Spatiotemporal mapping of evacuee response

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The analysis of evacuee behaviour and performance requires data on human behaviour from actual fire incidents. Unfortunately, such data is rarely collected and, if available, is often provided in different formats and levels of refinement, and does not provide sufficient narrative understanding. The lack of a standardized approach to collecting and reporting such data hinders our understanding of human behaviour in fire, theory development, as well as incident analysis and communication. In other fields, graphical notation systems are used to report events in a quick, reliable and standardized manner. This article outlines the development of a notation system that aims to better document evacuee performance. The proposed notation system is then applied to two historic case studies—the Knights of Columbus fire of 1942 and the Beverly Hills Supper Club fire of 1977—to illustrate the approach. Finally, limitations and future research needs of the presented notation system are discussed.

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... The framework presents what should be measured and controlled in the field of individual wayfinding decisions in indoor emergencies, such as the level of acute stress. Documentation tools (Ouellette et al., 2020) could be developed based on the framework and provide a uniform data structure for different studies, resulting in a database for empirical evidence of individual wayfinding decisions in indoor emergencies. The framework emphasizes the importance of all four cognitive processes, not only decision-making, for the work of building designers. ...
Individual wayfinding decisions are critical for evacuation efficiency in building emergencies. By synthesizing the increasing volume of relevant literature, this study proposes a theoretical framework for individual wayfinding decisions in building emergencies. Consisting of four modules of cognitive processes and a module of acute stress, the framework formalizes the relationships between different aspects contributing to observed evacuation wayfinding behavior by integrating the impacts of acute stress with the knowledge about indoor wayfinding in normal conditions. The existing literature on individual wayfinding decisions in indoor emergencies is organized with reference to the theoretical framework to identify the overlaps, contradictions and refinements. In addition, two meta-analyses are conducted to validate this framework. The meta-analyses results indicate that the likelihood of people choosing the exit indicated by (enhanced) signage or choice of the majority of surrounding people is over 18 times higher than that of other exits. The results also show that the controlled conflicting information provided for other exits has a negative moderator effect. The proposed theoretical framework is the first step towards developing an individual wayfinding decision theory in indoor emergencies. Implications of the proposed theoretical framework, and directions for future research, particularly related to wayfinding goals, assessment of wayfinding progress, and wayfinding strategies within the proposed framework, are also discussed in the paper.
... Depending on the unique research goals, data on pedestrian dynamics is generated in varying ways. For the abstract representation of interactions between individuals, graphic notation systems are used in other disciplines (e.g. in dance and theatre sciences, fire cause or crime scene investigation) 29 . Presented a spatio-temporal mapping approach on evacuee response using a notation system to document evacuation procedures and interpersonal interaction graphically. ...
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Despite considerable research efforts, most controlled empirical studies on crowd movement usually rely on homogeneous crowds, i.e., research participants are typically young adults without disabilities. Consequently, relatively little is known about pedestrian movement in more diverse and heterogeneous crowd conditions, e.g., when persons with reduced mobility are present. This gap may be particularly relevant at bottlenecks, along the path of a moving crowd, that limit the capacity of pedestrian flow. Here, we present results from 12 studies in which participants (total N = 252) with and without visible disabilities moved together in a crowd. In each study, groups of participants walked together in a hallway with a bottleneck at the end. The point of speed adoption, distances between neighbours, and behavioural activities were analysed. We found (1) that participants with disabilities reduced their speed further away from the bottleneck than participants without disabilities; (2) participants without disabilities stayed closer to neighbors with disabilities than to neighbors without disabilities; and (3) participants interacted and communicated with each other to organise in front of the bottleneck. These results underline the importance of studying representative and heterogeneous samples in crowd dynamics. We also argue that more interdisciplinary research is needed to better understand the dynamics of interactions between neighbors in a crowd. A more nuanced understanding of pedestrian dynamics holds the promise of improving the validity of simulation tools such as movement and evacuation models.
... Many studies have documented various important aspects of drills (e. g., (Catovic et al., 2018;Kobes et al., 2010;Nilsson and Johansson, 2009;Proulx, 1995;Proulx and Fahy, 1997;Shields and Boyce, 2000)) and evacuations (e.g., Fahy and Proulx, 1995;Fischer et al., 1995;Horiuchi et al., 1986;Ouellette et al., 2020). Most of these rely on relatively complex and sophisticated methods of recording data (e.g., through interviews or video analysis) in an attempt to meet research objectives, as opposed to meeting more routine needs. ...
Planned egress drills are required by building codes around the world, and are commonly used to both train occupants and assess evacuation procedures. However, capturing the idea of a “successful” drill is often difficult. Data from both drills and unplanned evacuations are often incomplete and unreliable, which raises a key question: How well-matched are planned egress drills and unplanned evacuations in terms of their properties and outcomes? That is, are drills a good model of evacuation? In this paper, we compare 93 planned egress drills and 23 unplanned evacuations, which occurred in Canadian office buildings over a span of four years. Our two main findings are that (1) planned egress drills differ from unplanned evacuations in terms of frequency, timing, and outcome (e.g., reported total evacuation time), and (2) the reported number of occupants correlates with total evacuation time. These findings motivate a discussion of the strengths and weaknesses of the current approach to data reporting, and we highlight potential implications for (and limitations of) the current drill model.
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There is a new generation of emoticons, called emojis, increasingly used in mobile communications and social media. In the last two years, over ten billion of emojis were used on Twitter. Emojis are Unicode graphic symbols, used as a shorthand to express concepts and ideas. In contrast to a small number of well-known emoticons which carry clear emotional contents, there are hundreds of emojis. But what is their emotional contents? We provide the first emoji sentiment lexicon, called Emoji Sentiment Ranking, and draw a sentiment map of the 751 most frequently used emojis. The sentiment of emojis is computed from the sentiment of tweets in which they occur. We have engaged 83 human annotators to label over 1.6 million tweets in 13 European languages by the sentiment polarity (negative, neutral, or positive). About 4\% of the annotated tweets contain emojis. The sentiment analysis of emojis yields several interesting conclusions. It turns out that most of the emojis are positive, especially the most popular ones. The sentiment distribution of the tweets with and without emojis is significantly different. The inter-annotator agreement on the tweets with emojis is higher. Emojis tend to occur at the end of the tweets, and their sentiment polarity increases with the distance. We observe no significant differences in emoji rankings between the 13 languages, and propose our Emoji Sentiment Ranking as a European language-independent resource for automated sentiment analysis. Finally, the paper provides a formalization of sentiment and novel visualization in the form of a sentiment bar.
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:This article explores the history of dance notation from the Renaissance to postmodern dance. It examines the tension between text and oral tradition in Western dance practices, as well as the issue of how to reconcile our views of choreography as both scriptural and visual. It has been difficult, if not impossible, to think of notation in relation to composition; notation has become almost solely associated with reconstruction as a phenomenon of historical interest. But, at the same time, the sense of the score—and hence some notion of notation—seems to remain within the body and the mind of the dancer as a danced possibility. That is to say, some form of cognitive mapping takes the place of the idea of notation and takes root in the dancer's mind and body (if not on paper). Literal notation is not just secondary but tertiary with respect to this sense of scoring, which appears to preexist notation in the mind and the body, making of dance a form that places particular demands on the performer.
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Performance-based life-safety design depends on a comparison between the time required for escape (Required Safe Escape Time - RSET) and the time to loss of tenability (Available Safe Escape Time - ASET). Both include a number of stages, involving a variety of processes and requiring a range of input data. A problem for the design engineer is that while all stages need to be addressed to obtain a realistic outcome for the analysis, some aspects are reasonably well understood and quantified, while others are often oversimplified or ignored. For the RSET time line, most emphasis is usually placed upon the travel time component, representing the physical movement of occupants into and through the escape routes. However, the time required for occupants to engage in a range of behaviours before the travel phase (pre-movement time), often represents a greater component of the total escape time. Pre-movement time distributions are dependent upon key features such as occupancy type, warnings, occupant characteristics, building complexity and fire safety management strategy. It is proposed that a practical solution for the engineer is to apply pre-movement time distributions measured from monitored evacuations, fire incidents, or derived using behavioral models, and specified in terms of a number of "design behavioural scenarios" analogous to "design fire scenarios", classified according to the key features listed. A problem with the evaluation of travel time, is that most calculation methods assume no interaction between the occupants and the fire effluent. If occupants are exposed to irritant smoke, then movement speeds are likely to be reduced. A calculation method is proposed, relating predicted travel speed to smoke and irritant concentrations. The ASET time line ends when occupant incapacitation is predicted from exposure to fire effluent. This depends upon the time-concentration curves for the main toxic fire effluents, requiring inputs on smoke and toxic product yields under different fire conditions. Existing engineering calculations use only smoke density and/or carbon monoxide, with yields often treated as constants, usually for the well-ventilated fire case. A method is proposed, whereby yield data for major toxic effluent species can be obtained over a range of fire conditions, expressed in relation to the global equivalence ratio. Results are illustrated for carbon monoxide and hydrogen cyanide.
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It has long been postulated that language is not purely learned, but arises from an interaction between environmental exposure and innate abilities. The innate component becomes more evident in rare situations in which the environment is markedly impoverished. The present study investigated the language production of a generation of deaf Nicaraguans who had not been exposed to a developed language. We examined the changing use of early linguistic structures (specifically, spatial modulations) in a sign language that has emerged since the Nicaraguan group first came together: In tinder two decades, sequential cohorts of learners systematized the grammar of this new sign language. We examined whether the systematicity being added to the language stems from children or adults: our results indicate that such changes originate in children aged 10 and younger Thus, sequential cohorts of interacting young children collectively: possess the capacity not only to learn, but also to create, language.
A great deal of the earlier research regarding ultraviolet light was conducted in laboratory environments, rendering it difficult to interpret fluorescence at the scene of a fire. The purpose of this research project is to explore the ways in which ultraviolet light can be used as a tool in fire scene interpretation investigations and fire debris sampling. The results are based on an analysis of the literature as well as the research conducted over the last 25 years, including 11 fire investigations in which UV light was employed and approximately 1000 experiments. The factors involved in the studied fire experiments were time and climate. With regard to time, experiments were conducted with newly produced samples containing ignitable liquid after one day, three weeks, and 13 years. With regard to climate (the effect of the weather conditions prevailing in an area in general), several different climate zones are present in the jurisdiction of the National Police; for this reason, the experiments were conducted in Greenland (winter and summer), the Island of Fyn, and Sjælland (fall). Forensic technicians who were not involved in the current research project conducted blind tests with the purpose of interpreting fluorescence on the floor and ground. A basic premise of this work was to consider the conditions under which the forensic investigators of the Danish Police work, including routines, training, equipment, arson dogs, and work environment. The results demonstrated that ultraviolet light can be used to visualise liquid and fire patterns. It was concluded that investigations that use UV light enhance fire sampling in the presence of ignitable liquids. Another conclusion is that documentation by fluorescent photography can be used to detect liquid dispersion and scope. UV light enhances the analysis of liquid patterns; thus, fluorescent photography is in itself evidence. Ultraviolet light is useful in the interpretation of fire scenes and is a method that can be taken advantage of by forensic fire investigators; therefore, guidance and training in the interpretation of fluorescence should be further developed.
Illuminated emergency exit signs inform building occupants about safe egress routes in emergencies. These exit signs are often found in the presence of other colored signs, which may distract occupants when searching for safe exits. Such distractions can lead to confusing and even harmful outcomes, especially if occupants misinterpret the sign colors, mistaking non-exit signs for exit signs. We studied which colored signs people were most likely to infer were exit signs in a simulated emergency evacuation using virtual reality (VR). Participants were immersed in a virtual room with two doors (left and right), and an illuminated sign with different colored vertical bars above each door. They saw all pairwise combinations of six sign colors across trials. On each trial, a fire alarm sounded, and participants walked to the door that they thought was the exit. We tested two hypotheses: a local exposure hypothesis that color inferences are determined by exit sign colors in the local environment (i.e., red) and a semantic association hypothesis that color inferences are determined by color-concept associations (i.e. green associated with "go" and "safety"). The results challenged the local exposure hypothesis and supported the semantic association hypothesis. Participants predominantly walked toward green signs, even though the exit signs in the local environment-including the building where the experiment took place-were red. However, in a post-experiment survey, most participants reported that exit signs should be red. The results demonstrated a dissociation between the way observers thought they would behave in emergency situations (red = exit) and the way they did behave in simulated emergencies (green = exit). These findings have implications for the design of evacuation systems. Observers, and perhaps designers, do not always anticipate how occupants will behave in emergency situations, which emphasizes the importance of behavioral evaluations for egress safety.
Every action performed by a crime scene investigator has an underlying purpose: to both recover evidence and capture scene context. It is imperative that crime scene investigators must understand their mandate-not only as an essential function of their job but because they have the immense responsibility and duty to do so. Practice Crime Scene Processing and Investigation, Third Edition provides the essential tools for what crime scene investigators need to know, what they need to do, and how to do it. As professionals, any investigator's master is the truth and only the truth. Professional ethics demands an absolute adherence to this mandate. When investigators can effectively seek, collect, and preserve information and evidence from the crime scene to the justice system-doing so without any agenda beyond seeking the truth- not only are they carrying out the essential function and duty of their job, it also increases the likelihood that the ultimate goal of true justice will be served. Richly illustrated-with more than 415 figures, including over 300 color photographs-the Third Edition of this best-seller thoroughly addresses the role of the crime scene investigator in the context of: •Understanding the nature of physical evidence, including fingerprint, biological, trace, hair and fiber, impression, and other forms of evidence •Assessing the scene, including search considerations and dealing with chemical and bioterror hazards •Crime scene photography; scene sketching, mapping, and documentation; and the role of crime scene analysis and reconstruction •Bloodstain pattern analysis and discussion of the body as a crime scene •Special scene considerations, including fire, buried bodies, and entomological evidence. Coverage details the importance of maintaining objectivity, emphasizing that every action the crime scene investigator performs has an underlying purpose: to both recover evidence and capture scene context.
Coupled fire and evacuation computer simulations are used to numerically reconstruct a fatal fire that occurred in an indoor shooting range in Korea in 2009. Of the 16 occupants, 15 were killed and one survived. The analysis demonstrates that this approach can accurately reproduce the outcome of this fire. The approach is then used to forensically analyse the incident to identify factors significantly contributing to the high loss of life. In particular, occupant response times and flame spread rate over the polyurethane foam (PUF) cladded walls are investigated. The results suggest that it is unlikely that anyone could have survived if response times were greater than 5 s. Furthermore, it is suggested that fatalities couldn't have been avoided even if response times were zero. It is also demonstrated that gunpowder residue on the PUF walls is the critical factor in producing the high loss of life. The average number of fatalities could be reduced from 14.9 in the reconstruction case to 0.1 if the walls are completely free of gunpowder residue. However, to completely eliminate fire related casualties, it is necessary to use a PUF wall cladding material with low flame spread rates together with an effective gunpowder cleaning system.
The purpose of this article is to present a conceptual model of human behaviour in fire and its impact on egress modelling, life safety analyses and evacuation procedures. This model is based on a theoretical framework of individual decision-making and response to emergencies. From this foundation, the conceptual model is populated with behavioural statements or mini-theories distilled from articles and authoritative reports describing emergency incidents, observations from within the field of evacuation analysis and studies of human behaviour in fire and other emergencies. The conceptual model is intended to guide the egress tool developer, user and practitioner to better account for human behaviour in their respective roles. It is contended that a more credible representation of the evacuee response, that incorporates the behavioural statements described, provides both theoretical and practical advantages. Copyright © 2016 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada. Fire and Materials
Structures are currently designed and constructed in accordance with prescriptive and performance-based (PBD) methodologies to ensure a certain level of occupant safety during fire emergencies. The performance-based approach requires the quantification of both ASET (Available Safe Egress Time) and RSET (Required Safe Egress Time) to determine the degree of safety provided. This article focuses on the RSET side of the equation, for which a fire protection or fire safety engineer would use some type of egress modelling approach to estimate evacuation performance. Often, simple engineering equations are applied to estimate the RSET value. Over time, more sophisticated computational tools have appeared—that go beyond basic flow calculations; e.g. simulating individual agent movement. Irrespective of the approach adopted, appropriate and accurate representation of human behavior in response to fire within these approaches is limited, mainly due to the lack of a comprehensive conceptual model of evacuee decision-making and behavior during fire emergencies. This article initially presents the set of behavioral statements, or mini-theories, currently available from various fire and disaster studies, organized using the overarching theory of decision-making and human behavior in disasters. Once presented, guidance is provided on how these behavioral statements might be incorporated into an evacuation model, in order to better represent human behavior in fire within the safety analysis being performed. The intent here is to improve the accuracy of the results produced by performance-based calculations and analyses.
This paper presents the results of two studies which comprehension tested safety symbols in published ANSI and ISO voluntary standards. Study 1 tested safety symbols from the ANSI Z535.3 Criteria for Safety Symbols standard. Study 2 tested additional safety symbols from the ANSI Z535.3 standard as well as additional symbols from the ISO 7010 safety symbols standard. Overall, comprehension of the symbols in both studies was relatively poor. Only two of the twelve symbols tested in Study 1 and five of the fourteen symbols tested in Study 2 met ANSI Z535.3 acceptance criteria. Adding red to hazard alerting symbols to depict heat improved comprehension, but adding color and determinants to information symbols did not. Implications of these results for future revisions of the ANSI Z535.3 standard are discussed.
Since the late twentieth century, script has been used as a tool for initiating the creation of dance. Likewise, in their compositional techniques, postmodern choreographers such as William Forsythe often refer to Rudolf Laban's space theory. This article discusses the points at which Laban's ideas about space are linked to postmodern compositional techniques, revisiting his concept of Schrifttanz and examining the spatial concepts that informed Tanzschriften, especially in the period before the development of Kinetographie.
We introduce an algorithm for automatic selection of semantically-resonant colors to represent data (e.g., using blue for data about “oceans”, or pink for “love”). Given a set of categorical values and a target color palette, our algorithm matches each data value with a unique color. Values are mapped to colors by collecting representative images, analyzing image color distributions to determine value-color affinity scores, and choosing an optimal assignment. Our affinity score balances the probability of a color with how well it discriminates among data values. A controlled study shows that expert-chosen semantically-resonant colors improve speed on chart reading tasks compared to a standard palette, and that our algorithm selects colors that lead to similar gains. A second study verifies that our algorithm effectively selects colors across a variety of data categories.
The strong shift toward operating in global markets has posed enormous adaptation challenges for product marketing especially with regard to universality and consistency of brand design decisions. The color-in-product design decision is also susceptible to this global–local tension. A pharmaceutical film coating formulator supplier to leading local and global pharmaceutical companies was interested in developing a solid validated global color preference database to enable informed brand decision making for its customers. The following study reports results from a global survey that examined the color–brand attribute associations within the global pharmaceutical industry. Data were collected from a multigeography gender and age balanced sample of 2021 subjects, revealing a strikingly powerful color language comprised of universally consistent associations and local contextual patterns that are each critical to global brand decision makers within this industry. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals,Inc. Col Res Appl, 2012;
Evacuation models, including engineering hand calculations and computational tools, are used to calculate the time it takes to evacuate a building, which can then be used in an engineering safety analysis. However, there is a lack of available data and theory on occupant behavior for use by evacuation models to estimate evacuation time results and their uncertainty. In lieu of data and theory, evacuation models (and users) make assumptions and simplifications about occupant behavior, which can inappropriately characterize the time it actually takes to evacuate a building. The purpose of this paper is to reevaluate current egress modeling techniques and advocate for the inclusion of a robust, comprehensive, and validated conceptual model of occupant behavior during building fires. This paper begins by describing the current state of evacuation modeling of human behavior in fires and identifying gaps in current behavioral prediction techniques. The second part of the paper outlines a model of occupant decision-making during emergencies, referred to as the protective action decision model (PADM); a theory that can serve as the basis for the development of a conceptual model of occupant decision-making and behavior during the pre-evacuation period of building fires. The PADM provides a framework that describes the decision-making steps that influence protective actions taken in response to natural and technological disasters—including perceiving information, paying attention to the information, comprehending the information, establishing the nature of the threat, personalizing the risk, searching for potential protective actions and choosing one of these, and then performing that action. The paper ends with a discussion of how to adapt and expand the PADM in order to develop a predictive conceptual model of the pre-evacuation period for use by computer evacuation models.
Students' reactions to three, coloured, test maps portraying temperature regions provide information vital to design of such maps for atlases and textbooks. A map using progressively lighter shades of red was most effective in conveying the concept of areas of greater and lesser temperatures to most students. A map similarly shaded in only blue colours was almost as effective, despite the supposed association of blue with coolness. The third map, using shades of both red and blue was least effective. These preliminary results demonstrate that the quantitative message inherent in a progression of darkness and saturation is far more potent than the warm and cool association known to reside in red and blue hues. Design of maps according to a general and quantitative approach is indicated, even for map themes which may be linked qualitatively to certain hues.
A grammar can be regarded as a device that enumerates the sentences of a language. We study a sequence of restrictions that limit grammars first to Turing machines, then to two types of system from which a phrase structure description of the generated language can be drawn, and finally to finite state Markov sources (finite automata). These restrictions are shown to be increasingly heavy in the sense that the languages that can be generated by grammars meeting a given restriction constitute a proper subset of those that can be generated by grammars meeting the preceding restriction. Various formulations of phrase structure description are considered, and the source of their excess generative power over finite state sources is investigated in greater detail.
A description is given of the human interface for two versions of an interactive graphics system intended for use by nonprogrammers. It presents the ″action languages″ for the two versions, then shows how these user languages can be described in terms of a production rule notation. Particular emphasis is given, in the notation, to actions the user has to learn and remember (i. e. , to ″cognitive″ factors). The study then presents predictions about human performance based on the formal description, and exploratory results of testing some of the predictions. Since the predictions are based on general properties of the formal description, the technique should also be applicable to other ″action languages.″
Conference Paper
An IKONOS one meter high-resolution pansharpen image has been integrated into Geographic Information Systems (GIS). GIS needs same as or higher spatial resolution than one meter, so traditional satellite data such as SPOT XS imagery (20 meter resolution) is not sufficient for various GIS applications. An affine transformation has been carried out to integrate an IKONOS image into GIS. Ground Control Points (GCP) for transformation are selected for 30 points over the image. It is quite difficult to select GCP from a digital map, compared with satellite images, because elements of map features are modified and symbolized. Then, GCP in the map are mainly obtained on a crossing of roads. After several trials, the RMS error of 30 GCP in the transformation is finally reduced to 0.61 pixels, which are comparatively good. It is found that there are many differences between the Digital Map and the IKONOS image. The reason is that dates of two data to have been updated are different. And also, 50 meters meshed Digital Elevation Model (DEM) by the Geological Survey of Japan is integrated into the same Digital Map. 3D image of IKONOS on GIS is obtained.
Forensic Science: An Introduction to Scientific and Investigative Techniques 3ed
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Interpretation of a fire scene with ultraviolet light: an assessment of the possible utilisation of ultraviolet light at fire scenes and subsequent recommendations for procedures
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Behavioural maps and GIS in place evaluation and design. Application of geographic information systems
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Analysis of the Fire Investigation Methods and Procedures Used in the Criminal Arson Cases
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Reconstruction of a tragedy: the Beverly Hills supper Club fire
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