the moderators were significant at the 0.05 level. In the meanwhile, albeit not significant, examination of the p-values for the difference tests prior to 2013 and after 2013 respectively (not shown here) indicated that the magnitude of the difference in reading comprehension between paper and screen followed a diminishing trajectory. It was suggested that future meta-analyses include latest studies, and other potential moderators such as fonts, spacing, age and gender.
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As online learning becomes more prevalent in higher education, faculty are likely to increasingly turn to textbook technology supplements (TTSs) as a tool to enhance student learning outside the classroom. In 3 experiments, we tested whether using TTS multiple-choice quizzes (Experiments 1 and 2) or essay responses (Experiment 2) improved student learning as measured by publisher-provided multiple choice assessments administered in class. In Experiment 1 (N = 75), using a between-subjects design, we found no significant difference in performance for either in-class quizzes, p = .88, or exam performance, p = .79, as a function of whether students were required to use a TTSs or not. In Experiment 2 (N = 173), using a within-subjects design, we found a small but significant (3.5%) benefit to student learning on content for which they completed online quizzes (p = .002, partial η2 = .06). Experiment 3 (N = 90), again using a within-subjects design, found no significant benefit to learning when students were required to write essay responses to online questions (p = .13, partial η2 = .03). We suggest that the behaviors faculty intend to promote with the use of such tools (e.g., repeated practice, effortful attention, etc.) may not match the behaviors that these types of tools reinforce. They may serve as vehicles for engaged learning practices for some students, but for others, they may represent another system that must be “worked” to satisfy a requirement or get a good score.
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Comprehension depends on multiple sources of knowledge and the processes that use such knowledge. In addressing reading comprehension problems, research has naturally focused on the higher-level processes that are the object of text comprehension research—making inferences, monitoring comprehension, etc. In this chapter, we suggest that this approach is incomplete and draw attention to the importance of word-by-word text comprehension processes that integrate a word with the reader’s representation of the text.
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A case study was conducted within two Faculties in the University of Ulster during academic year 2010-11. Its aims were: to assess levels of undergraduate ebook use; how, why, and for what purpose undergraduate students chose to use or not use e-books; assess barriers to use; and consider promotional strategies.Data were collected by means of a desk-based usage comparison and self-completion online questionnaire. Findings were considered using Diffusion of Innovation theory and Roesnita and Zainab's Ebook Use Model.Ebooks are used thirty times more than print counterparts. Users expressed a definite preference for print books; format choice is dependent upon study need. Usage has not yet reached self-sustaining take-off. Ebooks cannot be considered interchangeable with books; promotion should take account of how ebooks are considered "different" from print.
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This study compared reading comprehension, critical reading, and use of study skills between students reading eTexts on eReaders and those reading with paper texts. This research also examined the practical applications for considering the different skill sets students may need to read eTexts effectively in English classrooms. Our research found no discernible differences in reading comprehension levels between the eReader and non-eReader groups. Survey data also revealed that while students reported using active reading skills (like highlighting, bookmarking, and annotating text) when reading traditional texts, they did not transfer these active reading skills to eTexts/eReading.
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The present research examined the impact of technology on reading comprehension. While previous research has examined memory for text, and yielded mixed results of the impact technology has on one's ability to remember what they have read, the reading literature has not yet examined comprehension. In comparing paper, computers, and e-readers, results from this study indicated that these three different presentation modes do not differentially affect comprehension of narrative or expository text. Additionally, readers were not consistently compensating for difficulties with comprehension by engaging in different reading behaviors when presented with text in different formats. These results suggest that reading can happen effectively in a variety of presentation formats. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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We examined the influence of text genre on monitoring of understanding and recall in adults. Younger and older adults' sentence reading times, sentence rereadings, and memory for texts containing inconsistent information were assessed in an on-line analysis. Adults' reading times were affected by text genre, with age differences found for expository but not narrative passages. Reading times of all adults were hindered when reading expository passages, with proportionately more disruption for older adults. Although younger and older adults reread sentences more frequently in expository passages, they recalled more information in narratives and were more likely to accurately comment on inconsistencies after reading narratives. Use of a general rereading strategy was related to recall of narrative and expository passages, but the ability to selectively reread problematic text information was related only to expository text recall. Results indicate that adults' evaluation and regulation of understanding is affected by text genre and that effective regulation of understanding, as measured by the ability to selectively reread text problems, is more critical to expository than narrative text recall.
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E-books offer a range of benefits to both educators and students, including ease of accessibility and searching capabilities. However, the majority of current e-books are repository-cum-delivery platforms of textual information. Hitherto, there is a lack of empirical research that examines e-books with annotative and sharing capabilities. This research study aims at exploring the usefulness of a next-generation e-book (NG-eBook), with annotative and sharing capabilities, with the focus on using the e-book to promote student learning through reflection and sharing of ideas. Thirty-six tertiary level students from three diploma modules participated in the study. Overall findings suggest that the NG-eBook promoted student learning experiences by enabling student engagement and interaction. Future research directions pertaining to the use of e-books in education contexts are suggested.
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While e-book sales continue to increase, electronic textbooks are not very popular with college students. This may be due to the fact that e-textbooks are read for different reasons and with different strategies than are e-books. Although previous research has documented this lack of preference for e-textbooks, student performance and use of electronic texts has yet to be thoroughly investigated, especially in naturalistic settings. This study examines students' use and performance on a variety of print and electronic formats in both laboratory and at-home conditions. Although students scored similarly across formats and conditions, reading time was significantly higher in the electronic conditions with this difference increasing for the home conditions. Similarly, self-reports of multi-tasking were significantly higher for electronic conditions in the home condition, possibly accounting for the disparities in reading time. We conclude by urging caution in the rush to assume that electronic textbooks are equivalent substitutes for traditional textbooks and argue for further investigation into the unique ways that students may interact with electronic texts to promote more effective design.
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This article investigates whether expectations about discourse genre influence the process and products of text comprehension. Ss read texts either with a literary story or with a news story as the purported genre. Subsequently, they verified statements pertaining to the texts. Two experiments demonstrated that Ss reading under a literary perspective had longer reading times, better memory for surface information, and a poorer memory for situational information than those reading under a news perspective. Regression analyses of reading times produced findings that were consistent with the memory data. The results support the notion that readers differentially allocate their processing resources according to their expectations about the genre of a text. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of three different screen sizes (small, medium and large) and two types of multimedia instruction (text only and text with pictorial annotation) on vocabulary learning. One hundred thirty-five Korean middle school students learning English as a foreign language were randomly distributed into six groups and were given a pretest, a self-study multimedia instruction, a posttest and a retention test online. The pretest, posttest and retention test were identical and included 30 vocabulary questions. Results show that the large screen multimedia instruction helped the students to learn English vocabulary more effectively than the small screen instruction as demonstrated on both the posttest and retention test. However, there was little difference in vocabulary learning between the text-only and text-with-pictorial annotation instructions. Although visual perception can be influenced by each learner's expectations and knowledge, using a smaller screen for instruction causes more challenges for learners to perceive and comprehend vocabulary learning.
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People who have grown up with digital media are often assumed to be universally savvy with information and communication technologies. Such assumptions are rarely grounded in empirical evidence, however. This article draws on unique data with information about a diverse group of young adults’ Internet uses and skills to suggest that even when controlling for Internet access and experiences, people differ in their online abilities and activities. Additionally, findings suggest that Internet know-how is not randomly distributed among the population, rather, higher levels of parental education, being a male, and being white or Asian American are associated with higher levels of Web-use skill. These user characteristics are also related to the extent to which young adults engage in diverse types of online activities. Moreover, skill itself is positively associated with types of uses. Overall, these findings suggest that even when controlling for basic Internet access, among a group of young adults, socioeconomic status is an important predictor of how people are incorporating the Web into their everyday lives with those from more privileged backgrounds using it in more informed ways for a larger number of activities.
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This paper analyzes the relation between usability and aesthetics. In a laboratory study, 80 participants used one of four different versions of the same online shop, differing in interface-aesthetics (low vs. high) and interface-usability (low vs. high). Participants had to find specific items and rate the shop before and after usage on perceived aesthetics and perceived usability, which were assessed using four validated instruments. Results show that aesthetics does not affect perceived usability. In contrast, usability has an effect on post-use perceived aesthetics. Our findings show that the “what is beautiful is usable” notion, which assumes that aesthetics enhances the perception of usability can be reversed under certain conditions (here: strong usability manipulation combined with a medium to large aesthetics manipulation). Furthermore, our results indicate that the user’s affective experience with the usability of the shop might serve as a mediator variable within the aesthetics–usability relation: The frustration of poor usability lowers ratings on perceived aesthetics. The significance of the results is discussed in context of the existing research on the relation between aesthetics and usability.
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Despite the growing attention given to Web usability, little is understood as to what Web design features contribute to Web users’ attitude, a major component of the usability of a Web site. This research investigates the effects of interactivity level on Web user's attitude towards commercial Web sites. It extends existing Web interface design and usability literature by empirically examining the critical roles of interactivity. Three Web sites with different levels of interactivity were compared in a controlled laboratory experiment. Three eighteen-person groups completed each treatment. The independent variable is the incremental levels of interactivity. The dependent variables are satisfaction, effectiveness, efficiency, value, and attitude towards the Web site. Results suggest that increased level of interactivity on a Web site have positive effects on user's perceived satisfaction, effectiveness, efficiency, value, and overall attitude towards a Web site. Implications for Web site designers and researchers are discussed.
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This study deals with the instructional efficiency of integrating text and animation into computer-based science instruction. The participants were 84 seventh-grade students in a private primary school in Istanbul. The efficiency of instruction was measured by mental effort and performance level of the learners. The results of the study showed that processing integrated text and animation format in computer-based science instruction requires less mental effort than the separated format, and that the performance of the students in the group with integrated presentation format group is higher than that of students in the group with separated presentation format. Instructional efficiency of the integrated presentation group was found to be higher than that of the separated presentation group. Finally, there was no difference between the two groups for instructional time.
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In alphabetic writing systems, saccade amplitude (a close correlate of reading speed) is independent of font size, presumably because an increase in the angular size of letters is compensated for by a decrease of visual acuity with eccentricity. We propose that this invariance may (also) be due to the presence of spaces between words, guiding the eyes across a large range of font sizes. Here, we test whether saccade amplitude is also invariant against manipulations of font size during reading Chinese, a character-based writing system without spaces as explicit word boundaries for saccade-target selection. In contrast to word-spaced alphabetic writing systems, saccade amplitude decreased significantly with increased font size, leading to an increase in the number of fixations at the beginning of words and in the number of refixations. These results are consistent with a model which assumes that word beginning (rather than word center) is the default saccade target if the length of the parafoveal word is not available.
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Selinda Adelle Berg, Clinical Medicine Librarian, University of Windsor, Windsor, Ontario, Canada, sberg@uwindsor.ca; Kristin Hoffmann, Head, Research & Instructional Services, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada, khoffma8@uwo.ca; Diane Dawson, Natural Sciences Liaison Librarian, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada, diane.dawson@usask.ca Academic libraries are increasingly collecting e-books, but little research has investigated how students use e-books compared to print texts. This study used a prompted think-aloud method to gain an understanding of the information retrieval behavior of students in both formats. Qualitative analysis identified themes that will inform instruction and collection practices.
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The difficulty of the cognitive operations required to process study items was manipulated in two experiments investigating recollective experience. In subsequent recognition tests, subjects indicated whether their recognition judgements for items processed in these tasks were based on recollection ("remember" responses) or on familiarity ("know" responses). In Experiment 1 target items were presented in the context of a category decision task. It was found that remember responses increased with the difficulty of the category decision. For positive instances, remember responses were greater for items of low instance frequency than for items of high instance frequency, while for negative instances remember responses were greater for items from similar categories than for items from dissimilar categories. These effects were not present in know responses. In Experiment 2, remember responses were more frequent when study items had been presented in the form of anagrams to be solved than when they had been presented in the form of words to be read aloud. The incidence of know responses was not affected by the format in which study items were presented. Source judgements were also more accurate when recognition was based on recollection. It is argued that the type of conscious awareness experienced during recognition is determined by the knowledge activated by items presented in the recognition test, which in turn is determined by the nature of the operations engaged at encoding.
Exploring the use of e-textbooks in higher education: A multiyear study
  • A Denoyelles
  • J Raible
Qualitative research for education: An introduction to theory and methods
  • R Bogdan
  • S Bilden