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Victimización primaria y secundaria en la violencia sexual contra mujeres adultas en sentencias penales. [Primary and secondary victimization in sexual violence against adult women in criminal sentences].

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Abstract

Sexual violence against women is a serious problem in our society, being registered in Spain a total of a total of 93,871 judicial files. The purpose of this paper was to explore indicators of primary and secondary victimization in cases of sexual abuse and aggressions against adult women, as well as relevant crime variables, and their relation with the decision-making. For this, a developed categorical system ad hoc was created, and applied to the content analysis of a total of 50 judicial sentences issued by Spanish courts between 2016-2019. Among the most relevant findings, the high prevalence of psychopathology and diverse symptomatology concomitant to the crime stands out, unlike physical injuries, the least frequent being genital ones. On the other hand, the medical evidence of physical injuries, and the finding of having required psychological and/or psychiatric treatment, were associated with a higher probability of conviction. Likewise, the victim-offender link and its continuity after the complaint are highlighted as factors associated with absolute results. Revictimization indicators, due to the police intervention and judicial system, were identified and were seen to be present in 18% of the cases, and were associated with an absolute direction of the ruling. Additionally, it is worth highlighting the high presence of crimes classified as sexual abuse that correspond to unauthorized carnal access because of the victim’s inability to grant such consent. The limitations and the implications of the study to improve the welfare of the victims are discussed. Resumen: Los delitos contra la libertad e indemnidad sexual representan un problema grave, habiéndose registrado según la última estadística judicial disponible en nuestro país, un total de 93.871 victimizaciones por infracciones penales contra la libertad sexual. El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo explorar los principales indicadores de victimización primaria y secundaria, en casos de abusos y agresiones sexuales contra mujeres adultas, así como variables relevantes del delito, y su relación con los resultados del proceso penal. Para ello, se creó un sistema categorial elaborado ad hoc, y se aplicó al análisis de contenido de un total de 50 sentencias judiciales emitidas por los tribunales españoles entre los años 2016-2019. Entre los hallazgos más relevantes, destaca la elevada prevalencia de psicopatología y sintomatología diversa concomitante al delito, a diferencia de las lesiones de tipo físico, siendo las menos frecuentes las de tipo genital. Por su parte, la prueba médica de lesiones físicas, y la constatación de haber requerido tratamiento psicológico y/o psiquiátrico, se asociaron a mayor probabilidad de condena. Asimismo, el vínculo víctima-victimario y su continuidad tras la denuncia resultaron factores asociados a la absolución. Se identificaron también indicadores de revictimización por parte del sistema policial y judicial, presentes en un 18% de los casos y asociados a una dirección absolutoria del fallo. Adicionalmente, destaca la elevada prevalencia en esta muestra de delitos tipificados como abuso sexual que corresponden a accesos carnales no consentidos por incapacidad de la víctima a otorgar dicho consentimiento. Se discuten las limitaciones y las implicaciones del estudio para la mejora del bienestar de las víctimas.
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           
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               
  
 
   
        
         
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

   
   
    
         

        
   

           
       
    

 
       


         
 








  
  
         
             



Citar como: Cea, B., Camplá, X., Vilariño, M., y Novo, M. (2020). Victimización primaria y secundaria en la violencia
sexual contra mujeres adultas en sentencias penales [Primary and secondary victimization in sexual violence against
adult women in criminal Sentences]. En A. M. Martín, F. Fariña y R. Arce (Eds.), Psicología Jurídica y Forense:
Investigación para la práctica profesional (pp. 121-138). Santiago de Compostela: SEPJF. Recuperado de https://
www.researchgate.net/publication/340923353_Psicologia_juridica_y_forense_Investigacion_par
a_la_practica_profesional




          



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

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
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   

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
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       
  
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
    
          


           

  
   
             



        

        
      
    

             
      
   
 
    



       
    
 

       
    
 














     

      

            
          


        
    






           

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

            


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


 
 





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
            

          
      
  




  




       




           
  
              
            


              


 
              





       
   

 
       
     





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            


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
   




      

     

           










     
     




           

  
      
    




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
         
          

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

  
           

            
            


       
 


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      
   
        

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
     
 
  
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 
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           

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
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

       
 
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  
           

      
    
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
           
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          
             
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          
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 
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  
       
 
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           
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    
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      
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 
  
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
            
    
    
    
       
      


          

    
   


 
         
         

             
           
     



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
  
 


      
      




               

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           
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    
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            
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            
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          
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            
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

      



 
     

       
    
         
  
   

 
 
 
 




         
  
   
 

 




  
 





     
     
        
  
  




           

















 
       
   
 
 









 

     

              
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   
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  
    
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 
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  
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  
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             
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   
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        
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          
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    

 


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

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  
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

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        

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    
  
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             



     
 
 





     

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     
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  
         

    
    
      
  
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     
  
 
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          
 

    
 
 






    
 
  





    
  
 





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   
 
 


   
     

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
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
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
  

 
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
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     
 
 
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 
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 
  
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 
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    
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 


  
 
 
 


... De hecho, una revisión sistemática llevada a cabo por Camplá et al. (2017) demuestra que la presencia de mitos produce una mayor atribución de responsabilidad hacia víctima. De igual modo, variables vinculadas con los mitos, tales como el hecho de que la víctima haya consumido alcohol (Novo et al., 2015), el lugar donde se produce el delito (Schwarz et al., 2022) o la existencia de un vínculo de pareja entre denunciante y denunciado (Cea et al., 2020) genera que la atribución de responsabilidad recaiga en la víctima y, por consiguiente, que le reste credibilidad. No obstante, esto no indica que, por otro lado, no sea imprescindible evitar lo falsos positivos (Zutter et al., 2017) con técnicas fiables y válidas que respeten los criterios científicos, legales y jurisprudenciales (Arce, 2017). ...
... Con estas limitaciones en mente, a continuación, se discuten los resultados obtenidos. En relación con la atribución de responsabilidad hacía la víctima, los resultados reflejaron mayor atribución de responsabilidad hacia la víctima en el caso cometido por conocido que por desconocido, tal como había señalado Cea et al. (2020). ...
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Objectives: To describe the frequency and severity of general body injury in women alleging recent sexual assault and then identify demographic and assault characteristics associated with injury severity. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Sexual Assault Resource Centre (SARC), Western Australia. Participants: Total of 1163 women attending SARC from Jan-2009 to Mar-2015. Methods: Women underwent a standardised medical examination and data collection by forensically trained doctors. Multivariate ordinal logistic regression analyses were performed. An algorithm was used to classify general body injuries as mild, moderate or severe. Results: General body injury was observed in 71% of women; 52%, 17% and 2% were classified as having respectively, mild, moderate and severe injuries. Moderate or severe injury was observed in 30.4% of women assaulted by intimate partners, 16.4% of women assaulted by strangers and 14.9% of women assaulted by friends/acquaintances. In regression analysis, an interaction between mental illness and assailant type existed after adjusting for age, intellectual disability, time-to-examination, number of assailants and location. Mental illness was an independent predictor for lower injury severity (adjusted odds ratio=0.5, 95% CI 0.3, 0.9) in women assaulted by strangers and higher injury severity in women assaulted by a friend/acquaintance (adjusted odds ratio=2.4, 95% CI 1.6, 3.6). While women assaulted by intimate partners had more frequent moderate-to-severe injuries than other women their current mental illness status was not associated with risk of injury severity. Conclusion: This study highlights the increased injury severity in women assaulted by intimate partners. The risk of moderate/severe injury for women with mental illness assaulted by their acquaintances was unexpected and requires further investigation.
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La literatura científica ha puesto de manifiesto que las decisiones de los jueces muestran signos inequívocos de sesgo (véase Wrightsman, 1999). Sin embargo, no se ha desarrollado un esfuerzo importante para determinar el alcance de estos sesgos en las decisiones reales. Por ello, nos planteamos un estudio de archivo con el fin de aislar el heurístico de anclaje y perfilar los efectos del mismo en la calidad de las decisiones. Los resultados mostraron que el 63.6% de las sentencias estaban guiadas por un anclaje decisional. Éste tenía efectos directos en la formación del juicio, procesamiento de la información, establecimiento de los nexos causales y motivación legal. Por último se discuten las implicaciones de los resultados así como los modos de solución o amortiguamiento del problema.
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The examination of the rape victim should focus on the therapeutic, forensic and psychological needs of the individual patient. One aspect will be an examination for ano-genital injuries. From a medical perspective, they tend to be minor and require little in the way of treatment. They must be considered when assessing the risk of blood-borne viruses and the need for prophylaxis. From a forensic perspective, an understanding of genital injury rates, type of injury, site and healing may assist the clinician to interpret the findings in the context of the allegations that have been made. There are many myths and misunderstandings about ano-genital injuries and rape. The clinician has a duty to dispel these.
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