PresentationPDF Available

Small is beautiful - or is it? The challenges of integrating human rights principles and multiple functionalities into sector policies favourable to artisanal fisheries and mining

Authors:

Abstract

Abstract Raising awareness about opportunities for transdisciplinary work and ethical grounding to meet the global challenges to the professions is paramount. Issues of justice and living within the planetary boundaries become also more prominent in the life, social sciences and humanities questioning disciplinary silos. Institutionalising alternatives that create and sustain broader knowledge ecologies for sustainable living is yet to be systematically enabled through new learning and educational pathways. We argue, that there are considerable mutual learning opportunities between artisanal, small-scale mining and small-scale fisheries. The global employment in the artisanal gold mining sector is estimated at some 10 to 15 million people, of whom 4.5 million are women and 0.6 million children. Some 40 million people are estimated along value chains in the artisanal fishing of whom 50% are estimated to be women. In both sectors informality is high, production very incompletely recorded and relations with governments and local administrations tend to be difficult as perceptions about the negative sides of the artisanal operations are pervasive in a policy context modelled on industrial exploitation and value chains. Where attempts have been made to quantify production and role in employment, food security or even in contribution to GDP and international trade, the numbers almost always justify policy change in favour of the small-scale sectors. In the face of disruptive technologies liable to make many industrial jobs redundant, opportunities for a new brand of artisanal operators in higher value added segments would be possible with suitable investment in people and institutions. This could go well beyond the poverty discourse into which artisanal miners and fishers are often confined, a notion vigorously rejected by many fishers e.g. in West Africa. The 2018 “Mosi-oa-Tunya Declaration on Artisanal and Small-scale Mining, Quarrying and Development” and the “Voluntary Guidelines for Securing Sustainable Small-Scale Fisheries in the context of food security and poverty eradication” with its grounding in human rights and adopted in 2014 by the FAO Committee of Fisheries are starting points for demarginalising artisanal operators. The small-scale fisheries academy (SSF academy) in Senegal offers an example of how this could be enabled. Some 600,000 people are estimated to work along artisanal value chains in the country. The SSF academy explores the possibilities to use bottom-up training of trainer approaches to empower individuals (men and women) and communities to improve their livelihoods. Inclusive, participatory methods of active learning based on the “Gender Actions Learning System” (GALS) are being tested to enable experiencing positive local change in relation to global policy goals like the SSF Guidelines in the context of Agenda 2030. The SSF academy offers a safe space where diverse actors can meet, confront their different knowledges and experiences and develop social and technological innovations. Wider sharing builds capabilities and practice of advocacy and collective action thus also paving the way for forms of more participatory governance. Demonstrating feasibility may entice policy reform that would benefit from long-term societal views to counter wide-spread short-termism, for fishers and miners.
Small is beautiful – or is it?
The challenges of integrating human rights principles and
multiple functionalities into sector policies favourable to
artisanal fisheries and mining
Cornelia E. Nauen
Mundus maris
Sciences and Arts for Sustainability asbl
https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-3936
Virtual EGU Conference 2020
FAO estimates 40.3
million workers in
SSF: 85% in Asia,
10% in Africa, 4% in
Latin America, rest
in North America,
Europe, Australia.
50% are believed to
be women, 15% in
primary extraction,
most in pre- and
postharvest
activities.
Independent
production estimate
is 20-25% of total
(Pauly & Zeller 2016, Nature
Communication,7:1-9)
How small is small? (1)
World Bank estimates of
people involved in global
artisanal and small-scale
mining (ASM) are 100
million, 80% in sapphire,
20% in gold mining, perhaps
as many as half may be
women, the percentage of
children varies. People in
industrial mining are globally
estimated at 7 million.
Production guestimates of
artisanal miners are around
15% of the global total.
(https://www.worldbank.org/en/topic/ex
tractiveindustries/brief/artisanal-and-
small-scale-mining.
How small is small? (2)
Artisanal gold mining Côte
d'Ivoire, Source: Al Jazeera
Artisanal operations are deeply integrated with other
resources and purposes contrary to industrial operations
which create their own operating environment with “single
purpose”:
SSF: food, energy, marine and freshwater ecosystems,
social organisation, labour-intensiveness, high degree of
informality to respond to multi-purpose needs and
uncertainties
ASM: water, energy, food, social organisation, labour-
intensiveness, high degree of informality to respond to
multi-purpose needs and uncertainties
Artisanal operations are integrated
Catching small pelagic fish
Thomas Grand & Moussa Diop, 2018. Documentary on
sardinella fisheries “Poisson d'or, poisson africain”
Landing the catches
Thomas Grand & Moussa Diop, 2018. Documentary on
sardinella fisheries “Poisson d'or, poisson africain”
Smoking the catches
Thomas Grand & Moussa Diop, 2018. Documentary on
sardinella fisheries “Poisson d'or, poisson africain”
Solar drying of the catch
Thomas Grand & Moussa Diop, 2018. Documentary on
sardinella fisheries “Poisson d'or, poisson africain”
Sardinellas, appreciated food in the Sahel
Thomas Grand & Moussa Diop, 2018. Documentary on
sardinella fisheries “Poisson d'or, poisson africain”
Chinese fishmeal plant in a 'protected' area
Thomas Grand & Moussa Diop, 2018. Documentary on
sardinella fisheries “Poisson d'or, poisson africain”
Women processors were displaced...
Thomas Grand & Moussa Diop, 2018. Documentary on
sardinella fisheries “Poisson d'or, poisson africain”
China, Indonesia, USA, Russian Federation, Peru, India,
Japan, Viet Nam, Norway, Philippines, Malaysia, Chile,
Morocco, Rep. Korea, Thailand, others with shrinking landings
According to FAO 2018
Dubious or criminal practices...
New observation methods facilitate searching dubious or
criminal practices – e.g. transshipment at sea, prohibited in
many countries, as often associated with fiscal fraud,
overfishing, human trafficking etc.
Artisanal and small-scale fisheries as illustrated here by
way of example rely on value chains organised around
renewable resources. When pitched in direct competition
between a regional fish food economy and an export-driven
fish feed economy multiple dilemmas arise:
==> industrial vs artisanal fishing affects income of small-
scale fishers, disrupts local value chains
==> food supply and food security for humans within the
region vs. export for animal feed
==> mostly industrial overfishing degrades ecosystem
integrity and productivity
==> renewable resources can be regenerated through
protection and better suited allocation (partially unlike
minerals or at least on different time scales).
Artisanal operations are diverse
==> The horizontal integration characterising both artisanal
mining and fisheries at the local and regional levels they
operate is often viewed sceptically by higher-level
administrations more focused on mono-purpose sectoral
objectives and infrastructures.
==> “Unruly” behaviours often borne out of necessity to
adapt to uncertainties create social gap with administrations
==> Widely distributed production sites pose a challenge to
recording production, supporting marginalisation
==> Attempts at formalisation from above without generally
accepted spaces for respectful dialogue confronting different
perspectives will easily lead to more marginalisation
Artisanal operations have commonalities
=> 2014 Voluntary Guidelines for Securing Sustainable
Small-Scale Fisheries in the Context of Food Security and
Poverty Eradication – grounded in human rights, FAO-COFI
==> 13 guiding principles, incl. Non-discrimination, equity,
transparency, accountability, social responsibility, feasibility
==> Responsible fisheries & SD: Governance and tenure,
social development and decent work, value chains, gender
equality and disaster risks and climate change
==> Enabling environment & supporting implementation:
Policy coherence, institutional coordination and
collaboration; information, research and multi-way
communication; capacity development
=> Widespread trend for marine spatial planning carries risk
for not delivering on expectations as “expert”-driven
Policies based on human rights (1)
=> 2018 Mosi-ao-Tunya Declaration on Artisanal and Small-
Scale Mining, Quarrying and Development – Harare -
multistakeholder platform expressing aspirations
==> info sources and arguments of the resolution, incl.
Harrare Guidelines on Central Role of Women, 2009 AU
Summit “African Mining Vision” for ASM
==> General issues and ambitions: Governance through
formalisation, rights recognition of ASM, integration of ASM
into the development agenda, recognition of “Development
Minerals”, gender equality, ensuring protection of the
environment and health of miners, address conflict and
ensure human rights in ASM supply chains
Policies based on human rights (2)
Exploring outside the box
Supporting the implementation of the aspirational policy-
orientation consensus documents is completely aligned with the
17 UN Sustainable Development Goals of Agenda 2030.
Artisanal fishers have a better environment and socio-economic
record than energy hungry industrial fleets bearing down heavily
on marine biodiversity, environmental health and human rights.
Alternative processes exist for artisanal gold mining without
heavy use of mercury affecting miners' health and contaminating
the environment. What does it take to implement them?
Recognising that a degree of informality is acceptable, even
necessary, in successful artisanal operations, while explicitly
formalising their rights and responsibilities enough to benefit
from social and institutional services creates win-win situations,
including improved taxes, value chain integration etc.
Support vs. marginalisation (1)
Despite the efforts that allowed us to learn a lot in the last
decades about bringing together the environmental concerns of
the 1960s with the social justice concerns prominent since the
1970s:
the nexus between ecosystems, water, energy, food, social
organisation and other dimensions playing out at local level in
people's lives remains fiendishly difficult to put into practice.
Sectoral government silos remain strong and many well-intended
processes even among a diversity of experts can not quite deliver
on what's needed.
It always boils down to the two questions: (1) who asks the
questions and who's heard (agency), (2) how is it set up and
done (process)?
Strengthening local capacities for self-representation as answer.
Support vs. marginalisation (2)
The Artisanal Fisheries Academy tests this working hypothesis
with initial steps of informing people at the bottom of the pile
about their rights, the rules, their responsibilities and
opportunities
Inclusive, active
learning independent
of formal
schooling levels
Stimulating critical
reflection through
drawings expressing
their aspirations of a
happy life -
triggering engagement.
Support vs. marginalisation (3)
How can a fish monger
achieve systematically
her one-year objective
and get from A to B to C
up to her aspiration?
Planing is a huge
challenge for people,
who have to adapt
frequently to changing
circumstances over
which they have little
or no control -
the reason the cope
in the informal economy.
Finding solutions together
Success is possible
Nabia is a fish monger. She explains how she used the newly
learnt approach to double her economic results within the first
three months.
She checks
her progress
against her
initial drawing
and makes
adjustments
as she meets
expected and
unexpected
obstacles and
opportunties.
By way of a preliminary conclusion
The SSF academy explores the possibilities to use bottom-up
training of trainer approaches to empower individuals (men
and women) and communities to improve their livelihoods.
Inclusive, participatory methods of active learning based on
the “Gender Actions Learning System” (GALS) are being tested
to enable experiencing positive local change in relation to
global policy goals that incorporate human rights approaches.
The SSF Academy offers a safe space where diverse actors can
meet, confront their different knowledges and experiences and
develop social and technological innovations. Wider sharing
builds capabilities and practice of advocacy and collective
action, thus also paving the way for forms of more
participatory governance. Demonstrating feasibility in many
places and contexts, such as artisanal mining may entice
policy reform that would benefit artisanal fishers and miners.
Thanks for your
attention
More Infos:
www.mundusmaris.org
ce.nauen@mundusmaris.org
... Artisanal and small-scale mining is advancing towards internationally negotiated minimal principles [4] but has not yet reached the global level of acceptance enjoyed by the SSF Guidelines [33]. ...
Chapter
Issues of justice and living within the planetary boundaries have recently come to the fore need to institutionalise human rights and transdisciplinary approaches that create and sustain broader knowledge ecologies. These work best if they are systematically enabled through new learning and educational pathways and policies that support innovation and a level playing field. We argue that there are considerable mutual learning opportunities between artisanal, small-scale mining involving some 10–15 million people in the gold mining sector alone and small-scale fisheries with a global workforce of about 39 million in primary extraction and more in pre- and postharvest activities. While reliable statistics are scant, estimates suggest that women are about half the workforce in either occupation and that a considerable number are children. Here we explore the commonalities between small-scale fisheries and small-scale and artisanal mining, even if the former harvests and often exercises stewardship over living renewable resources while the latter exploits mineral resources. We propose investing in human and institutional capabilities of small-scale operators to support enhanced livelihoods and meaningful participation in the respective sustainable sector development.
Chapter
We build on a basic understanding that change towards Blue Justice and responsive governance requires the evolution of perceptions and attitudes of small-scale fisheries and empowerment for collective action of the men and women in small-scale fisheries themselves. We briefly point to sources of evidence that show the role of small-scale fisheries in global fisheries and their potential as a pillar for sustainable fisheries. Our case study about the Small-Scale Fisheries Academy, Senegal, explores the development and adaptation of inclusive empowerment methods based on the Gender Action Learning System (GALS) to enable agency at individual and collective levels through inclusive and active learning entailing real-life applications. Such empowerment is key to creating a more level playing field, enabling active participation of small-scale fisheries in zoning and other policy processes. Propelled by the Blue Justice concept and experiential visual learning that engages women and men who tend to be otherwise excluded from such processes, small-scale fisheries could become a key component of fisheries sustainability within inclusive, interdisciplinary approaches and policies that transcend narrow, technical, and instrumental thinking and practice. We seek to promote the development of the Small-Scale Fisheries Academy elsewhere to ensure that such approaches support the implementation of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and the Voluntary Guidelines for Ensuring Sustainable Small-Scale Fisheries and are scalable and robust as part of a Blue Economy in tune with the interdependent SDGs. This chapter constitutes a contribution towards justice at the first governance order and positive change in people’s daily lives.
Chapter
Geoethics investigates the multifaceted implications of the Human-Earth interdependence and seeks to portray a general normative framework for promoting people acting ethically towards an environment facing the current anthropogenic global change. Drawing on the Semiotic Cultural Psychological Theory that acknowledges a dynamic notion of culture, this chapter aims to delve into such a fruitful issue contending that the way people respond to the quest for responsible action towards Earth is culturally entrenched. Culture is presented as an ongoing process of sense-making in-between the personal and the social spheres through which individuals interpret their experience. Indeed, three central tenets of the cultural embeddedness of the human experience are discussed: cultural variability, otherness and performativity. According to these premises, the concept of semiotic capital is introduced to describe how social actors can confront their life-in-society in systemic terms valuing the interdependence between the personal and the public sphere. In particular, the likelihood of making ethical action possible would depend on the extent to which individuals interiorise and experience the systemic aspect of life as a vital dimension, namely on the amount of semiotic capital they have access to. Finally, a means for a policy that aims to promote a commitment to sustainability is delineated.
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any references for this publication.