According to the most current cancer impact statistics, third most commonly diagnosed cancer worldwide is colorectal cancer. Colon cancer, in addition to its physical symptoms, has been linked to mental health issues in patients, according to the study. Dealing with colorectal cancer drug chemotherapy may lead to depression and anxiety in some people. Others are affected by the physical and mental condition of undergoing many therapies at the same time. Throughout the process of diagnosis, a large number of colorectal cancer patients report clinically relevant degrees as well as a decline in overall mental wellness. In the majority of cases, colon cancer patients are cured following therapy, but those who have survived the disease confront a medical range, physical, and challenges in society, for a variety of mental and physical problems such as anxiety and depression. First, meditation therapy is to urge patients to address their issues and feelings instead of dismissing them, but in the dispassionate and unbiased manner that defines the attentive state. Both the patient and the treating professional may benefit from this treatment method, since it appears to be a very effective therapeutic strategy. After colorectal cancer treatment, in studies, it has been demonstrated that ACT improves mental health, and Internet search engines such as Web of Science and Google Scholar as well as Dialnet were utilized to conduct a systematic literature There were 19 articles that fit the criteria. This includes a discussion of the ACT’s philosophical and theoretical basis, as well as the treatment itself. On the other hand, the study on ACT for enhancing mental health and quality of life is examined. Several of the available trials had serious flaws, making it impossible to establish reliable conclusions about the effectiveness of ACT for improving mental health and quality of life. The study determined that there is only a small amount of data supporting the use of ACT for improving mental health. The aim of this study is the application of the nursing model on improving the mental health of the colorectal patients. In addition, the limits of the current empirical state of ACT are acknowledged, and the importance of further research is highlighted.
Cancer is a major cause of death . Cancer was diagnosed in one out of every fourteen persons in 2012. Eight out of ten cancer victims died within 5 years after diagnosis [2, 3]. As a result of cancer diagnosis and treatment, there is an increase in psychotic disorders. 16.3% and 10.3% of cancer patients in oncological and haematological settings matched the criteria for clinical anxiety and depression, correspondingly, according to a new meta-analysis of 70 studies from 14 countries. There are currently many institutions and experts that agree with Bultz and Carlson’s suggestion that cancer patients’ anguish be identified as the sixth . Salmon Clark McGrath Fisher released the book in 2015 and also found that distress was associated to reduce immune function and higher mortality as well as poorer quality of life [5, 6]. A cancer diagnosis is followed by five years of physical symptoms and psychological suffering, interpersonal strain, and sexual issues for 20–30% of patients . On the whole, cancer patients report feeling pain in the range of 35–96%. So, it is no surprise that it was among the most often reported symptoms of diagnosis and treatment, and it is also a major. Psychiatry can improve the quality of life for cancer patients by decreasing feelings of depression. Treatment efficacy is varied and typically viewed as low , which leaves opportunity for therapeutic improvements to improve the effectiveness of psychological oncology therapies. As a relatively recent psychotherapy method in psychosocial oncology, acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) may be particularly useful in the treatment of cancer-related pain and discomfort. The theoretical foundation for accept theory is examined in this narrative review. This is followed by an evaluation and discussion of the current evidence on ACT in cancer patients, as well as suggestions for further study.
2. Colorectal Cancer and Mental Health
Large intestinal cancer called malignancy of the colon starts in the colon (colon). This final section of the digestive system is called the colon. In general, colon cancer affects the elderly most, although it may affect anyone at any age. Typically, colon cancer begins with polyps, which are benign (noncancerous) cell groupings that develop on the colon’s inner wall. A small percentage of these polyps may develop into colon cancer in the long run. It is possible to have little polyps that do not create any problems. Identifying and eliminating polyps before they turn malignant helps prevent colon cancer; therefore, physicians prescribe frequent screening tests as a strategy to avoid the disease colon cancer that can be treated with a combination of surgical procedures and pharmacological therapies including chemotherapy and targeted therapy. Colorectal cancer occurs when colon and rectal cancer merge.
Factors that may increase your risk of colon cancer include the following:(i)Older age people: despite the fact that colon cancer affects people of all ages, the majority of patients are over 50 years old. Children have a greater risk of colon cancer than adults, but physicians are unsure.(ii)African American race: in comparison to other races, African Americans have a higher risk of colon cancer(iii)A personal history of colorectal cancer or polyps: the risk of colon cancer in the future is higher for people who have had colon cancer or noncancerous polyps in the past.(iv)Inflammatory intestinal conditions: there are a number of illnesses, such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease that may raise the risk.(v)Inherited syndromes risk: inheritable mutations in some genes can significantly raise the risk of colon cancer. Occasionally, colon cancer can be traced back to hereditary genes. Family members with familial adenomatous polyposis are more likely to get colorectal cancer due to hereditary nonpolyposis or Lynch syndrome.(vi)History of colon: having a blood relative with colon cancer doubles your chance of getting it.(vii)Diet: colon and rectal cancer may be linked to a normal Western diet heavy in fats and calories but poor in fiber. Researchers have come up with a variety of outcomes. According to several studies, those who consume red and processed meat have a higher chance of developing colon cancer.(viii)A sedentary lifestyle: exercise can reduce the risk of colon cancer in those with sedentary lifestyles.(ix)Diabetes: there is a higher risk of colon cancer in those who have diabetes.(x)Obesity: comparatively, obese persons have a higher chance of developing colon cancer and dying from colon cancer than people who are deemed normal weight(xi)Smoking: tobacco users may have a higher chance of developing colon cancer(xii)Alcohol: drinking too much alcohol might raise your risk of developing colon cancer(xiii)Radiation therapy for cancer: radiation therapy given to the abdomen to treat previous cancers increases the chance of colon cancer
Patients’ preferences and general health are taken into consideration while deciding on treatment choices and suggestions, which are based on a variety of criteria, including the kind keep an open mind and ask questions if anything is not obvious. Have a discussion with the doctor about the purpose of each therapy and what to expect during the course of the “Shared decision-making” refers to these sorts of discussion. Together, the patient and your doctor decide on therapies that will help to achieve their health objectives. There are a variety of therapy options for colorectal cancer, which need better treatment decisions by learning more about the studies.
Studies have demonstrated that no matter how old the patient is, these different therapy techniques give equivalent advantages. Older individuals, on the other hand, may face distinct; see what effects surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy have on older individuals. All treatment decisions should take these characteristics into account in order to customize the treatment for each patient. There are a number of factors to consider.(i)The patient’s various medical issues(ii)The patient’s general health(iii)Possible adverse effects of the treatment plan(iv)Other drugs that the patient already takes
2.2. Physical, Emotional, and Social Effects of Cancer
When it comes to cancer treatment, there are not only physical symptoms and side effects to worry about, but also emotional, palliative care, also known as supportive care, is the process of managing all along with therapies to delay, halt, or eradicate cancer; it is an important element of the care plan.
The goal of palliative care is to improve the patient’s quality of life throughout treatment by controlling symptoms and providing nonmedical assistance to the patient. Such care is available to anybody, regardless of age or cancer kind and stage. It is most effective when it was started as soon as possible, following a cancer patient who received palliative care in addition to their cancer therapy that report less severe symptoms, a higher quality of life, and a higher level of satisfaction with their treatment. Palliative treatments come in a variety of forms, including medication, dietary modifications, relaxation methods, emotional and spiritual support, and palliative therapies including chemotherapy, surgery, and radiation therapy. After treatment, we may be asked to explain the symptoms and side effects, as well as to answer questions regarding them. Be careful to let their healthcare provider know if you are having any problems with their treatment. Healthcare providers can treat symptoms and side effects more promptly if they know about them in advance to keep their self from becoming more significant (Table 1).
Sample demographics at baseline
Cancer site and stage
Mental health measures
N = 542, 57% male, mean age = 71 years, France
63% colon cancer, 37% rectal cancer, 41% stage I, 26% stage II, 19% stage III, 2% stage IV, and 12% unknown
Cross-sectional, population-based, case-controlled (N = 1,181 controls), surveyed at 5-, 10-, and 15-year postdiagnosis
SF-36 : MCS, EORTC QLQ-C30: emotional functioning scale, STAI
Mental health and anxiety were not significantly different between cancer survivors and noncancer controls
N = 1,703, 60% male, 71% aged between 60 and 80 years, Australia
Type of CRC not reported, 55% stage 0, I, or II, 35% stage III or IV, and 11% unknown
Longitudinal, surveyed at 5, 12, 24, 36, 48, and 60 months postdiagnosis, population-based
During the 5-year research period, 32–44% of participants reported significant levels of psychological discomfort. According to the study’s findings, three distinct distress trajectories were found, including continuous low distress (19%), medium discomfort that varied between time points (30%), medium distress that rose progressively over time (39%), and (13%). Distress was mentioned more frequently by males than when it came to males in distress, they tended to be younger, with less education, a weak social network, and advanced
N = 339, 55% male, mean age = 71 years, Israel
Type of CRC not reported, 18% stage 0 or I, 62% stage II, and 20% stage III
Cross-sectional, surveyed between 2- and 6-year posttreatment
BSI, IES, MAC
Survivors who were single and unmarried reported the highest levels of anxiety and help married and unmarried survivors have similar levels of family support, but higher family support was exclusively associated with decreased suffering among married survivors
N = 439, 57% male, mean age = 65 years, Germany
59% colon cancer, 41% rectal cancer, 51% local, 31% regional, 17% distal, and 1% unknown
Longitudinal, surveyed at 1-, 3-, 5-, and 10-year postdiagnosis, population-based, case-controlled (N = 2,028 controls)
EORTC QLQ-C30: emotional functioning scale
Patients who had been diagnosed with cancer had significantly poorer emotional functioning at 1-, 3-, and 10-year postdiagnosis compared to controls; however, the differences were not clinically significant (>10 points). Comparing younger survivors (age 60) to older survivors (age 70 at diagnosis), younger survivors (age 60) reported substantially poorer emotional functioning 1 and 3 years after diagnosis.
N = 491, 62% male, mean age = 72 years, 76% non-Hispanic White, USA
100% rectal cancer, 53% local, 41% regional, 1% distal, and 5% unknown
Cross-sectional, surveyed at least 5 years postdiagnosis, case-controlled: ostomies (n = 246 cases) vs. anastomoses (n = 245 controls)
Modified COH-QOL-ostomy, SF-36 version 2: MCS
As a result of their ostomies, ladies with anastomoses reported a worse psychological well-being; there was also a higher rate of depression among male and female survivors who had ostomies compared to those who did not.
N = 1,419, 53% male, mean age = 70 years, Netherlands
59% colon cancer, 41% rectal, 33% stage I, 38% stage II, 26% stage III, 2% stage IV, and 1% unknown
Cross-sectional, surveyed at an average of 8 years postdiagnosis (minimum of 5 years postdiagnosis), population-based, case-controlled (N = 338 normative population controls)
Anxiety symptoms were recorded by 20% of survivors, whereas depression symptoms were reported by 18%. Anxiety levels in survivors were higher than those in the normative group when using a stricter cutoff point of less than 11. Depressive symptoms were higher in survivors than in the normative population when using a stricter cutoff of less than 11