Chapter

Challenges for the future of live music: A review of contemporary developments in the live music sector

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Full-text available
Article
Focusing on Manchester, the largest city in the north of England, this paper explores why and how Black rap practitioners have been excluded from performing and promoting rap music in its city centre during the last 20 years. Discussing the intersecting factors of policing of venues and racial bias and class stigma among Manchester's venue owners and promoters, while also scrutinising the city's neoliberal urban expansion and gentrification, the paper analyses the ways in which Black rappers and practitioners have been marginalised but also how they have attempted to resist and overcome these conditions. Drawing on cultural studies, critical race theory and urban geography, while employing qualitative research methods of in-depth interviews, this paper builds on existing research on the marginalisation of Black rap musicians and promoters. It builds on and moves beyond the scholarly emphasis on the policing of rap genres in London to argue that discrimination faced by Black rap practitioners extends far outside the capital and is part of a wider problem of racial capitalism of which policing is but one agent.
Full-text available
Article
This paper presents an overview of the social and cultural values attributed to live music ecologies in urban environments. It is grounded in a qualitative content analysis of live music reports and strategies from Australia, the United States, South Africa, Canada, Ireland, the United Kingdom, Scotland and the Netherlands. Contributing to the emerging scholarly literature on urban live music ecologies, this study enhances the understanding of the social and cultural merits of popular music concerts to cities. To date, the ways in which the social and cultural values of urban live music ecologies can be supported has received too little attention, because the emphasis in the public discourse has been on the economic impact of music-making. In our analysis, we found three different dimensions for social value (social capital, public engagement and identity) and three for cultural value (musical creativity, cultural vibrancy and talent development). Furthermore, we discuss how these values can be supported through specific cultural policies and urban planning interventions.
Full-text available
Research
AHRC-funded report on the impact of music festivals, including links to detailed annotated bibliography
Full-text available
Article
Popular music culture has changed significantly with the diffusion of networked digital media in the late 1990s. The present article theorizes the concept of live music in light of those changes and develops the idea of a new economy of live music. The perception of concerts as live music is central, so this is explored conceptually and historically before outlining the main elements of the new economy. Two immediate elements are the new economic centrality of live music and the categorical change in concert ticket prices. Two other elements are the rise of new and renewed event genres and the broader dynamics of the digital information society. The article integrates perspectives of cultural and performance studies.
Article
In 2017 we conducted the first-ever nationwide live music census, allowing for unprecedented levels of detailed, comparable data on the live music cultures of different localities. Live music censuses have been increasingly used in recent years (e.g. Melbourne, Edinburgh, Bristol) to illustrate the value of music to policymakers. This has coincided with challenging times for urban live music venues, particularly small venues and clubs. We present key census findings here, reflecting on how local contexts both shape the census process and may be informed by it, and on the growth of the idea of “Music Cities” to inform policy.
Article
This article explores recent events around the secondary market for concert tickets in the UK. It first outlines the nature of the primary and secondary markets for concert tickets and then the story of attempts in the UK to regulate them over a twenty-year period, providing the political and industrial context. It moves on to examine key aspects of the political debates around tickets and the findings of enquiries into the subject – including the rhetoric around ‘real fans’ – and discusses the gradual dilution of legislative proposals (from an outright ban, to a cap, to mandating transparency) and legitimation of the secondary market. We then discuss the broader ramifications of the secondary ticket market for access to cultural events and suggest that those who wish to mobilise against the secondary market could gain much by looking beyond the market value of tickets towards ideas of cultural value which have hitherto played little part in the debate.
Article
‘Lockout laws’ are not new in Australia – variants exist and have been trialled or continue to operate in Newcastle (since 2008), Melbourne (abandoned in 2008), and Adelaide (since 2013) and Darwin (since 2007). In February 2014, the New South Wales O’Farrell Coalition government introduced 1.30 am lockout and 3 am last drink laws for the Sydney CBD (Central Business District), among a series of other measures. The subsequent controversies about the ‘lockout laws’ in Sydney have provoked a curious and vivid set of debates encompassing crime, medical, moral, social, libertarian, cultural and industrial discourses. In this paper I wish to assess the new regulatory landscape within historical and contemporary perspectives of nightlife economies increasingly privileging cultural and entertainment city uses. Beyond unpacking the ‘lockout’ debate in terms of ‘liveability’ and ‘cultural city’ meanings as practised by Australian cities, this article will focus on the implications for Sydney’s ability to maintain its national and global status as a music city.
Article
Working towards an equality of differences of a city’s diverse cultures and subcultures requires an examination of the realities of how municipal and provincial legal frameworks governing the city space — such as urban planning policies, zoning decisions, and bylaw enforcement — play out within the microcosm of the everyday and everynight of a neighbourhood where conflicting life patterns must coexist even when they are at odds. Drawing on an urban legal anthropology and urban legal geography methodology assessing the realities of the life of subcultural communities in the city space, the objective of this paper is to explore potential paths towards an equitable regard and valuation of the different ways of knowing and being in the context of city redevelopment and cultural sustainability.
Article
For the last decade we have been engaged in the study of the history, economics, and sociology of live music in Britain. In this article we will consider the value of “ecology” as an analytic concept (rather than just a buzzword) and compare an ecological account of the setting in which music happens to the use of previous spatial metaphors, from Durkheim’s milieus to Straw’s scenes. To illustrate our argument, we present case studies of three Scottish concerts: one in a small-scale venue (Glasgow’s King Tut’s), one in a mid-size venue (Edinburgh’s Queen’s Hall), and one in a large-scale venue, the 12,000-seater SSE Hydro.
Article
Diversity in Britain is not what it used to be. Some thirty years of government policies, social service practices and public perceptions have been framed by a particular understanding of immigration and multicultural diversity. That is, Britain's immigrant and ethnic minority population has conventionally been characterized by large, well-organized African-Caribbean and South Asian communities of citizens originally from Commonwealth countries or formerly colonial territories. Policy frameworks and public understanding - and, indeed, many areas of social science - have not caught up with recently emergent demographic and social patterns. Britain can now be characterized by 'super-diversity,' a notion intended to underline a level and kind of complexity surpassing anything the country has previously experienced. Such a condition is distinguished by a dynamic interplay of variables among an increased number of new, small and scattered, multiple-origin, transnationally connected, socio-economically differentiated and legally stratified immigrants who have arrived over the last decade. Outlined here, new patterns of super-diversity pose significant challenges for both policy and research.
Song Lines: Mapping the South African Live Performance Landscape
  • Gwen Ansell
  • Helena Barnard
Ansell, Gwen and Helena Barnard (2013). Song Lines: Mapping the South African Live Performance Landscape, Johannesburg: Concerts SA.
The Economic and Cultural Value of Live Music in Australia
  • Dave Carter
  • Paul Muller
Carter, Dave and Paul Muller (2015). The Economic and Cultural Value of Live Music in Australia 2014, University of Tasmania, Australian Live Music Office, South Australian government, City of Sydney: City of Melbourne and Live Music Office.
From the Big Dig to the Big Gig": Live Music, Urban Regeneration and Social Change in the European Capital of Culture
  • Sara Cohen
Cohen, Sara (2013). '"From the Big Dig to the Big Gig": Live Music, Urban Regeneration and Social Change in the European Capital of Culture 2008', in Carsten Wergin and Fabian Holt (eds), Musical Performance and the Changing City: Post-industrial Contexts in Europe and the United States, New York: Routledge, pp. 27-51.
Soundtracks: Popular Music, Identity and Place
  • John Connell
  • Chris Gibson
Connell, John and Chris Gibson (2003). Soundtracks: Popular Music, Identity and Place, London and New York: Routledge.
London's Grassroots Music Venues -Rescue Plan
  • Mark Davyd
  • Andrew Russell
  • Auro Foxcroft
  • Dave Webster
  • Jeff Horton
  • Paul Broadhurst
  • Tom Kiehl
Davyd, Mark, Andrew Russell, Auro Foxcroft, Dave Webster, Jeff Horton, Paul Broadhurst and Tom Kiehl (2015). London's Grassroots Music Venues -Rescue Plan, London: Greater London Authority.
De Verenigde Podiumkunstenfestivals starten met
  • Podiumkunstenfestivals De Verenigde
De Verenigde Podiumkunstenfestivals (2018). 'De Verenigde Podiumkunstenfestivals starten met "Geef een Toegift"', https ://po diumk unste nfest ivals.com/ 2018/ 02/07 /de-v ereni gde-p odium kunst enfes tival s-sta rten-met-g eef-e en-to egift /, accessed 28 June 2018.
Reverb: Adelaide's Live Music Movement, the Future of Live Music in South Australia, Adelaide: The Don Dunstan Foundation
  • Martin Elbourne
Elbourne, Martin (2013). Reverb: Adelaide's Live Music Movement, the Future of Live Music in South Australia, Adelaide: The Don Dunstan Foundation. Government of South Australia (2016). Streamlining Live Music Regulation, https ://pu blics ector.sa.g ov.au /wp-c onten t/upl oads/ Strea mlini ng-Li ve-Mu sic-R egula tion-Repor t.pdf, accessed 9 June 2019.
Streamlining Live Music Regulation
  • South Government
  • Australia
Government of South Australia (2016). Streamlining Live Music Regulation, https://publicsector.sa.gov.au/wp-content/uploads/Streamlining-Live-Music-Regulation-Report.pdf, accessed 9 June 2019.
Can Music Make You Sick
  • Sally Anne Gross
  • George Musgrave
Gross, Sally Anne and George Musgrave (2017). Can Music Make You Sick (Part 2)? Qualitative Study and Recommendations, London: MusicTank.
Musical Performance and the Changing City: Post-industrial Contexts in Europe and the United States
  • Fabian Holt
  • Carsten Wergin
Holt, Fabian and Carsten Wergin (2013). 'Introduction: Musical Performance and the Changing City', in Fabian Holt and Carsten Wergin (eds), Musical Performance and the Changing City: Post-industrial Contexts in Europe and the United States, New York, NY: Routledge, pp. 1-24.
The Popular Music Industries
  • Shane Homan
Homan, Shane (2015). 'The Popular Music Industries', in Kate Oakley and Justin O'Connor (eds), The Routledge Companion to the Cultural Industries, London: Routledge, pp. 157-67.
Live Music. Ninth Report of Session
  • House Of Commons' Digital
  • Culture
  • Sport Media
  • Committee
House of Commons' Digital, Culture, Media and Sport Committee (2019). Live Music. Ninth Report of Session 2017-19, https ://pu blica tions.parl iamen t.uk/ pa/cm 20171 9/cms elect /cmcu meds/ 733/7 33.pd f, accessed 9 June 2019.
Music Tech Startup, PEEX, Set to Launch an Interesting New Audio Device at Elton John's Concert on
  • Jordan Hussain
Hussain, Jordan (2019). 'Music Tech Startup, PEEX, Set to Launch an Interesting New Audio Device at Elton John's Concert on June 12-13', Irish Tech News, 12 June 2019, https ://ir ishte chnew s.ie/ peex-launc h-int erest ing-n ew-au dio-d evice, accessed 12 September 2019.
Keychange Manifesto: Recommendations for a Gender Balanced Music Industry
  • Keychange
Keychange (2018). Keychange Manifesto: Recommendations for a Gender Balanced Music Industry, London: PRS Foundation.
Nederlandse vrouwen gaan strijd aan met handtastelijke concertgangers' , Algemeen Dagblad
  • Chris Klomp
Klomp, Chris (2017). 'Nederlandse vrouwen gaan strijd aan met handtastelijke concertgangers', Algemeen Dagblad, 17 November 2017, https ://ww w.ad. nl/bi nnenl and/ n ederl andse -vrou wen-g aan-s trijd -aan-met-h andta steli jke-c oncer tgang ers~a 224ba c4/, accessed 12 September 2019.
Rockonomics: A Backstage Tour of What the Music Industry Can Teach Us about Economics and Life
  • Alan B Krueger
Krueger, Alan B. (2019). Rockonomics: A Backstage Tour of What the Music Industry Can Teach Us about Economics and Life, New York: Currency.
Report and Recommendations to Help Drive the Gold Coast's Reputation as a Live Music-Friendly City
  • Live Music Taskforce
Live Music Taskforce (2017). Report and Recommendations to Help Drive the Gold Coast's Reputation as a Live Music-Friendly City, http: //www.gold coast.qld. gov.a u/doc ument s/ bf/ live-music -task force -repo rt.pd f, accessed 9 June 2019.
Music Industry Development Task Force
  • London
London's Music Industry Development Task Force (2014). London Music Strategy, London, Ontario, Canada: London's Music Industry Development Task Force.
The Economic and Cultural Contributions of Live Music Venues in the City of Sydney
  • Paul Muller
  • Dave Carter
Muller, Paul and Dave Carter (2016). The Economic and Cultural Contributions of Live Music Venues in the City of Sydney, 2016, Tasmania: University of Tasmania.
A "Night Mayor" Is Transforming Amsterdam after Dark' , Citylab
  • Feargus O'sullivan
O'Sullivan, Feargus (2016). ' A "Night Mayor" Is Transforming Amsterdam after Dark', Citylab, 29 January 2016, https ://ww w.cit ylab. com/s oluti ons/2 016/0 1/nig ht-ma yor-a mster dam-m irik-milan /4338 93/, accessed 14 August 19.
Understanding Small Music Venues: A Report by the Music Venues Trust
  • Tom Parkinson
  • Mark Hunter
  • Kimberly Campanello
  • Mike Dines
  • Gareth Dylan
  • Smith
Parkinson, Tom, Mark Hunter, Kimberly Campanello, Mike Dines and Gareth Dylan Smith (2015). Understanding Small Music Venues: A Report by the Music Venues Trust, London: Music Venues Trust.
Hamilton Music Strategy Report: Background Document, Hamilton: Tourism and Culture Division of the City of Hamilton
  • Joe-Anne Priel
Priel, Joe-Anne (2014). Hamilton Music Strategy Report: Background Document, Hamilton: Tourism and Culture Division of the City of Hamilton.
The Austin Music Census, a Data Driven Assessment of Austin's Commercial Music Economy, Austin: Titan Music Group, the City of Austin's Economic Development Departments' Music and Entertainment Division
  • Nikki Rowling
Rowling, Nikki (2015). The Austin Music Census, a Data Driven Assessment of Austin's Commercial Music Economy, Austin: Titan Music Group, the City of Austin's Economic Development Departments' Music and Entertainment Division.
The Live Music Industry Will Be Worth $31 Billion Worldwide by 2022
  • Daniel Sanchez
Sanchez, Daniel (2018). 'The Live Music Industry Will Be Worth $31 Billion Worldwide by 2022', Digital Music News, October 26, https ://ww w.dig italm usicn ews.c om/20 18/10 /26/l atest -live -musi c-rev enue-31bil lion-2022/, accessed 2 July 2019.
Analyse van de Ontwikkelingen in de Bedrijfsvoering van de Nederlandse Poppodia
  • Van Dalen
  • Harmen Thomas
  • Van Der
  • Frans Hoek
  • Vreeke
Van Dalen, Thomas, Harmen Van der Hoek and Frans Vreeke (2009). Het Grote Poppodium Onderzoek 2008. Analyse van de Ontwikkelingen in de Bedrijfsvoering van de Nederlandse Poppodia, Bussum and Amsterdam: Vreeke & Van Dalen.
De waarde van pop 2.0. De Maatschappelijke Betekenis van Popmuziek
  • Van Vugt
Van Vugt, Jasper (2018). De waarde van pop 2.0. De Maatschappelijke Betekenis van Popmuziek, Amsterdam: POPnl en Vereniging Nederlandse Poppodia en -Festivals.
De Effenaar Eindhoven wordt een "smart venue"' , Eindhovens Dagblad
  • Hans Vermeeren
Vermeeren, Hans (2019). 'De Effenaar Eindhoven wordt een "smart venue"', Eindhovens Dagblad, 11 June 2019, https ://ww w.ed. nl/ei ndhov en/de -effe naar-eindh oven-wordt -een-smart -venu e~a21 51552 /, accessed 12 September 2019.
The Economic, Social and Cultural Contribution of Venue-Based Live Music in Victoria
Deloitte Access Economics (2011). The Economic, Social and Cultural Contribution of Venue-Based Live Music in Victoria, Melbourne: Arts Victoria.