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Global Environmental Warfare

  • Transdyne Corporation, California
  • Florida Department of Health in Monroe County

Abstract and Figures

Unlike traditional forms of warfare that cause environmental harm as collateral damage, today vast segments of biota-populations, including humans, are at risk from undeclared global environmental warfare, undertaken through deception and deceit, orchestrated by undisclosed perpetrators for undisclosed purposes. As we reveal here, the purported goal of preventing environmental warfare was the key to developing a means to co-opt sovereign nations into waging covert, highly destructive environmental warfare against their own citizens. The means involved deceiving leaders of sovereign nations into signing onto a deceptively-worded “Trojan horse” international treaty ostensibly to prohibit environmental warfare, but which specifically does not prohibit “peaceful” environmental modification where “environmental modification techniques” refers to any technique for changing – through the deliberate manipulation of natural processes – the dynamics, composition or structure of the Earth, including its biota, lithosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere, or of outer space.” Moreover, that international treaty mandates contribution and co-operation in unspecified environmental modification, by unspecified entities, without specificity of risks to human and environmental health. Although “environmental modification techniques” are applied and conducted with secrecy and deception, the horrific environmental damage, ascertained by scientific forensic investigations and reviewed here, cannot possibly be considered “peaceful” but instead constitute global environmental warfare. Citizens everywhere must wake up, look up, speak up, and demand an end to this environmental warfare.
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Unlike'traditional' forms' of'warfare'that'cause' environmental' harm' as'
humans,' are' at' risk' from' undeclared' global' environmental' warfare,'
perpetrators' for' undisclosed' purposes.' As' we' reveal' here,' the'
purported' goal' of' preventing) environmental) warfare'was' the' key' to'
developing' a' means' to' co-opt' sovereign' nations' into' waging' covert,'
highly' destructive' environmental' warfare' against' their' own' citizens.'
onto' a' deceptively-worded' “Trojan' horse”' international' treaty'
ostensibly' to' prohibit' environmental' warfare,' but' which' specifically'
does' not' prohibit' “peaceful”' environmental' modification' where'
“environmental) modification) techniques”) refers) to) any) technique) for)
changing))through)the) deliberate)manipulation)of) natural)processes))
the)dynamics,)composition)or)structure) of) the)Earth,)including)its) biota,)
that' international' treaty' mandates' contribution' and' co-operation' in'
unspecified' environmental' modification,' by' unspecified' entities,'
without' specificity' of' risks' to' human' and' environmental' health.'
Although' “environmental) modification) techniques”) are' applied' and'
conducted' with' secrecy' and' deception,' the' horrific' environmental'
here,' cannot' possibly' be' considered' “peaceful”' but' instead' constitute'
Keywords:* Environmental* warfare;* ENMOD;* Geoengineering;* Particulate*
Historically,! modern! warfare,! waged! by! and! between! readily! identifiable! nation-states! or!
large! segments! of! humanity! and! other! biota! are! at! risk! from! global! environmental! warfare,!
an! ever-present! danger.! Another! possibility,! yet! unrecognized! by! national! security! officials! and!
opt!sovereign!nations’!milit ary! and! g overnm ent! fun ctions ! into! wa ging! co vert,! h ighly! d estructi ve!
planet.”! MacDonald! described! how! the! forces! of! nature! might! be! surreptitiously!turned! against!
enemy! nations! with! devastating! consequences.! MacDonald! foresaw! the! future! potentialities! of!
over!the!Ho!Chi!Minh!Trail!to! impede!movement!of!troops!and!supplies![5].!Nevertheless,! unlike!
nuclear! warfare,! which! previously! had! been! released! from! Pandora’s! Box! [6],! environmental!
the! key! for! realizing! a! means! to! co-opt!sovereign!nations!into! waging!covert,!highly!destructive!
environmental! warfare! against! their! own! citizens.! The! means! involved! deceiving! leaders! of!
sovereign! nations! into! signing! onto! a! deceptively-worded! “Trojan! horse”! international! treaty,!
Hostile!Use!of!Environmental! Modification! Techniques,”! through! concerted! efforts! by! the! United!
be! defined! prior!to! its! prohibition.! But! that! is! not! the! case! here.! The! term! “environmental!
which!states:!As' used' in'article' 1,' the' term' “environmental'modification' techniques”'refers' to'any'
technique' for'changing''through'the'deliberate'manipulation'of' natural' processes'' the'dynamics,'
The!“prohibitive!terminology)Article!I! is! not!prohibitive!at! all!as! it! uses!the! non-binding! phrase!
expressed! by! the! ENMOD! [7]!title.! It! is! a! Trojan! horse:! Article! III! deceptively! mandates!
Article! III,! Section! 1,! by! the! use! of! shall,! mandates! that! there! shall!be! no! prohibition!
Article!III!Section! 2,!although!confusingly! written,!is!clearly!understandable!when!some!of!
ENMOD! does! not! prohibit! environmental! warfare,! but! instead! mandates! environmental!
with! its! title.! Moreover,! ENMOD! fails! to! define! “international' organizations”! or! “peaceful”! or!
As we demonstrate below, any modification of Earth’s natural environment, vis-à-vis Article II, cannot
be peaceful, as it disrupts the delicate balance by and between myriad biota and their environments
[10, 11].
with! one! another! and! within! the! sustainable! limits! of! the! complex,! interrelationships! between!
human! nature.! Truth! invariably! becomes! compromised! with! the! absence! of! honesty! and!
addressed! the! German! people! by! radio! and! announced:! “A' new' chapter' opens' today' and' in' this'
cold!atmospheric!conditions,!appearing! as!short!trails!that!evaporate!quickly!to! become!invisible!
before! becoming! a! white! haze! in! the! sky.! The! contrail! disinformation! stands! in! conflict! with!
is!an!activity!undertaken!by!a!political!unit!to!destroy!another![25].! In!the!following! we!describe!
activities,! sanctioned! by! ENMOD,!that,! we! posit,! constitute! undeclared! acts! of! environmental!
emplaced! into! the! troposphere! fall! to! the! surface! in! a! matter! of! days! as! a! consequence! of! the!
by!collisions!with!air!molecules,!thus!raising!the! temperature!of! the! upper! tropospheric!air![32].!
The! primary! consequence! of! jet-emplaced! particles! is! to! retard! heat-loss! from! the! surface! thus!
causing!surface! warming! locally!and/or!globally![26,!27,!32-36].!Thus,! one!can! legitimately!infer!
Just! as!it! is!possible!to! deduce! the!intentions! of! the! global! environmental'modification!operations!
into! the! troposphere,! their! consequences! on! the! planetary! environment! [32,! 37],! their! risks! to!
The! relative! proportion!of! chemical! elements! measured! in! samples! of! rainwater! collected! after !
aeroso l! particulate! empl acement! are! consi stent! with! the! rel ative! proportion! of! elements! water-
Similarly,! the! relative! proportion! of! chemical! elements! measured! in! particle-trapping! snow!
coal!fl y!ash! are! an! ideal! size! for! aerial! spraying !int o!th e!tro posphere! [56],! ideal,! except! that! the!
Aerosol! particulates! other!than! coal!fly! ash!are!occasionally!used!for! tropospheric!emplacement.!
Generally,! the! consequence! of! the! near-daily,! near-global! tropospheric! aerosol-particle!
trapping,! such! as! greenhouse! gases! and! particulate! pollution! [26,! 27,! 33-36],! as! well! as! from!
particulates! inhibit! rainfall,! causing! droughts! by! preventing! water! droplets! from! coalescing! to!
become! sufficiently! massive! to! fall! as! rain! [65].! Eventually,! the! cloud-borne! moisture-overload!
The! global! warming! produced! as! a! consequence! of! tropospheric! particulates! increases! surface-
water!evaporation!and!concomitantly!increases! rai nfall! [52],! causes ! climate! chaos,! and! disrupts!
more-or-less! stable! weather! patterns! that! have! made! agriculture! possible! [23,! 66-69].! Aerosol!
When! aerosolized! coal! fly! ash! contacts! atmospheric! water! droplets,! as! many! as! 38! chemical!
be! used! for! manipulating! weather-fronts! [23].! The! chemical! elements! that! are! extracted! into!
Aerial particulate emplacement into the troposphere, such as shown in Figure 2, is deliberate air
pollution. Jet-spraying air pollution particulates especially, coal fly ash into the troposphere for
environmental modification has a variety of known adverse consequences for human health, perhaps
some others yet unknown. Air pollution particles are the leading environmental cause of morbidity and
mortality [72, 73], rates of which are increasing at an alarming rate [74]. Extensive studies [75] exist of
the adverse health effects of air pollution particles ≤2.5μ across (PM2.5), approximately the same particle-
size range as aerosolized coal fly ash [76], and are thus a useful guide.
Atmospheric! convection! disperses! the! geoengineering! aerosol! pollution! particulates! throughout!
airways! producing! many! toxic! effects! including! decreased! host! defenses,! tissue! inflammation,!
altered! cellular! redox! balance! toward! oxidation,! and! genotoxicity! [40].! Ultrafine! particles! and!
Combustion-derived spherical magnetite pollution nano-particulates, similar to those found in coal fly
ash [79], are found in the brains of persons with dementia [80, 81]. Furthermore, reactive iron magnetic
particulates were recently found in abundance in the hearts of persons from highly polluted areas [82].
risk!factor! for! Autism!Spectrum!Disorder!in! children![91,! 92],! and ! for! children! havin g! cognitive!
defects![87,! 88].! Recently,! scientists! and!physicians! have!shown!the! likely! association!of!aerosol!
the!environment! with! mercury![42],!decimating! populations! of!insects! [45],! bats! [43],! and! birds!
[47],! and! destroying! the! ozone! layer! that! shields! surface-life! from! the! sun’s! deadly! ultraviolet!
The! natural! environment! cannot! suffer! large-scale! geoengineering! alteration! without! adversely!
causing! “widespread,' long-lasting' or' severe' effects”! on! humans! and! other! biota.! Global!
environmental! modification! as!described! above!is!extremely!hostile,!not! peaceful”! and!rightfully!
quantities! of! toxic! particulate! pollutants! can! only! be! described! as! engaging! in! environmental!
to! drought,! crop! failures,! human! and! livestock! suffering,! and! even! to! starvation.! These!
will!worsen.!People!everywhere!need! to! wake!up,! look!up,! speak!up,! and!demand!an! end!to! this!
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... Disinformation claiming that the particulate trails represent harmless ice-crystal "contrails" stands in conflict with direct observation, and is disputed by scientific evidence [64]. Aircraft contrails form only briefly in cold, humid atmospheric conditions, unlike the particulate trails that spread out into cirrus-type clouds or even a white haze [65]. Particulate pollution emplaced into the troposphere traps heat that would otherwise be removed by convection [66]. ...
Full-text available
The coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic exploded into a world already reeling from climate change, degradation of natural systems, and pandemics of air pollution and noncommunicable diseases. These pandemics are interrelated; air pollution, the world’s biggest killer, is a major contributor to noncommunicable disease. Air pollution is a probable cofactor in the spread and severity of COVID-19. There are shared mechanisms of injury by the emerging COVID-19 immunopathology, ultrafine air pollutants, and chronic degenerative disease. A key feature of each is oxidative stress, including that caused by iron dysregulation. Exogenous combustion-derived magnetite nanoparticles found in human brains and hearts are strongly implicated in the development of cardiometabolic and neurogenerative disease. Altered iron balance favoring excess reactive or misplaced iron is probably the most important predisposing condition for severe COVID-19 infection. Ultrafine-particle/nanoparticle toxicity and COVID-19 immunopathology on the subcellular level are both characterized by iron dysregulation, mitochondrial dysfunction, and endoplasmic reticulum stress. Primary sources of the most damaging ultrafine pollution particles are fossil fuel combustion, vehicle emissions, and coal fly ash utilized in undisclosed tropospheric aerosol geoengineering. The same ultrafine particles when emitted or placed into the troposphere alter the world’s cloud layers and reduce atmospheric convection, directly contributing to climate change and global warming. Pandemics can only be tackled by international cooperation. Immediate steps that must be taken include monitoring and control of ultrafine particulate air pollution, and prompt cessation of geoengineering operations.
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The definition of protected areas as legal entities is not defined at the legislative level, which significantly reduces the range of tools for protecting the corresponding territories from abuses and loopholes in the current legislation regarding the scope and methods of utilizing their natural potential. The study focuses on an analysis of the concept of the “legal personality” of protected areas in Ukraine, considering the requirements of current legislation to address the restoration and protection of the rights of the protected areas through judicial and extrajudicial procedures. For a comprehensive analysis of market dynamics with minimal variations between studies, a quantitative literature review, including meta-analysis, was conducted. The main directions of post-war market revival were identified and the feasibility of adapting these strategies to the Ukrainian economy was evaluated using a comparative method. The research asserts that granting legal personality status to protected areas would contribute to the protection of their rights, as it would enable their identification as independent participants in economic relations and provide them with the necessary mechanisms to protect their territories. The necessity of introducing the concept of “legal personality” at the legislative level for protected areas is substantiated, which would not only help identify the most violated rights of protected areas but also promote increased investments in this sector. The practical significance of the study is determined by recommendations regarding the legitimizing protected areas as legal entities and having a clear normative and legal basis would ensure the establishment of a transparent form of judicial and extrajudicial protection and restoration of violated rights of protected territories.
“Conflict” represents one side of the international interactions, while “Cooperation” represents the other side. The international conflict is ”a situation of interests” contradiction between two or more international actors. Such conflict might be political, as well as economic, social, cultural, ethnic, sectarian, religious and ideological or a propaganda one.There are multiple approaches and analytical theories to explain the international conflict in international relations, such as the psychological, the ideological, the national interests, the arms race, the geopolitical and the sociological approaches, as well as the theory of “peace-through-parity”, the theory of “power preponderance”, as well as the theory of “pressure to the outside”. In the framework of the environmental school, the “environmental security theory” comes as one of the approaches used for the analytical interpretation of international conflict.The traditional concept of “national security” has expanded, and it is no longer limited to military threats, but it extends to the dangers and threats of non-military nature, such as the political, environmental, social, economic, ideological and other threats.In this context, the main argument of the “environmental security theory” is that there is a correlation between the “environmental problems” on one hand, and the “international conflicts” on the other. Hence, it provides an analysis and explanation of the international conflict, in light of the environmental threats.A review of the literature in the field of environmental security reveals the existence of three generations of the theory of environmental security. The first generation focused on understanding the relationship between “environment” and “security”, while the second generation focused on the relationship between “security”, “environmental issues” and “international conflicts”. The third generation has focused on the notion of “environmental conflict”, and thus, it tackled the relationship between environmental security and violence or violent conflict.KeywordsEnvironmental conflictEnvironmental refugeesEnvironmental securityEnvironmental violentInternational conflictNontraditional security
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According to most scientific studies, media and governments, the white trails that can be seen behind aircraft in flight, corresponding to condensation mixed with engine particulate emissions, only persist under specific atmospheric conditions. They are called condensation trails, and cirrus contrails when they remain for hours to reach several kilometers wide. The fact that they have gradually filled the skies over the last twenty years would be due to the increase in air traffic. However, other official documents link these persistent trails to a weather modification technology called solar geoengineering by stratospheric aerosol injection (SAI). These sprays would be mainly composed of metallic particles (Al, Ba, Sr, Fe, nanoparticles) and sulfur, which would considerably increase air, soil and water pollution. Many of the current environmental and health problems are consistent with those described in the literature on solar geoengineering by SAI if this method was employed. For example, metal particles used are well known environmental contaminants, ozone layer depletion, cardiorespiratory diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, sunburn. The observations (whiter skies, less solar power) also correspond to the same risks as those described in the solar geoengineering works. Patents show that this weather modification technology has been known and mastered for a long time. In addition, some scientific papers as well as policy documents suggest that solar geoengineering by SAI has been used for many years. The amount of official information presented in this review is intended to open new ways of investigation, free of conflicts of interest, about the growing global pollution of persistent aircraft trails and their possible links with solar geoengineering by SAI.
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The 1978 "Convention on the Prohibition of Military or Any Other Hostile Use of Environmental Modification Techniques" [ENMOD] obligates signatory nations to fundamentally compromise their own sovereignty and to bring about widespread, permanent agricultural devastation. Instead of prohibiting "Hostile Use of Environmental Modification Techniques " , as its title suggests, ENMOD obligates signatory nations to participate in unspecified " peaceful " environmental modification activities performed by unspecified entities, under unspecified circumstances, without limitation to harm, whether inflicted on a nation or region's agriculture, its environment, or on health of its population, that is, its citizenry. Large-scale environment modification cannot be construed as "peaceful"; it is instead fundamentally hostile. Ongoing undisclosed tropospheric aerosol particulate geoengineering has already begun to have devastating consequences for agriculture, as well as widespread, long-lasting, and severe effects on human and environmental health. These effects include lung cancer, cardiac, neurodegenerative, respiratory, and other diseases; the disruption of once stable weather patterns; the decimation of insect, bat, and bird populations; the exacerbation of wildfires and the death of forests; the propagation of harmful algae in our waters; and the destruction of the ozone layer that shields life from the sun's deadly ultraviolet radiation. Ongoing sanctioned covert environmental modification activities constitute de facto warfare on sovereign nations. Moreover, those activities are blatantly contradictory to the missions of other United Nations' entities, including, but not limited to, the World Health Organization, the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development, and the Food and Agriculture Organization. Agricultural collapse and mass starvation are one of the potential consequences of environmental modification "for peaceful purposes." Covert global environmental modification activities must be halted immediately, and permanently, if we and our progeny are to survive. The operation should be exposed to public scrutiny. When aerial particulate tropospheric emplacement ceases, the last geoengineered particulates will fall to Earth in a matter of days or weeks and global warming will be reduced. Agricultural production and public health will improve worldwide.
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Aims: Concerted efforts are made to deceive the public into falsely believing the jet-emplaced tropospheric aerosol trails, called chemtrails by some, are harmless ice-crystal contrails from aircraft engine exhaust-moisture. Our objective is to use radiometric measurements in the range 250-300 nm to show that a typical chemtrail is not a contrail, and to generalize that finding with additional data. Methods: We utilized International Light Technologies ILT950UV Spectral Radiometer mounted on a Meade LXD55 auto guider telescope tripod and mount assembly. Results: Radiometric solar irradiance spectra data that included the transit of a typical tropospheric aerosol trail between radiometer-sensor and the solar disc showed significant absorption during the transit period. The during-transit absorption is wholly inconsistent with the almost negligible adsorption by ice, but is wholly consistent with absorption by aerosolize particulates, including coal fly ash. This result is consistent with other aerosol-trail physical phenomena observations. Conclusions: The public and the scientific community have been systematically deceived into falsely believing that the pervasive, jet-sprayed ‘chemtrails’ are harmless ice-crystal contrails. We have presented radiometric measurements which unambiguously prove the falsity of that characterization for one specific, but typical instance. We show in a more general framework that the physical manifestations of the aerial trails are inconsistent with ice-crystal contrails, but entirely consistent with aerosol particulate trails. We describe potential reasons for the deception, and cite the extremely adverse consequences of the aerial particulate spraying on human and environmental health. For the sake of life on Earth, the modification of the natural environment by aerial particulate spraying and other methodologies must immediately and permanently end.
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Bats have great economic and environmental importance, including nocturnal insect control, pollination, seed dispersal and forest regeneration. Bats, however, like insects and birds are suffering a precipitous global decline due to anthropogenic causes. Deliberate air pollution in the form of undisclosed tropospheric aerosol geoengineering (TAG) has extremely damaging effects throughout the biosphere. Forensic scientific evidence implicates coal fly ash (CFA), the toxic waste product of coal-burning, as the main constituent of the jet-sprayed particulate trails seen around the world. Coal fly ash is a primary source of the ultrafine and nano-sized particulate fraction of air pollution that adversely impacts human and environmental health. Recently, countless exogenous magnetic pollution particles from combustion sources were found in human brains and heart tissue. Previous studies reveal that aerosolized CFA is a significant factor in the catastrophic global decline of birds and insects. Insects can accumulate aerosolized CFA on their body surfaces and/or ingest CFA particulates that insectivorous bats then consume. Bats are excellent mammalian bioindicators of environmental contaminants and it is known that their tissue contains high levels of metals and persistent organic pollutants. From a review of the literature, we show that the pollutant element ratios in bat tissue and bat guano are consistent with an origin in CFA-type air pollution. These findings suggest that CFA, including its use in covert climate engineering operations, is an unacknowledged factor in the morbidity and mortality of bats. Bats, therefore, are an important "canary in the coal mine" pointing to the urgency of halting covert climate engineering and greatly reducing ultrafine particulate air pollution.
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At about the same time that Russian President declared that “We are really witnessing global warming, the reasons, however, remain obscure....”, I published the first of six scientific articles disclosing the evidence and basis for understanding that particulate pollution, not anthropogenic greenhouse gases, is the main cause of global warming. The global warming that occurred during World War II, but which quickly subsided after hostilities ceased, was key to that understanding. The disquieting parallel of scientific behaviour during World War II and at present is key to understanding the challenges humanity faces today concerning science and society.
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Globally, air pollution is the leading environmental cause of human disease and death, and it is a major contributor to cardiovascular disease. Air pollution damages the cardiovascular system by oxidative stress, inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, and pro-thrombotic changes. Ultrafine particulate matter from the combustion of fossil fuels delivers the most potent and harmful elements of air pollution. Coal fly ash is a rich source of nano-sized metal, iron oxide, and carbonaceous particles. Previous findings revealed that coal fly ash is widely utilized in undisclosed tropospheric aerosol geoengineering. Proper iron balance is central to human health and disease, and the harmful effects of iron are normally prevented by tightly controlled processes of systemic and cellular iron homeostasis. Altered iron balance is linked to the traditional risk factors for cardiovascular disease. The iron-heart hypothesis is supported by epidemiological, clinical, and experimental studies. Biogenic magnetite (Fe3O4) serves essential life functions, but iron oxide nanoparticles from anthropogenic sources cause disease. The recent finding of countless combustion-type magnetic nanoparticles in damaged hearts of persons from highly polluted areas is definitive evidence of the connection between the iron oxide fraction of air pollution and cardiovascular disease. Spherical magnetic iron oxide particles found in coal fly ash and certain vehicle emissions match the exogenous iron pollution particles found in the human heart. Iron oxide nanoparticles cross the placenta and may act as seed material for future cardiovascular disease. The pandemic of non-communicable diseases like cardiovascular disease and also rapid global warming can be alleviated by drastically reducing nanoparticulate air pollution. It is crucial to halt tropospheric aerosol geoengineering, and to curb fine particulate emissions from industrial and traffic sources to avoid further gross contamination of the human race by iron oxide-type nanoparticles.
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The climate science community and the United Nations’ Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change have misinformed world governments by failing to acknowledge tropospheric particulate geoengineering that has been ongoing with ever-increasing duration and intensity for decades, and by treating global warming solely as a radiation-balance issue, which has resulted in a seriously incomplete understanding of the fundamental factors that affect Earth’s surface temperature. Here we review the consequences of tropospheric particulate heating by absorption of short- and long-wave solar radiation and long-wave radiation from Earth’s surface. Generally, black carbon absorbs light over the entire solar spectrum; brown carbon absorbs near-UV wavelengths and, to a lesser extent, visible light; iron oxides are good absorbers, the most efficient being magnetite. Pyrogenic coal fly ash, both from coal burning and from tropospheric jet-spraying geoengineering (for military purposes and/or climate engineering), contains carbon and iron oxides, hematite and magnetite. The recently published climate-science paradigm shift discloses that the main cause of global warming is not carbon dioxide heat retention, but particulate pollution that absorbs radiation, heats the troposphere, and reduces the efficiency of atmospheric-convective heat removal from Earth’s surface. In addition to the World War II data, three other independent lines of supporting evidence are reviewed: (1) Passage overhead of the Mt. St. Helens volcanic plume; (2) Radiosonde and aethalometer investigations of Talukdar et al.; and, (3) convection suppression over the tropical North Atlantic caused by the Saharan-blown dust. The risks associated with the placement of aerosol particulates into the stratosphere, whether lofted naturally, inadvertently, or deliberately as proposed for solar radiation management, poses grave risks, including the destruction of atmospheric ozone. To solve global warming humanity must: (1) Abruptly halt tropospheric particulate geoengineering; (2) Trap particulate emissions from coal-fired industrial furnaces (especially in India and China) and from vehicle exhaust; and, (3) Reduce particulate-forming fuel additives.
This paper investigates the correlation between the high level of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome CoronaVirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) lethality and the atmospheric pollution in Northern Italy. Indeed, Lombardy and Emilia Romagna are Italian regions with both the highest level of virus lethality in the world and one of Europe's most polluted area. Based on this correlation, this paper analyzes the possible link between pollution and the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome and eventually death. We provide evidence that people living in an area with high levels of pollutant are more prone to develop chronic respiratory conditions and suitable to any infective agent. Moreover, a prolonged exposure to air pollution leads to a chronic inflammatory stimulus, even in young and healthy subjects. We conclude that the high level of pollution in Northern Italy should be considered an additional co-factor of the high level of lethality recorded in that area.
Trace element analysis of feed coal, fly ash and bottom ash samples acquired from NTPC, Visakhapatnam was done by Particle Induced X-ray emission (PIXE) method. Sixteen inorganic elements K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Rb, Sr, and Pb were quantified. The enrichment and partition ratios were determined to understand the distribution and behavior of trace elements in coal and its residues. Enrichment factor for trace elements in ashes with respect to the concentration of Fe normalized relative to the earth’s continental crustal values was calculated to understand the effect of these elements on the environment. It was expected that the results of the present study may be useful in determining the coal combustion residue recovery potential and also help in reducing their potential impact on eco systems.
Carbon black nanoparticle (CBNP) is a core constituent of air pollutants like fine particulate matter (PM2.5) as well as a common manufactural material. It was proved to pose adverse effects on lung function and even provoke pulmonary fibrosis. However, the underlying mechanisms of CBNPs-induced pulmonary fibrosis remain unclear. The present study aimed to investigate the mechanism of fibrotic effects caused by CBNPs in rat lung and human bronchial epithelial (16HBE) cells. Forty-nine male rats were randomly subjected to 7 groups, means the 14-day exposure group (30 mg/m3), the 28-day exposure groups (5 mg/m3 and 30 mg/m3), the 90-day exposure group (30 mg/m3) and their respective controls. Rats were nose-only-inhaled CBNPs. 16HBE cells were treated with 0, 50, 100 and 200 μg/mL CBNPs respectively for 24 h. Besides, Forkhead transcription factor class O (FOXO)3a and miR-96 overexpression or suppression 16HBE cells were established to reveal relative mechanisms. Our results suggested CBNPs induced pulmonary fibrosis in time- and dose-dependent manners. CBNPs induced persisting inflammation in rat lung as observed by histopathology and cytology analyses in whole lung lavage fluid (WLL). Both in vivo and in vitro, CBNPs exposure significantly increased the expression of NLRP3 inflammasome, accompanied by the increased reactive oxygen species (ROS), decreased miR-96 and increased FOXO3a expressions dose -and time-dependently. MiR-96 overexpression or FOXO3a suppression could partially rescue the fibrotic effects through inhibiting NLRP3 inflammasome. Conclusively, our research show that CBNPs-induced pulmonary fibrosis was at least partially depended on activation of NLRP3 inflammasome which modulated by miR-96 targeting FOXO3a.