Article

Morphometric characterization and estimating body weight of two Algerian camel breeds using morphometric measurements

Abstract and Figures

This study was carried out in order to identify the body measurements of two different Dromedary camel breeds raised in Algeria. The animal material of the study consisted of a total of 115 animals belong to Steppe (n = 55) and Sahraoui (n = 60) camel breeds. Eye and coat colors along with body measurements such as head length, neck length, neck girth, tail length, distance between eyes, distance between ears, body length, withers height, chest girth, and live weight were determined. Least squares means for head length, neck length, neck girth, tail length, distance between eyes, distance between ears, body length, withers height, chest girth, and live weight are found 48.2, 116.9, 65.7, 55.6, 24.1, 22.5, 152.2, 184.5, 141.2 cm, and 217.2 kg for Steppe and 48.1, 101.2, 56.2, 51.2, 23.4, 18.3, 135.6, 167.3, 176.8 cm, and 298.9 kg for Sahraoui camel breeds, respectively. The distribution of brown and black eye colors for the Steppe camel breed is as 58.2% and 41.8%, respectively, while all of the Sahraoui camels studied had a brown eye color. The proportional distribution in terms of body color included are coffee, dark coffee, and red colors for 1.8%, 83.6%, and 14.6% in the Steppe camel and 98.3%, 1.7%, and 0.0% for the Sahraoui camel, respectively. As a result, this study concluded that the withers height and chest girth could estimate the body weight in the two breeds of camels with different ages.
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Tropical Animal Health and
Production
ISSN 0049-4747
Trop Anim Health Prod
DOI 10.1007/s11250-020-02204-x
Morphometric characterization and
estimating body weight of two Algerian
camel breeds using morphometric
measurements
I.Meghelli, Z.Kaouadji, O.Yilmaz,
İ.Cemal, O.Karaca & S.B.S.Gaouar
1 23
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REGULAR ARTICLES
Morphometric characterization and estimating body weight of two
Algerian camel breeds using morphometric measurements
I. Meghelli
1
&Z. Kaouadji
1
&O. Yilmaz
2
&İ.Cemal
2
&O. Karaca
2
&S. B. S. Gaouar
1
Received: 25 April 2019 /Accepted: 11 January 2020
#Springer Nature B.V. 2020
Abstract
This study was carried out in order to identify the body measurements of two different Dromedary camel breeds raised in Algeria.
The animal material of the study consisted of a total of 115 animals belong to Steppe (n= 55) and Sahraoui (n= 60) camel breeds.
Eye and coat colors along with body measurements such as head length, neck length, neck girth, tail length, distance between
eyes, distance between ears, body length, withers height, chest girth, and live weight were determined. Least squares means for
head length, neck length, neck girth, tail length, distance between eyes, distance between ears, body length, withers height, chest
girth, and live weight are found 48.2, 116.9, 65.7, 55.6, 24.1, 22.5, 152.2, 184.5, 141.2 cm, and 217.2 kg for Steppe and 48.1,
101.2, 56.2, 51.2, 23.4, 18.3, 135.6, 167.3, 176.8 cm, and 298.9 kg for Sahraoui camel breeds, respectively. The distribution of
brown and black eye colors for the Steppe camel breed is as 58.2% and 41.8%, respectively, while all of the Sahraoui camels
studied had a brown eye color. The proportional distribution in terms of body color included are coffee, dark coffee, and red
colors for 1.8%, 83.6%, and 14.6% in the Steppe camel and 98.3%, 1.7%, and 0.0% for the Sahraoui camel, respectively. As a
result, thisstudy concluded that the withers height and chest girth could estimate the bodyweightin the two breeds of camels with
different ages.
Keywords Algeria .Body measurements .Camel population of the Steppe .Camel population Sahraoui .Morphological
characterization
Abbreviations
PV Live weight
CT Thoracic circumference
CA Abdominal circumference
HG Height at withers
WH Withers height
BL Body length
CG Chest girth
NL Neck length
NG Neck girth
TL Tail length
HL Head length
DBE Distance between eyes
DBEAR Distance between ears
Introduction
In Algeria, camel rearing is essential because of camel
herdersefforts on the one hand and the attention given by
the state to this animal over the last two decades, on the other.
This is reflected in the evolution of their workforce from
234,220 head in 2000 to 324,199 head in 2013, against only
120,000 head in 1987 (M.A.D.R. 2013).
The livestock sector in Algeria is an essential pillar of the
national economy, through the creation of jobs, especially the
satisfaction of animal products needs of local populations.
Livestock is the most important part of agricultural produc-
tion. In 2013, it contributed 33.8% of the value of total agri-
cultural production (M.A.D.R. 2013).
This article belongs to the Topical Collection: Camelids
Guest Editor: Bernard Faye
*I. Meghelli
nini_tlm@hotmail.fr
1
Laboratory Pathophysiology and Biochemistry of Nutrition
(PpBioNut), Department of Biology, SNV-STU Faculty, University
of Tlemcen, Chetouane, Algeria
2
Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Animal Sciences, Adnan
Menderes University, Aydın, Turkey
Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11250-020-02204-x
Author's personal copy
Genetic resources are the most valuable and strategically
important asset because many indigenous meat animals con-
tribute mostly to human needs and could generate much more
than they currently do. In order to ensure the sustainability of
species and avoid their extinction, biodiversity management
discipline sets in to accumulate knowledge and direct attention
to the economic value both at the genetic level for agriculture
and uses in the industrial system, which qualifies biodiversity
as a potential source of permanent income on a global scale
(FAO 2012a,b).
The characterization of these animal genetic resources has
shown considerable interest in recent years. It is based on
several methods and set of characters according to the objec-
tives set. These characters include those of production (milk
yield, growth rate) and those phenotypic (color coat, size,
conformation, and coat) (Mendelson 2003). Adaptive traits
such as trypanosome tolerance and drought resistance should
also be involved in the characterization of animal genetic re-
sources (Anderson 2003).
Domesticated animals contribute directly to a livelihood for
hundreds of millions of people. They provide a wide range of
products and services including food, transportation, fiber,
fuel, and fertilizer. Over time, a wide variety of breeds have
been developed to provide these benefits in a wide range of
environments. The importance of this diversity lies not only in
its role in supporting current animal production but also in the
options it offers for adapting to production systems facing
future changes (Meffe and Carole 1994).
Camlin activity has always been a livelihood for a large
pastoral population (Adamou 2008), as the urine is used in
Saudi Arabia to treat serum effusions in the peritoneum
(ascites) due to schistosomiasis or cirrhosis (Faye 2002).
According to Bessahraoui and Kerrache (1998), dromedary
skin is found in the various fabrications used in the daily life of
breeders. The camel skin used for making ropes for drawing
water ahloum,kinds of Guerbas Abyourbutter tank
Ikchir,bags to put their provisions, knowing that the price
of fleece varies with age, the younger the animal is, the more
expensive the fleece is and reaches 1500 DA per kg (Ayad and
Herkat 1996).
According to FAO statistics, 2007, camel meat production
in Algeria was 3500 tons in 1998 and 8000 tons in 2001. This
value makes Algeria the worlds 10th largest producer of cam-
el meat 2006 (FAO 2007).
Besides its nutritional qualities, camel milk has been re-
ported to display potential health-promoting properties (Mati
et al. 2017).
Men were able to survive in the desert where living condi-
tions were extremely difficult by the help of this desert ship
which are adapted to this harsh environment and the scarcity
Fig. 1 Measured body (I) and head properties (II). A-B: Withers height (WH), C-D: Body length (BL), E-F: Chest girth (CG), G-H: Neck length (NL), I-
J: Neck girth (NG), K-L: Tail length (TL), M-N: Head Length (HL), O-P: distance between eyes (DBE), R-S: distance between ears (DBEAR)
Table 1 Distribution of
age according to age
groups
Age Group N
21 12
3
4
52 28
6
7
83 37
9
10
11 4 13
12
13
14 5 16
15
16
17 6 9
18
19
20
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of food and water its particularities of adaptation. Thanks to
their multifunctionalities, camels can withstand thirst, heat,
and protein malnutrition and therefore remain the animal best
adapted to an arid environment characterized by very restric-
tive climatic and climatic conditions and which can make a
considerable contribution (Adamou 2008).
Dromedaries are particularly adapted to environments,
which in spite of the meager food resources and the very
hostile eco-climatic conditions prove to be productive.
Despite its undeniable interest in the development of desert
areas, the dromedary has remained a neglected species
(Narjisse 1989).
From this fact, our work is based on the morphological
characterization of two different populations, the Naili and
Sahraoui population, which had been subjected to several
quantitative and qualitative morphometric measurements of
camels raised in Algeria in order to better know them and have
an idea about their potential. This work is an important pre-
requisite in the field of management and improvement of bi-
ological resources.
Material and methods
Material
This study was carried out in two regions of Algeria: the
wilaya of Ouargla, located in the Southeast, for the
characterization of the Sahraoui population, as well as
the wilaya of Laghouat, located at the level of the
Steppe, in the center of Algeria, for that of the Steppe
camel population of the Naili.
Animal (n= 115) included the Naili (Steppe camel, n=55)
and the Sahraoui (n= 60) with ages from 2 to 20 years.
Twelve measurements were used including age, sex, with-
ers height, body length, chest girth, neck length, neck girth,
tail length, head length, distance between eyes, distance
between ears (quantitative characters), and the color of the
dress and that of the eyes (qualitative characters). As well as
the live body weight was estimated (Mud 1949) using the
formula (Fig. 1):
PV ¼53CT:CA:
Methods
The measurements were used to develop a matrix that was used
to perform various descriptive and analytical statistical tests using
SAS Version 8 software.
The animal material used in the study is divided into six
different age groups (Table 1) for statistical analysis.
Fig. 2 Distribution of eye (a) and coat (b) colors according to two different camel breeds
Table 2 Least squares means and standard deviations for eye and ear
measurements
Factors N DBE DBEAR
Sex P=0.267 P=0.724
Male 41 23.43 ± 0.430 20.50 ± 0.461
Female 74 24.04 ± 0.284 20.30 ± 0.304
Breed P=0.138 P=0.000
Steppe 55 24.10 ± 0.359 22.47 ± 0.385
Sahraoui 60 23.37 ± 0.324 18.33 ± 0.347
Age group P=0.107 P=0.401
1 12 23.11 ± 0.608 19.41 ± 0.651
2 28 24.54± 0.413 20.66 ± 0.442
3 37 24.48± 0.374 20.89 ± 0.401
4 13 23.61± 0.634 20.47 ± 0.679
5 16 24.12± 0.539 21.05 ± 0.577
6 9 22.56 ± 0.748 19.92 ± 0.800
Overall 115 23.73 ± 0.242 20.40 ± 0.259
DBE: distance between two eyes, DBEAR: distance between two ears
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The UNIVARIATE procedure of SAS (1999) statistical
package program was used to check normality of the data.
The result of this analysis showed that the data for all the
measured characteristics were normally distributed.
Afterwards, the GLM procedure of same software was used
to make variance analyses and to obtain least squares means
for the investigated characteristics. The phenotypic correla-
tions between variables were also obtained using the PROC
CORR procedures in SAS (1999).
Mathematical models used for analysis of variance
are presented below:
Model used for head and neck measurement
γijkl ¼μþaiþbjþckþb1XiX

þeijkl
Model used for body measurement
γijkl ¼μþaiþbjþckþb1XiX

þeijkl
Where:
Y
ijkl
Observations for head and neck
measurement and body measurement
μOverall mean of the trait
a
i
Fixed effect of sex (i= male and female)
b
j
Fixed effect of breed (j = Chameau
de la steppe and Sahraoui)
c
k
Fixed effect of age group
(i=1,2,3,4,5,and6)
b
1
Coefficient of regression of live weight
Table 3 Least squares means and standard deviations for body measurements
Factors N LW HL NL NG TL BL WH CG
Sex P= 0.009 P=0.094 P=0.000 P=0.722 P=0.118 P=0.000 P=0.409 P=0.404
Male 41 267.69 ± 5.732 47.14 ± 0.930 115.75 ± 1.825 61.34 ± 1.553 51.65 ± 1.683 136.66 ± 2.416 176.52 ± 1.224 158.39 ± 1.096
Female 74 248.35 ± 3.787 49.16 ± 0.615 102.34 ± 1.206 60.62 ± 1.027 55.06 ± 1.113 151.15 ± 1.597 175.21 ± 0.809 159.57 ± 0.725
Breed P= 0.000 P=0.929 P=0.000 P=0.001 P=0.137 P=0.000 P=0.000 P=0.000
Steppe 55 217.18 ± 4.787 48.22 ± 0.970 116.85 ± 1.903 65.73 ± 1.620 55.56 ± 1.755 152.19 ± 2.520 184.45 ± 1.276 141.16 ± 1.143
Sahraoui 60 298.86 ± 4.316 48.08 ± 0.952 101.24 ± 1.867 56.22 ± 1.589 51.16 ± 1.722 135.62 ± 2.472 167.28 ± 1.252 176.80 ± 1.122
Age group P= 0.000 P=0.618 P=0.000 P=0.225 P=0.842 P=0.253 P=0.044 P=0.001
1 12 226.40 ± 8.098 47.89± 1.368 91.60 ± 2.684 59.52 ± 2.285 50.80 ± 2.476 142.02 ± 3.555 174.54 ± 1.801 156.47 ± 1.613
2 28 244.17 ± 5.497 47.04 ± 0.894 117.30 ± 1.755 60.78 ± 1.494 52.71 ± 1.619 139.21 ± 2.324 179.89 ± 1.177 155.00 ± 1.054
3 37 262.74 ± 4.987 48.15 ± 0.801 112.37 ± 1.571 63.68 ± 1.337 53.15 ± 1.449 144.54 ± 2.080 176.63 ± 1.054 157.17 ± 0.944
4 13 265.83 ± 8.450 49.42± 1.354 108.09 ± 2.656 62.79 ± 2.261 53.82 ± 2.450 147.00 ± 3.518 175.45 ± 1.782 160.10 ± 1.596
5 16 270.91 ± 7.178 49.23 ± 1.166 113.20 ± 2.287 62.00 ± 1.947 55.42 ± 2.109 148.45 ± 3.028 174.53 ± 1.534 159.86 ± 1.374
6 9 278.08 ± 9.960 47.16 ± 1.622 111.71 ± 3.182 57.09 ± 2.709 54.25 ± 2.935 142.22 ± 4.214 174.17 ± 2.134 165.28 ± 1.912
Reg linear P=0.003 P=0.001 P=0.117 P=0.193 P=0.217 P=0.000 P=0.000
LW 0.048 ± 0.015 0.102 ± 0.030 0.041 ± 0.026 0.036 ± 0.028 0.050 ± 0.040 0.214 ± 0.020 0.185 ± 0.018
Overall 115 258.02 ± 3.219 48.15 ± 0.513 109.05 ± 1.007 60.98 ± 0.858 53.36 ± 0.929 143.91 ± 1.334 175.87 ± 0.676 158.98 ± 0.605
LW: live weight, HL: head length, NL: neck length, NG: neck girth, TL: tail length, BL: body length, WH: withers height, CG: chest girth
Table 4 Phenotypic correlation coefficients between live weight and body measurements
HL NL NG BL TL WH DBE DBEAR CG
NL 0,137
ns
NG 0,323
***
0,107
ns
LB 0,097
ns
0,244
**
0,310
**
TL 0,279
**
0,038
ns
0,439
***
0,283
**
WH 0,330
***
0,612
***
0,176
ns
0,156
ns
0,139
ns
DBE 0,308
**
0,177
ns
0,440
***
0,217
*
0,231
*
0,144
ns
DBEAR 0,019
ns
0,212
*
0,449
***
0,473
***
0,252
**
0,136
ns
0,483
***
CG 0,355
***
0,104
ns
0,257
**
0,503
***
0,137
ns
0,258
**
0,127
ns
0,625
***
LW 0,411
***
0,298
**
0,150
ns
0,430
***
0,055
ns
0,556
***
0,069
ns
0,479
***
0,914
***
HL: head length, NL: necklength, NG: neck girth, BL: body length,TL: tail length, WH: withers height, DBE: distancebetween eyes,DBEAR: distance
between ears, CG: chest girth, LW: live weight, ns: non-significant, *: P< 0.05, **: P< 0.01, ***: P<0.001
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b
2
Coefficient of regression of age
X
̄Mean live weight
X
i
Live weight
e
ijk
and e
ijkl
Random errors with the assumption
of N (0, σ
2
)
Estimation equations of live weights with multiple
linear regression analysis using some body measure-
ments according to age groups were obtained by using
stepwise multiple regression procedure in SAS (1999).
Linear regression model given below was used for esti-
mation equations.
b
γi¼b
β0þb
βixi
b
β0Constant
b
βiRegression
coefficient
x
i
Body measurements
x
1
Chest girth (CG)
x
2
Neck length (NL)
x
3
Withers height (WH)
Table 5 Phenotypic correlation
coefficients between live weight
and body measurements
according to age
Body measurements Age group LW NL BL LT CG
NL 1 0,495
ns
20,599
**
30,162
ns
40,374
ns
50,234
ns
60,470
ns
Overall 0,298
**
BL 1 0,726
**
0,655
*
20,417
*
0,263
ns
30,524
***
0,339
*
40,233
ns
0,168
ns
50,688
***
0,284
ns
60,506
ns
0,475
ns
Overall 0,430
***
0,244
**
TL 1 0,310
ns
0,678
*
0,446
ns
20,203
ns
0,023
ns
0,295
ns
30,175
ns
0,219
ns
0,122
ns
40,228
ns
0,364
ns
0,123
ns
50,310
ns
0,281
ns
0,032
ns
60,734
*
0,275
ns
0,749
*
Overall 0,055
ns
0,038
ns
0,283
**
CG 1 0,961
***
0,673
*
0,809
**
0,481
ns
20,886
***
0,462
*
0,699
***
0,265
ns
30,949
***
0,025
ns
0,466
**
0,167
ns
40,971
***
0,465
ns
0,181
ns
0,101
ns
50,869
***
0,111
ns
0,566
*
0,098
ns
60,896
***
0,682
*
0,615
ns
0,719
*
Overall 0,914
***
0,104
ns
0,503
***
0,137
ns
WH 1 0,583
*
0,930
***
0,708
*
0,783
**
0,747
**
20,765
***
0,542
**
0,174
ns
0,092
ns
0,481
**
30,592
***
0,492
**
0,264
ns
0,026
ns
0,375
*
40,182
ns
0,449
ns
0,145
ns
0,474
ns
0,044
ns
50,667
***
0,550
*
0,474
ns
0,475
ns
0,383
ns
60,663
ns
0,042
ns
0,136
ns
0,136
ns
0,318
ns
Overall 0,556
***
0,612
***
0,156
ns
0,139
ns
0,258
**
NL: neck length, BL: body length, TL: tail length, WH:withers height, CG: chest girth, LW: live weight, ns: non-
significant, *: P< 0.05, **: P< 0.01, ***: P<0.001
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x
4
Body length (BL)
x
5
Tail Length (TL)
Results and discussion
The two breedsof camels can be distinguished by the diversity
of colors from one region to another, which allows the major-
ity of breeders to use it as a classification factor; the latter are
not the basis of differentiation in the physiology of the animal
and its productivity; these are not only extrinsic factors which
change according to time and environment, as well as constant
factors are transmitted hereditarily to the descendant (Centre
des recherches et des études du dromadaire 1989).
The graphs defining the color of the coat and eyes are given
in Fig. 2. As can be understood from the graphs, only animals
with brown eyes are observed in the Sahraoui population
(100%), while the black and brown eyes in the Steppe camel
population (Naili) are 58, 18%, and 41.82%, respectively.
According to Bouregba and Lounis (1992), the majority of
the populations of the northern Sahara are red (brown Ouber),
whereas Arif and Regab (1995) show that the dromedaries of
the northern Sahara are of several natural colors such as
Ahmar (red), Asfar (yellow), Abayd (white), and Azrek
(blue).
Least squares means and standard deviations for eye and
ear measurements of camel breeds were presented in Table 2.
It is thought that the distance between the two ears, which
have a higher value in the Steppe camel breed, can be used to
identify two camel breeds. In the present study, body measure-
ments such as live weight, head length, neck length, neck
girth, tail length, body length, withers height, and chest girth
having an important place in morphological characters are
evaluated. Least squares means and standard deviations of
these characteristics belong to two different camel breeds
studied were presented in Table 3.
It is understood from Table 3that live weight was higher in
Saharan camel breeds consider compared to Steppe breed.
Similar to live weight findings, the chest girth values in
Steppe are higher than other breed. In another study of
Karya sheep, the models constructed with regression analysis
for the estimation of live weight were not generally applicable
for other breeds or localities. In this respect, studies that were
carried out for other breeds were advantageous for determin-
ing breed differences (Yilmaz et al. 2013).
All body measurements excluding head length and tail
length significantly varied according to breeds (P<0.01). It
was found that age caused a significant difference for live
weight and some body measurements such as neck length,
withers height, and chest girth (P<0.01, P< 0.05).
Regression between live weights in measurement of all body
characteristics was found to be statistically significant
(P< 0.01) except neck girth, tail length, and body length.
It can be seen that in a Babelhadj study on the estimation of
live weight that the mean values of live weight of two total
Table 6 Live weight estimation models in two different camel breeds according to different age groups and their significance levels
Groups
age
Models β
^0β
i
R
2
P
β
1
β
2
β
3
β
4
β
5
1γ
^1¼β
^0þβ
^1x128.80 1.30 0.92 0.000
γ
^1¼β
^0þβ
^1x1þβ
^2x285.53 1.55 0.87 0.96 0.000
2γ
^1¼β
^0þβ
^1x166.85 2.03 0.78 0.000
γ
^1¼β
^0þβ
^1x1þβ
^2x3433.01 1.54 2.50 0.93 0.000
γ
^1¼β
^0þβ
^1x1þβ
^2x3þβ
^3x4585.42 2.04 2.17 0.97 0.97 0.000
3γ
^1¼β
^0þβ
^1x150.79 1.95 0.90 0.000
γ
^1¼β
^0þβ
^1x1þβ
^2x3330.80 1.74 1.78 0.96 0.000
γ
^1¼β
^0þβ
^1x1þβ
^2x3þβ
^3x4276.06 1.67 1.73 0.24 0.97 0.000
4γ
^1¼β
^0þβ
^1x15.98 1.63 0.94 0.000
γ
^1¼β
^0þβ
^1x1þβ
^2x3316.42 1.65 1.76 0.99 0.000
5γ
^1¼β
^0þβ
^1x132.21 1.84 0.74 0.000
γ
^1¼β
^0þβ
^1x1þβ
^2x3483.69 1.52 2.85 0.87 0.000
6γ
^1¼β
^0þβ
^1x1132.46 2.52 0.78 0.001
γ
^1¼β
^0þβ
^1x1þβ
^2x3298.96 2.14 1.25 0.95 0.000
γ
^1¼β
^0þβ
^1x1þβ
^2x3þβ
^3x5246.42 1.57 1.33 0.26 0.99 0.000
Overall γ
^1¼β
^0þβ
^1x1þβ
^2x2þβ
^3x3þβ
^4x4þβ
^5x5402.57 1,74 0,08 1,98 0,17 0,01 0.94 0.000
x
1
=chest girth (CG), x
2
=neck length (NL),x
3
=withers height (WH), x
4
=body length (BL), x
5
=tail length (TL), ^
β0=constant,β
i
=regression
coefficient, R
2
=adjusted estimation power
Trop Anim Health Prod
Author's personal copy
populations of animals in the standard Sahraoui and Targui
population, successively, are around 430.80 ± 60.68 kg and
463.26 ± 87.61 kg for a height at the withers of 180.37 ±
6.08 cm and 188.70 ± 7.34 cm (Babelhadj et al. 2016).
Coefficients of phenotypic correlation between live
weights and body characteristics are given in Table 4.
In the overall assessment, it can be maintained that there
was a linear and high positive correlation between live weight,
HL, WH, and CG. It seems to be a correlation coefficient
between LW and CG that was relatively high (0.914) when
examining the Table 4.
Phenotypic correlation coefficients between live weight
and body measurements have been calculated separately for
each age group to provide a more accurate approach to body
weight estimation from body measurements (Table 5).
The high positive correlation between LW and CG is note-
worthy for all age groups, as can be understood from the table.
Obtained phenotypic correlation coefficients show that chest
girth (CG) can be used as an important predictor of live weight
estimates for all age groups in Saharan and Steppe camel
breeds. On the other hand, it can be said that withers height
(WH) can also play an important role in live weight estimation
equations considering the information given in the
Tab le 5.High phenotypic correlation coefficients between live
weight and body measurements for all age groups clearly re-
veal that these variables or their combinations can be used for
live weight estimation.
Estimation of live weight equations according to age
groups was developed using stepwise regression model.
These regression models and estimation power (R
2
) were pre-
sented in Table 6.Obtained the estimation power (R
2
)values
from the regression models showed that all of the models
developed can be used to estimate of the live weight in two
camel breeds studied (Table 6). Overall adjusted estimation
power (R
2
) value obtained by evaluating all ages on the same
model was 0.94. All live weight equation models contained
chest girth. This situation indicated that chest girth was the
most important measurements to estimate live weight among
body measurements.
Analysis of R
2
values showed that the highest value was
obtained from the last model in age group 6. On the other
hand, the lowest value was obtained from the first model in
age group 5.R
2
values increase with new body characteristics
added to the model. On the other hand, the identification of
models covering a small number of measurements for each
age group is crucial in terms of more effective use of time and
workforce reduction. In this context, it is thought that the
second model containing CG and WH, which is easy to mea-
sure in field conditions, will have sufficient success in live
weight estimates when considered difficulties in measuring
live weights of camels.
According to Field (1980), camels reached their maximum
live weight at the age of 1215 years old; after going decreases
at age 20 years and over, almost 3040% weight 150200 kg
(Rechard 1985)reportedthatliveweightvariesbyraceand
environment and that adult weight achieved at the age of 6
7years.
Also Adnane and Zohir (1990) showed that live weight
varies by food program and environmental and sanitary
conditions.
Conclusion
In Algeria, the Sahara covers more than 85% of the total area.
The dromedary is the only species able to valorize this desert
ecosystem (Chehma et al. 2008).
Our work aims to deepen the knowledge of Algerian camel
populations by performing a morphological characterization
of two populations of dromedary (Sahraoui and Steppe
camel).
This study allowed us to generate matrices containing dif-
ferent biometric measurements on animals in order to look for
a possible geographic and morphological differentiation be-
tween them. The numerous biometric analyzes that we carried
out allowed us to define some important characteristics that
make it possible to identify each of the two populations to
study the distance between the eyes and the distance between
the ears; we also noticed that the color of the brown coat is
more common among the Sahraoui population.
Body weight estimation of the Sahraoui is higher than
Steppe using withers height (HG) and thoracic circumference
(CT) whatever their age.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest The authors declare that the research was conducted
in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be
construed as a potential conflict of interest.
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... Des études moléculaires de Mahrous et al (2011) et dřAlmathen et al (2012, cité par Abdallah et al, 2012 ont montré cette différenciation entre les races camelines de lřArabie saoudite selon leur zone dřélevage. De plus, lřécotype avait un effet significatif sur plusieurs mesures corporelles tel que chez les écotypes Merzougui, Ghiloufi, Goudi, Ordhaoui Médenine et Ordhaoui Tataouine dans le sud tunisien (chniter, 2013), les races soudanaises (Ishag et al, 2011), les races Naili et Sahraoui en Algérie (Meghelli et al, 2020) et les différentes races de lřArabie Saoudite. ...
... Cette différenciation entre le dromadaire du sud et celui du Sahel pourrait être dus à un isolement reproductif entre les deux populations suite à la distance géographique entre les deux régions. De plus, la classification des dromadaires se basait sur dřautres critères autre que les noms des tribus tels que la couleur, la morphologie, la vocation et le relief dont plusieurs études ont parlé des différences entre le dromadaire du tell et celui du désert (Gourdon et Naudin, 1856), le dromadaire de la steppe et celui du sahara (Meghelli et al, 2020). Cette différenciation pourrait être également renforcée par dřautres facteurs. ...
... Cette variation dans la longueur des pattes antérieures et postérieures ainsi que dans la hauteur au garrot et à la bosse pourraient être dues aux activités et au travail quřexerce le dromadaire selonTandoh et al (2018). Concernant la circonférence du cou, une étude récente ayant comparé les deux populations Naili et Sahraoui en Algérie(Meghelli, 2020) a montré également que le dromadaire de la steppe se caractérise par un cou plus large que celui du dromadaire du Sahara. Ces résultats nous mènent ainsi à penser à un effet probable de lřenvironnement, du système dřélevage et de lřhistorique de ces écotypes surtout de point de vue génétique. ...
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Preprint
The present study consisted in verifying the effectiveness of the image analysis method for body measurement in dromedary camel compared to manual measurements as a reference method. To do this, twenty-one linear body measurements were estimated on 59 adult Sahraoui dromedary camels (22 males and 37 females) with normal clinical condition by the standard method using a measuring stick or vernier caliper. Image analysis on profile, front or behind photographs were processed using Axiovision Software. Overall; mean comparison, relative error, variance, Pearson's correlation coefficient and coefficient of variance showed that the image analysis method is accurate in relation to the manual measurement. Furthermore, image analysis results indicated relevant accuracy (bias correction factor, Cb ≈1) and precision (Pearson ρ ≈ 1) which were significantly correlated with the results of the reference method (Lin's concordance correlation coefficients rccc ≈ 1). According to Blant Altman upper and lower limits of agreement, the concordance was estimated between 93.22 and 98.3%. Passing-Bablok regression showed good relationship between results of the two methods displaying no significant systematic and proportional bias. The image analysis method for linear body measurements in dromedary camel yielded results that are in agreement with the manual measuring method. This method is a valid tool for studies on camel conformation traits.
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... Some of the most popular morphometric measurements include heart girth circumference, wither height, hip width/height, and body length. These measurements are manually selected and used as features for traditional regression models, which result in predictive equations with one or more variables based on the number of selected measurements in various species, such as cattle (Heinrichs et al., 1992;Franco et al., 2017;Goopy et al., 2018), pigs (Groesbeck et al., 2002;Mutua et al., 2011;Sungirai et al., 2014;Al Ard Khanji et al., 2018), sheep (Sowande and Sobola, 2008;Kunene et al., 2009;Chay-Canul et al., 2019;Canul-Solis et al., 2020), goats (Sebolai et al., 2012), camels (Fadlelmoula et al., 2020;Meghelli et al., 2020), and yaks (Yan et al., 2019). ...
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This special issue contains many valuable studies of indigenous domesticated animal genetic resources. Individual farmers throughout the world are abandoning many breeds that have been locally adapted over thousands of years in favor of new exotic but more productive breeds. Economics can explain some of this transition as cheaper grains and modem genetic tools have made more intensive husbandry more profitable. Poorly designed government policies may have contributed to the decline as well. The general decline of indigenous species especially in developing countries raises many conservation issues. What role should local breeds continue to have in local economies? Is there a social argument such as keeping historical livelihoods intact or keeping genetic diversity intact for government programs to maintain economically inferior breeds? What is the most efficient design for animal conservation programs?
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