Technical ReportPDF Available

The Val Lille Urban Community Metro's Experience 1972 - 2001

Abstract

Since 1981, about twenty automatic urban transport of conventional type systems are under operation in actual urban centre services and several systems are planned or under construction (Turin, Lausanne). In all the cases, these are systems running on segregated right of way, fully automated, with quite different vehicle characteristics. The application of fully automated driverless operation to the new transit systems is the consequence of a research of technical performances (high speeds, reducing intervals between trains, increasing safety) not possible with manually operated trains. Indeed, at the peak hours on the urban metro of Paris and other networks in the world, most of the lines have been manually operated for twenty years yet automatically at least at peak hours, that is to say at those where operation must be the most efficient and where drivers would have to apply more concentration than humanly possible. The user benefits from the high frequency brought by full automation, avoiding long waiting times in station. This quality gives further attraction to public transport. In addition, this high frequency also can be obtained at off-peak hours by cutting trains between peak and off-peak hours which brings operation supplementary flexibility. High frequency of passage has another advantage on civil engineering costs of transit systems : at equal capacity the light rail (Grenoble type) running with 3 unit trains every 4 minutes offers a capacity of 7800 p/h/d, the AGT (VAL type) running with 1 unit train with an interval of 72 seconds offers a 8000 p/h/d1 capacity. In the first case the platform length is 90 m, in the second case the platform length is 26 m. The innovations brought to the traditional modes of transport system have greatly spurred the improvement of the networks productivity. The rapid progress of technologies linked to the electronics and computing leads to increased gains in productivity bestowing on the public transport networks a growing tendency to automation. The objectives to minimise the costs of a means of transport, adapted to a demand whose importance and structure normally justify a metro, all by giving to users a high service quality have permitted to define for Lille the small gauge of VAL's system, its short passing headway at the peak hour and the technical and economical necessity to conceive its automatic integral control. This type of driverless automation on board, has given place to particular technical solutions which would not be the same for other metros manually operated : ie. the landing doors on the platforms, the numerous redundancies of certain equipment items allowing to guaranty a very high availability without need of an immediate human intervention and the necessity to highly develop the means of monitoring and communication. April 1983 : the Lille subway opens for commercial operation. Experimental operation with the public had been going since April 1982. The VAL system, for which the LILLE SUBWAY constitutes the first application, is thus one of the first entirely automatic urban transport systems, that is to say, without any staff being permanently placed on the trains or in the stations.
INSTITUT NATIONAL DE RECHERCHE
SUR LES TRANSPORTS ET LEUR SÉCURITÉ
Francis KUHN
THE VAL
LILLE URBAN COMMUNITY METRO’S
EXPERIENCE
1972 - 2001
PRESENTATION TO KOREAN RAILWAY RESEARCH INSTITUTE, KRRI,
SEOUL
27 JULY 2001
THE VAL : LILLE URBAN COMMUNITY SUBWAY’S EXPERIENCE 1972 – 2001 2
F. KÜHN PRESENTATION of 27 July 2001 to KRRI 1/03/02
The Author :
Francis KÜHN , Research Engineer.
In the period 1979 – 1984, F. KÜHN was engineer in the metro department of EPALE, the
Public Agency in charge of the design and building the new town of Villeneuve d’Ascq and the
first line of VAL between Villeneuve d’Ascq and Lille,
Research Department of INRETS :
LTN, New Technologies Laboratory
2 avenue du Général Malleret – Joinville
94114 ARCUEIL Cedex
Téléphone : 33 1 47 40 70 00 – Fax : 33 1 45 47 56 06
E – mail : kuhn@inrets.fr
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
F. KÜHN wishes to express his gratitude to M. Byung-Song LEE and Jai-Kyun MOK of
KRRI to invite him in their Institute, and M. Gérard COQUERY Director of the Laboratory
LTN of INRETS who authorised him to go to Seoul and to :
Mme Nathalie DUQUENNE, INRETS-ESTAS,
Mme Claudie LECLERCQ, CUDL,
M. Olivier DECORNET, TRANSPOLE
M. Jacques DELEBARRE, CUDL,
M. GUIRAUD, CUDL,
The public relations department of MTI
For their informations about the VAL and the LILLE’s transit network.
© Reproduction autorisée si mention de la source.
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F. KÜHN PRESENTATION of 27 July 2001 to KRRI 1/03/02
Contents
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS..................................................................................................................2
CONTENTS ............................................................................................... 1
1. THE FUNDAMENTAL OPTIONS.....................................................................................................7
1.1. The objectives...................................................................................................................7
1.2. The means........................................................................................................................8
2. THE TECHNOLOGY....................................................................................................................9
2.1. The rolling stock ...............................................................................................................9
2. 1. 1. The VAL 206..............................................................................................................9
2. 1. 2. The VAL 206 S..........................................................................................................11
2. 1. 3. The VAL 208............................................................................................................11
2.2. The permanent way ..........................................................................................................14
2.3. Automatic devices............................................................................................................16
2. 3. 1. Train position detection..............................................................................................17
2. 3. 2. Vehicle speed control .................................................................................................18
2. 3. 3. Traffic control ..........................................................................................................18
Telemonitoring : the operating and control center ......................................................................18
3. SAFETY AND AVAILABILITY.....................................................................................................19
4. OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE ...............................................................................................21
5. DEVELOPMENT OF THE VAL NETWORK.......................................................................................23
5.1. Description.....................................................................................................................24
5.2. The network : key figures.................................................................................................25
5.3. The organisation of the modes of transport............................................................................26
6. THE ECONOMICS OF VAL..........................................................................................................28
6.1. Labor productivity............................................................................................................28
6. 2. Operating results.............................................................................................................29
6. 3. Investment costs.............................................................................................................31
6. 3. 1. Site type and investment.............................................................................................32
6. 3. 2. Operation speeds ......................................................................................................34
6. 3. 3. Operating headway and service quality ...........................................................................34
6. 3. 4. Capacity.................................................................................................................34
6. 3. 5. Operating Costs........................................................................................................35
7. AUTOMATIC GUIDED TRANSIT'S EVOLUTIONS .............................................................................. 37
8. MANLESS SYSTEMS IN URBAN TRANSIT APPLICATIONS ...................................................................39
8. 1. The evolution of automation in mass transit system..............................................................39
8. 2. The unique advantages of manless operation.........................................................................40
9. CONCLUSION.........................................................................................................................42
REFERENCES .........................................................................................................................42
VAL SYSTEM CHARACTERISTICS..........................................................................................44
System Performance ...............................................................................................................44
Unit Performance.................................................................................................................44
Stations............................................................................................................................ 45
Reliability & safety .............................................................................................................45
VAL Vehicle Characteristics.....................................................................................................47
Dimensions .......................................................................................................................47
Suspension........................................................................................................................ 47
Propulsion & braking...........................................................................................................47
Body................................................................................................................................48
VAL 208..............................................................................................................................48
Characteristics....................................................................................................................48
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F. KÜHN PRESENTATION of 27 July 2001 to KRRI 1/03/02
Options.............................................................................................................................48
Dimensions of VAL 208 ........................................................................................................49
Capacity............................................................................................................................49
Propulsion & braking ...........................................................................................................49
Body ................................................................................................................................50
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F. KÜHN PRESENTATION of 27 July 2001 to KRRI 1/03/02
Since 1981, about twenty automatic urban transport of conventional type systems are under
operation in actual urban centre services and several systems are planned or under construction
(Turin, Lausanne). In all the cases, these are systems running on segregated right of way, fully
automated, with quite different vehicle characteristics.
The application of fully automated driverless operation to the new transit systems is the
consequence of a research of technical performances (high speeds, reducing intervals between
trains, increasing safety) not possible with manually operated trains. Indeed, at the peak hours
on the urban metro of Paris and other networks in the world, most of the lines have been
manually operated for twenty years yet automatically at least at peak hours, that is to say at those
where operation must be the most efficient and where drivers would have to apply more
concentration than humanly possible.
The user benefits from the high frequency brought by full automation, avoiding long waiting
times in station. This quality gives further attraction to public transport. In addition, this high
frequency also can be obtained at off-peak hours by cutting trains between peak and off-peak
hours which brings operation supplementary flexibility. High frequency of passage has another
advantage on civil engineering costs of transit systems : at equal capacity the light rail (Grenoble
type) running with 3 unit trains every 4 minutes offers a capacity of 7800 p/h/d, the AGT (VAL
type) running with 1 unit train with an interval of 72 seconds offers a 8000 p/h/d1 capacity. In
the first case the platform length is 90 m, in the second case the platform length is 26 m.
The innovations brought to the traditional modes of transport system have greatly spurred the
improvement of the networks productivity. The rapid progress of technologies linked to the
electronics and computing leads to increased gains in productivity bestowing on the public
transport networks a growing tendency to automation.
The objectives to minimise the costs of a means of transport, adapted to a demand whose
importance and structure normally justify a metro, all by giving to users a high service quality
have permitted to define for Lille the small gauge of VAL's system, its short passing headway at
the peak hour and the technical and economical necessity to conceive its automatic integral
control.
This type of driverless automation on board, has given place to particular technical solutions
which would not be the same for other metros manually operated : ie. the landing doors on the
platforms, the numerous redundancies of certain equipment items allowing to guaranty a very
high availability without need of an immediate human intervention and the necessity to highly
develop the means of monitoring and communication.
April 1983 : the Lille subway opens for commercial operation. Experimental operation with the
public had been going since April 1982. The VAL system, for which the LILLE SUBWAY
constitutes the first application, is thus one of the first entirely automatic urban transport
systems, that is to say, without any staff being permanently placed on the trains or in the
stations.
Background
In 1971, the « Etablissement Public d’Aménagement de Lille – Est » (EPALE) opened a
competition for the in situ building of a public transit line, using small gauge and entirely
automatic rolling stock, to link the New Town of Villeneuve d’Ascq to Lille railway station. The
first phase, awarded to MATRA, comprised the construction of two vehicles prototypes and their
experimentation on a closed loop test area. At the same time the general program for the Lille
1 p/h/d : passengers per hour per direction
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F. KÜHN PRESENTATION of 27 July 2001 to KRRI 1/03/02
urban area underground system was defined by the Urban Community (Communauté Urbaine
de Lille, CUDL) : a network of four lines built in situ. Consequently, it appeared interesting to
study the compatibility of the VAL rolling stock developed at the time with the new program
(VAL is the system name and means « Véhicule Automatique Léger », i.e. Light Automated
Vehicle »). This study demonstrated that the VAL system was an attractive solution, given a few
adjustments. This result was confirmed by SOFRETU, the engineering department of the RATP
(Paris Metro Operating Company), who showed that the characteristics of the VAL could
provide a saving of 15% on capital investment and 30% on operating costs in relation to
conventional, but modern, rolling stock used on the same line2.
After various adaptation studies of the system, the Ministry of transport and the Urban
Community of Lille decided to implement the underground program, first line n°1 – 13 km and
18 stations – on basis of the VAL system. In April 1977, the contract was awarded to MATRA
for the system : guideway, mechanical and electrical equipment, rolling stock. SOFRETU3 was
responsible for the infrastructure.
Source : Eudil Lille University
The VAL prototype on the first test track in Villeneuve d’Ascq
2 A comparison was made with the MP73 metro of Paris
3 SOFRETU is nowadays called SYSTRA
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Source : (CUDL, 2001)
1. The Fundamental Options
1.1. The objectives.
The first objective of the Lille Subway was to offer a high quality service. The main features
of the service quality to which the main efforts have been directed are as follows :
- Interval between trains : no longer than 5 minutes during off-peak times and as short
as 1 minute during the rush-hours.
- Long operating hours : 20 hours in all from 5 A.M. until 1 A.M.
- Percentage of seating space : 55 % (as opposed to 30 to 40 % observed on modern
trains).
- Operating speed : 34 km/h.
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The second objective was to reduce the building cost in relation to conventional underground
systems by reducing the cost of infrastructure, which must therefore be limited in size and easy
to insert into the urban fabric. (Cf. chapter 6)
The third objective was to achieve reduced operating costs while maintaining the high quality
of service stated above. The major expense item for the operating budget of a conventional
underground system is staff. An attempt had to be made therefore to reduce staff costs.
(Cf. chapter 6)
1.2. The means
In order to reduce the infrastructure costs, it was decided to use compact and light rolling stock.
This is reflected in particular by the reduced vehicle width (2.06 m) and height (3.25 m).
Furthermore, it was decided to fit the rolling stock with tires for the following reasons :
- Reduction in noise level (especially at the viaducts) and also in the ground vibrations
produced by the track.
- High grip factor enabling considerable gradients to be used : it is possible to start up
on a gradient of 7 % with an exceptional load, even with one of the motors not
working.
The last, and most important, of the fundamental options was integral automation. Thanks to this
feature, it was possible to reduce the intervals between trains to those mentioned above (one
minute with maximum 30 seconds stopping time at the main station). It would not be possible to
achieve these times with manual operation except at the cost of considerably reducing the speed
of the trains and probably the level of safety as well. In addition, integral automation allows a
considerable reduction in the number of staff required (in a ratio of more than 2 in comparison
with a conventional underground system) while maintaining a high frequency level at off-peak
times (not more than 5 minutes between trains).
Considerable stress has often been laid on the limits of a policy of dispensing with staff in the
field of public transport. In addition to the problems of safety and public order which may be
made considerably worse, it is certain that the public needs human presence, not only to inform
him but also to give an impression that « things are being taken care of », especially when an
incident occurs.
Integral operating automation does not in fact mean dispensing with all staff but rather a
different distribution of the staff, employed in a more discerning way. Certainly there is a
considerable overall reduction in the total number of staff employed, but a dehumanization of the
subway is avoided by the use of a whole series of devices (loud-speakers, alarms, cameras, etc.)
and procedures (communications with passengers, surveillance of stations by close-circuit
television, use of mobile teams, etc) which provide information and ensure safety. It should be
noted that the whole range of technical facilities available enables efficient methods to be
provided for security, methods which are not applicable in traditional systems as they are not
equipped with these facilities.
Last, but not least, a fact has recently come to light regarding drivers on conventional
underground systems. Reduced to a passive role through automatic piloting, the driver
experiences a drop in work satisfaction, his job now consisting only of intervening in the event
of equipment failure.
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The VAL subway system does not have any drivers. However, it does have a few mobile
supervisors (cf. annex) who can intervene very quickly in the event of developing problems.
Such a formula should give the tasks of supervision a variety and an interest greater than those
currently experienced by underground train drivers, while at the same time being more efficient
thanks to the mobility of the supervisors.
2. The Technology
2.1. The rolling stock
2. 1. 1. The VAL 206
The rolling stock is made up of reversible units of two carriages which can only be split up in
the workshops and which can be formed in 2-unit trains. The decision to operate this type of
unit was made for the purpose of simplification (certain utilities, especially the supply of
electricity and compressed air for the ancillaries, are common to the two carriages), and to
provide motive power redundancy. Trains may consist of one, two or three units. At Lille initial
operation started with one unit although two units are considered in the future. Along the line 1,
the stations and their platforms are built for a two-unit trains operation.
Documentation : (CUDL, 2001)
One train on the viaduct of Lille University : see the pedestrian paths along the tracks
in case of emergency.
The running and guiding assembly is a swivel axle system and does not therefore have a bogie.
The live axle is integral with a roughly rectangular guide frame supporting four guide-wheels,
identical to those on the Paris metro, and two switching rollers. The assembly can swivel around
its vertical axis. This arrangment, added to the use of a differential gear, allows curves to be
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negotiated without any drift or slipping, thus giving much purer kinematics than a bogie on a
railway track.
Each carriage is fitted with two 120 kW (continuous rating) D.C. series-motors. Each pair of
motors is fed with 750 volts D.C. collected by shoes from guide bars. The variable shunt type
motors are controlled by an electric chopper which provides for electric braking with recovery
by reinjecting current into subway system, the motors then acting as generators. The
performance obtained with this type of motive power is 60 km/h and 80 km/h for the nominal
and maximum speeds respectively.
With the second order from Urban Community of Lille for the rolling stock of the second line
(Line 1 bis), some improvements have taken place.
The main modification affects the control of the traction motors. The current which feeds these
motors is adjusted on the new vehicles as well as the previous ones, by an « electronic chopper »
which cuts the current at fixed frequency of 300 Hz. By varying the conducting time from 0 to
90 % of the period, the output voltage of the chopper varies accordingly and therefore the
propulsion effort produced by the motors. This allows a continuous acceleration without any
bump, a precise stop and the braking with the motors working as generators of current feeding
back the line with power for supply to running trains.
The chopping of current requires thyristors which are electronic circuit breakers free of any
moving part. The thyristors which are used on the previous vehicles require complex auxiliary
circuits to switch them from position in (current passes) to off (current cut). These circuits are
monitored by protective devices to avoid the breakdowns of the chopper which may allow all the
current to pass through and would then damage the equipment. Moreover, because of the large
amount of power (300 Amperes under 750 Volts) passing through the thyristors, fans are
necessary for their cooling. Since 1988, new thyristors called GTO4 have been marketed :
- They are easy to switch off with very little waste of energy.
- Therefore, it has been possible to engineer and manufacture a very simple new
compact chopper the thyristors of which are cooled by its only contact with the
surface on which they are set (this surface is exchanging the calories with the outside
air).
- This new chopper allows a saving of power of 10 %. It requires no maintenance as
there are no fans to check or filters to clean.
- Besides, in the event of heavy snow falls, the absence of fans and filters is an
advantage as there is no possibility of filter obstruction or snow penetration in the
equipement. (Ferbeck, 1990)
In the same way, a new converter for feeding the auxiliaries (it tranforms 750 Volts DC in 72
Volts) is based on the same cooling principle, although it uses transistors because of the lesser
power.
The other important modification affects the doors of trains as well as the sliding doors in the
stations. Their pneumatic jacks were a cause for concern during cold weather. They have been
now replaced by electric motors.
4 GTO : Gate Turn Off
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In the event of a failed or disabled vehicle (or a married pair), VAL is the only system which
allows its automatic coupling and pushing by the following train. These operations are fully
automatic as they are initiate by the control center through a remote automatic sequence. The
average time to execute this sequence is five minutes which represents a sizable gain of time
when compared to the same being execute by an agent sent at site specially if interstations are
long and access difficult.
2. 1. 2. The VAL 206 S
A 206 S single vehicle, which can run on its own and not as a married pair, has been developed.
Because the new electrical equipments are more compact, it has been possible to house under the
floor of a single vehicle all the equipments which were distributed under the two bodies of a
married pair. In the same way and to make more compacts the equipments, the pneumatic brake
has been replaced by an hydraulic brake.
2. 1. 3. The VAL 208
The latest generation of vehicle for the VAL system is the VAL 208. The VAL 208 trains are
fully compatible with the trains which are already in service, but they have a completely new
design.
Documentation : (CUDL, 2001)
A VAL 208 train on the test track of 4 cantons Workshop in Villeneuve d’Ascq
The principal innovations
Due to the development of innovative technical solutions in the fields of electrical propulsion,
braking, guidance and structure of the carriage body, the VAL 208 is lighter, and the reduction in
weight, combined with the improved efficiency of its motors, produce energy savings of about
15 %. For the traveller, these new technical solutions also provide more space inside the trains,
which have more natural lighting because the window surfaces have been increased by 30 %.
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Carriage bodies
The carriage bodies were designed by Roger Talon assisted by Henri Baumgartner. The ends of
the chassis are made with moulded parts and wedded aluminium profiles. The body of the train
is made of extruded aluminium profiles, bolted together. The windows and external panels in
synthetic resin are glued. The main components of the rolling structure are in moulded
aluminium, which has contributed a lot to the lightening of the VAL 208.
Insight view of VAL 208
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F. KÜHN PRESENTATION of 27 July 2001 to KRRI 1/03/02
Source : (CUDL, 2001)
The wheel motor
Each carriage is equipped with 4 synchronous wheel motors with permanent magnets, an
innovation that was made possible by the production of the first electronic components with
sufficient capacity to control high powered motors. Each pair of motors is powered by direct
current at 750 Volts, taken from the guide rails.
These motors each develop 65 kW for a weight of only 200 kg, a particularly high power to
weight ratio, and they offer a much lower speed of rotation than a DC motor for the same power
(2,000 rounds per minute at nominal power).
Source : (CUDL, 2001) A wheel motor
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F. KÜHN PRESENTATION of 27 July 2001 to KRRI 1/03/02
Braking
Braking is carried out on the VAL 208 to a great extent by the traction system, controlled by
Matra transport automatic systems. When braking, electrical energy is recuperated and re-
injected into the network, with the motors playing the role of generators. The mechanical braking
system, which is hydraulic, takes over from electrical braking under certain conditions : at the
end of braking, for emergency braking and for the parking brake (each wheel motor carries a
disk on the side opposite the load bearing wheel, an arrangement which was made possible by
the low speed of rotation of the wheel motor and the compactness of the hydraulic parts).
Source : (CUDL, 2001)
Track obstacle detector, guide wheels ,brake disc and pad, collecting shoes, wheel motors view
2.2. The permanent way
The track is an essential element of a guided transport system (cf. figure in annex).
Source : (CUDL, 2001)
We see the running tracks, the guide bars fixed with insulating moulded polyester supports
spaced at 3.5 meter and the emergency paths along the tracks
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F. KÜHN PRESENTATION of 27 July 2001 to KRRI 1/03/02
Its qualities govern the confort and the performances (mainly because of the adhesion). It must
also support power distribution lines and the transmission of all information necessary for the
automatic devices, telemonitoring, remote controls and phone communications. Any damage to
the guideway is very penalizing for the operations (risk of line shutdown) as it is difficult to
make the repairs because this can only be performed during the few hours of traffic interruption.
In addition to these usual requirements, two particular objectives were taken into account when
designing the permanent way for the VAL system : simplicity, in order to reduce costs, and a
high grip (adhesion) factor enabling 7 % gradients to be negotiated. The permanent way
therefore comprises the running-tracks, the guide bars (which are also used to provide the
electric current), and the various automatic devices.
Various types of track have been developed by MATRA to accomodate all circumstances : the
nature of the running surfaces makes the difference between these various types.
Steel running surfaces
They are essentially made of a special H steel section (with a very large width in regard to its
height) which are grooved where necessary because of the poor adhesion which may result from
rainfalls. Trial tests have shown that because of these grooves, the stopping distances over
humid tracks were in accordance with safety margins ; in such case, it was found that VAL has a
better braking behaviour than any other metro, because of its larger wheel base between axles
which decreases the load transfer.
The steel running-tracks have been selected for line 1bis and 2 which besides its cleaning, will
necessitate no maintenance. This is definitely a major advantage of the pneumatic vehicle which
does not wear out the track.
Concrete running surfaces
The running-tracks are made up of two prefabricated reinforced concrete longitudinal beams
5.20 m (17 feet) long, 270 mm (10.6 inches) wide and 120 mm (4.5 inches) thick. The
separation for expansion between these longitudinal beams is 5 mm (.20 inch). A special coating
is used on elevated structures to provide adequate adhesion in the rain without abrasion to the
tires. These longitudinal beams are bolted to the concrete floor and are easy to remove.
Lateral guidance is provided by two steel H profiles which are fixed in place with insulating
moulded polyester supports spaced at 3.5 meter (11.5 feet) intervals on straight sections and 3.0
meters (9.8 feet) on curves. Electrical insulating supports are necessary because the lateral
guidance beams provide simultaneously provide propulsion power. One of these bars acts as the
positive rail and the other acts as the negative rail. The lateral guidance wheels run on the side of
this H section 200 mm (7.9 inches) above the running surface.
The climate of the Lille area has necessitated the provision of heating for the running-tracks and
guide-bars in the above ground sections to maintain good adhesion and current pick-up in the
event of icy or frosty weather.
The automatic equipment mainly comprises a « carpet » (flat duct) 170 mm (6.69 inches) wide
containing the various power lines (cf.figure in annex).
The permanent way thus constructed is hardly any more complicated than a conventional railway
track with a third rail. As regards track switching devices, it is even simpler. Yet switching has
always been a tricky problem for subway trains using tires. For the Lille subway, a simple, quick
and reliable switching device was required. Each axle has therefore been fitted with two metal
rollers located in the axis of the vehicle. When they come over the points, these rollers engage in
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a groove formed by two rails and fitted with a point which sends the train in the desired
direction. The smallness of the point, both in length and especially in width (50 mm or 1.96
inches)) allows switching operations to be done quickly (3 secs.) and reliably. The switching
device which has been designed is therefore even simpler than the conventional systems as it
only has one point instead of two.
2.3. Automatic devices
A certain number of requirements had to be taken into account when defining what automatic
devices were needed :
- The interval between trains should be brought down to less than a minute with 30
seconds maximum stopping time at stations.
- The precision with which the trains stop at stations must be greater than 30 cm. The
platforms are in fact fitted with landing doors opposite which the train must stop.
- The absence of staff on board the trains necessitates a high level of reliability and
safety.
Source : (CUDL, 2001)
The platform facades or platform doors « an impassable glass barrier »
The precision of train stops in a VAL station with the landing doors
Command and control system
The VAL command and control system is designated to operate fully automatically. It is
fundamentally a fixed block system. The command and control system consist of the hardware
and software necessary to provide the following functions :
- Automatic Train Protection (ATP)
- Automatic Train Operation (ATO)
- Automatic Train Supervision (ATS)
- Manual back-up Mode Operations.
ATP functions perform all sections necessary to provide safe operations regardless of
malfunctions.
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ATO functions perform all non-safety-related automatic vehicle operations.
ATS functions provide a capability to change modes of operations.
Manual back-up mode operations are used in the event of a malfunction that cannot be safely
resumed in an automaticc mode.
The ATP, ATO, and ATS functions are performed by control system equipment distributed at
three locations : the Control Center, the wayside, and on board the vehicle. A block diagram of
the control system equipment is given in figure 5 of annex. The command and control
equipment is as follows :
- Control Center equipment consists of control display panels, computers, and data
communications equipment.
- Wayside control equipment consists of wayside control and communications units
(WCU), dwell operation control unit (DOCU), data transmission units (DTU),
transmission lines, ultrasonic detectors (UD) and visual signals. This equipment is
located both in the station and along the guideway.
- On-board train control equipment includes : the safety and control equipment,
including redundant ATP and ATO electronics and power supplies ; uplink receivers
to receive unit speed commands, remote commands, and voice communication via the
guideway transmission line ; two redundant downlink transmitters for passenger unit
presence detection signals ; a downlink transmitter for ATS and one transmitter for
voice communications ; two redundant tachometers per car generating a voltage
proportional to speed ; and two redundant phonic wheels producting pulses for each
3.81 mm (0.15 inch) advancement of the vehicle.
- Circulation of units in the yard is entirely automatic, or remotely controlled from the
control center, except into the workshop. Storage of the units is managed by the
Control Center computer as part of the ATO of the line.
2. 3. 1. Train position detection
The track is divided into blocks grouped together into autonomous sections corresponding
generally to one or two interstations. The presence of trains in the blocks is controlled for safety
purposes by a ground based logic system, located in the technical quarters of the stations. This
logic system makes allowance for the direction in which the trains are travelling as they enter
and leave each block.
The principle of train detection is shown in figure 2 of annex. It uses :
- Negative detection of any train at the limits of zones corresponding to each wayside
equipment, using the occultation of an ultrasonic or infra-red beam modulated at 34
kHz,
- Trains emission of carriers inbto the transmission line,
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- Tracking of trains using a vital logic. This logic is fully failsafe and detects any failure
in the transmission system. This characteristic is used for the emergency evacuation
function. In case of emergency, passengers may pull an emergency handle that breaks
the power supply of on-board antennas. This situation is detected by wayside
equipment that releases the emergency braking of all trains on the section and opens
traction power breakers in the power substations. (Lardennois, 1994)
2. 3. 2. Vehicle speed control
Control is carried out by a system of two twin wire crossed transmission lines situated in the
carpet. The first twin wire transmission line is fitted with cross points whose distance apart
determines the normal operation program. The second line, which is of the same type,
determines the disturbed operation program, with a halt at the end of the block. If there is an
incident, for example the abnormal occupation of the following block, the system stops the train
from reading the normal operation program and forces it to read the disturbed operation
program, which results in the train coming to a halt at the end of the block. (CUDL, 1999)
2. 3. 3. Traffic control
The operating program for a given day is fed into the Control and Command Post (CCP),
computer in the form of a timetable giving the terminus departure times. In addition, in the
storage of the computer are the nominal operating programs for the various interstations in
addition to the stopping times at stations.
On the basis of this data the CCP can transmit to each station the theoretical arrival time of the
next train. The station equipment determines whether the train is early or late in relation to this
theoritecal timetable and intervenes as follows to remedy any discrepancies :
- Variation of stopping time at the station,
- Speed instruction given to the train (+/- 20 km/h depending on whether the train is late
or early),
- Finally, if the time difference is too great, the CCP alters the timetable in all the stations
so as to maintain the scheduled train frequency.
Telemonitoring : the operating and control center
The CCP makes available to the operating staff a set of facilities designed to regulate train
movements under the best conditions. During normal operation, the CCP staff does not
intervene in the running of the system. Their role is essentially one of monitoring operations,
except in the case of starting and stopping services and adapting train frequency to meet
demands.
In the event of a problem arising, the CCP staff will have to intervene actively. To this end, they
have available to them a great amount of information and remote control facilities enabling them,
for instance, to initiate the switching over to redundant equipment or to take over control from
certain automatic devices. It is from the CCP, which has more than 40,000 remote measurements
and remote commands, that the commands are issued for the introduction and withdrawal of
metro trains to and from the lines, from the garages where they are parked and in accordance
with well defined protocols.
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Once the train is on the line, it is taken in charge by the automatic pilot of the system, by means
of the detection and command equipment situated on the line, in the stations and on board.
However, the CCP can intervene remotely at any time on all the trains and equipment.
Information for passengers and the control of their behaviour are provided by interphone and
closed-circuit television networks. These links enable the passengers to get in touch with the
CCP.
Source : CUDL, 2001)
Inside the CCP
Installed at Gare Lille Flandres, the Control Center sees, hears and observes everything. At the
heart of the setup, there is the Optical track Diagram (TCO), a vast led diagram which provides a
very detailed display of the track routes and indicates the position of all the trains. Video
monitors show pictures of what is going on on the platforms : so, the operators can constantly
check the operating programs pre-established for each day. At any time, the operators can
contact the intervention teams and ask them to go to a given point in the network.
On VAL, a passenger never feels alone ; all the trains are equipped with easily accessible
intercoms. This means that, at any time the passengers can contact an operator at the CCP. This
also works in the other way, since if there is an incident, the intercom comes on automatically.
The CCP can then listen to what is going on in the vehicle. (Duquenne, 2001)
3. Safety and Availability
As regards safety, integral automation does not pose any new problem. In fact, on a great
number of subway networks and railways, were most safety functions are performed
automatically either in whole or in part, the operating conditions are such that any failure of the
automatic devices endangering safety would rarely give the driver any chance of avoiding the
accident. In fact, the only new safety functions on the Lille subway relate to :
- The movement of the trains along the platform when leaving a station which is
traditionally controlled by the guard. The adopted solution, viz. the closing off of the
platform edges with doors, is in fact an extension of the use of the well-known
arrangment used on lifts ;
- The cutting off of the traction current in the event of the emergency evacuation of
trains in between stations. This has led us to provide the possibility of switching the
current off from inside the train and to make this feature available to passengers. The
device is located above each of the doors and brings all the trains in the section to a
standstill and unlocks the door.
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As regards the automatic safety devices in particular, we have rigorously implemented the criteria
of intrinsic (or positive) safety as applied to railways. When considering the types of component
failures in electronic circuits, we assumed the most pessimistic situations.
If the problems of safety are not new in nature, integral automation poses special difficulties.
This led us on the one hand to carry out a very extensive study of the reliability of each piece of
equipment, and on the other hand, to provide for the taking of certain measures to limit the
duration of any problems :
- Redundancy provided for virtually all the equipment required for train movement ; The
switching over from one piece of equipment to the other is done by remote control
from the OCC ;
- In the rare case where switching over to a redundant piece of equipement is either
impossible or of no use, it is possible to push a train using the train behind, the
operation being entire remote controlled and not requiring any on-the-spot
intervention staff ;
- As a last resort, simplified manual control devices enable control to be regained of the
vehicles from the stations (operation of landing doors and starting order) and
terminuses (control of routes and points).
It is thus possible to achieve an availability comparable with that of a subway with a driver or
guard on board. (Tremong, 1985)
Source : (CUDL, 2001)
Landing doors in a station on viaduct
Source : (CUDL, 2001)
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Landing doors and comfort accessibility
In order to increase passengers safety, and improve protection against vandalism, there are
several improvements of VAL system, the most significant against vandalism is the evolution of
emergency evacuation function.
The International Public Transit Union (UITP) gives recommendation for processing
emergency evacuation in metro tunnels. The basis of these recommendations is, that in case of
fire with production of smoke, the worst place for leaving passengers is the tunnel. Indeed, there
are life hazards due to suffocation, while the visibility is very low.
UITP recommends, in case of an emergency stop handle is pulled by a passenger, to try to
continue the trip until the next station. Three restrictive conditions have been defined in Lille
application case :
- The train speed has to be maintained over 1m/s
- The maximum delay is 3 minutes
- The availability of car’s intercoms
If these three conditions are satisfied, the emergency handle action is differed and can be
rearmed at distance by the CCP ;
This improvement called « UITP emergency against vandalism » has decreased the delays. In
1997, without this evolution, the delays due to emergency handle action were 500 minutes. In
1999, with this improvement the delays were 200 minutes. (Duquenne, 2001)
4. Operation and Maintenance
As state above, during normal trouble-free steady operation, the system works without any
intervention from the staff. The transition stages (placing train in the depot and taking them out,
shunting) or remotely controlled from the CCP, train operation being completely automated even
in the terminuses and depot. At the CCP, operation is normally ensured by a person in charge of
the CCP and one to five controllers for Line 1 (variable, depending on the amount of traffic).
The distribution of these controllers along line 1 is based on the following five posts :
- Three line and station management posts ;
- The control desk for the management of the terminuses and the depot ;
- The control desk for power distribution and management of track ancillaries.
The line staff is distributed as follows :
- Depending on the time of day, one to three trouble-shooting teams of two technicians
based in the principal stations ;
- Two to four itinerant inspectors ;
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F. KÜHN PRESENTATION of 27 July 2001 to KRRI 1/03/02
- Two inspectors permanently stationed in the terminuses.
Given the long operating hours (20 hours per day), the total number of operating staff will be
around eighty. In addition to this staff, a brigade of the urban police force is assigned to special
subway duty.
In order to improve the safety, rapidity and ease of work, the workshops have not been fitted
with pits but with sets of synchronized cylinder lifts enabling a complete unit to be lifted up
without uncoupling. The workshops also include several automatic test rigs for electronic
equipment.
A test track (700 m of double track) is provided to complete testing if necessary.
Source : (CUDL, 2001)
Quatre Cantons Line 1 workshop.
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5. Development of the VAL network
On 3rd february 1984, the Lille Urban Community Council adopted the path for the first part of
line 2 (then called line 1bis), connecting Lille to the Western part of the area, across 12 km and
18 stations. On 3rd April 1989, the line was put into commercial service between the « Saint
Philibert » station in Lomme and the « Gare de Lille Flandres » station in the centre of Lille.
Following discussion on 10th July 1989, 17th November 1989 and 21st December 1990, the
Lille Urban Community decided to continue development of metro line 2 towards the North of
the urban area, between Lille, Roubaix and Tourcoing (20 km and 25 stations). On 5th May
1994, a section of the line was opened between stations « Gare Lille Flandres » and « Gare Lille
Europe ».
Line 2 will be progressively put into full service, to be completed by the year 2000 ; finally, the
whole of line number 2, between « St Philibert » in Lomme and « C.H. Dron » in Tourcoing,
will cover 32 km and 43 stations.
This line is made up of :
- The « St Philibert » - « gare Lille-Flandres » section (12 km, 18 stations). It was
opened to the public in april 1989. This first part of line 2 links the SNCF train station
Lille Flandres to the Lambersart and Lomme communes, to the West of the city area,
passing through the South of Lille, along the boulevards on the ring road. It crosses
the first line at two stations : « Gare Lille – Flandres and « Porte des Postes ».
- The « Gare Lille Flandres » - « C.H. Dron » section (20 km, 25 stations). This line is
being developed towards the Nrth of the city area to link Lille to the communes of
Roubaix and Tourcoing. This operation consists of 4 stages, to be broken up as
follows :
- The « Gare Lille – Flandres » - « gare Lille-Europe » section. About 500 meters
long, it serves the TGV train station, the Euralille International Business Center
and the fringes of the St Maurice quarter. This section was put into service on
5th may 1994.
- The « Gare Lille Europe » - « Fort de Mons » section. This section, 3 km long,
follows the axis of the rue du Faubourg de Roubaix in Lille and serves the
Mons-en-Baroeul city : it was under operation in february 1995 ;
- The « Fort de Mons » - « Tourcoing centre ». over about 13 km, this section
serves, successiveley, the cities of Villeneuve d’Ascq, Wasquehal, Croix,
Roubaix and stopped temporarily in the centre of Tourcoing. It was under
operation in March 1999.
- The « Tourcoing Centre » - « C.H.Dron » section. Over 3 km long, the line
crosses the North of Tourcoing as far as the Dron Hospital. It was into service
on November 2000.
In this way, the public transport development plan, defined in 1974, has progressively become a
reality.
The first version of the VAL, Villeneuve d’Ascq to Lille, has been replaced by the metropolitan
VAL which from now one appears to be the backbone for public transport in the area.
THE VAL : LILLE URBAN COMMUNITY SUBWAY’S EXPERIENCE 1972 – 2001 24
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5.1. Description
The VAL system in service in Lille, France came about originally from the planning of a new
town, four miles from Lille, called Villeneuve d’Ascq. During planning of the new town, it was
decided that rapid transit service was needed between Villeneuve d’Ascq and Lille. High
frequency but inexpensive service was considered fundamental to the system’s success.
Date STEP
1972 MATRA VAL system is selected : a one mile test tract is built to qualify the
system
1977 Turnkey contract for line 1 : 13 km (8 miles), 18 stations
1980 Qualification of the VAL system by UMTA5 after 15 days of continuous
operation on the test track
1982 Revenue service on the first section : 4 km (2.5 miles), 4 stations
1983 May Revenue service on the second section : 9.6 km (6 miles), 13 stations.
1983 Dec. Revenue service on the entire line : 13 km (8 miles), 18 stations
1984 Feb. The CUDL adopted the path for the first part of line 2 (called line 1 bis)
1989 April The line 1 bis was put into service from station « St Philibert » in Lomme to
station « Gares de Lille » in Lille
1989 July The CUDL decided to continue the development of metro line 2 to the north
of the conurbation, between Lille, Roubaix, and Tourcoing (20 km and 25
stations).
1994 May Opening of a 500 meters section of line 2 between « Gares de Lille » station et
« Lille Europe » station.
1995 Mar. Openeing of the Lille Europe – Fort de Mons section of VAL line 2 ( 3 km, 4
stations, subway depot for 22 trains).
1999 Aug. Opening of the « Fort de Mons – Tourcoing centre » line 2 section of 13 km.
2000 Nov. Opening of the « Tourcoing Centre – C.H. Dron » line 2 section of 3 km.
5 UMTA : Urban Mass Transportation Administration
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F. KÜHN PRESENTATION of 27 July 2001 to KRRI 1/03/02
5.2. The network : key figures
A diversified network that has several modes of transport
The TRAIN
8 railway lines in a star shape around Lille Flandres station
120 km of railways
32 communes served
41 stations
The VAL
2 lines
45 km served and 62 stations in 2000
143 trains in service in 2000
35 stations with connections to one or more bus or tram routes
The TRAM
1 line in the form of a Y
19 km served and 36 stops
24 tram vehicles
14 stops with connections to one or more bus routes
BUSES
36 urban bus routes and 42 suburban coach routes,
including 8 cross frontier routes with Belgium
311 urban buses and 100 coaches
800 km of routes
more than 1500 bus stops
TAXIS on REQUEST
29 taxis terminals
linking 26 suburban communes to the metro
Source : (CUDL, 2001)
THE VAL : LILLE URBAN COMMUNITY SUBWAY’S EXPERIENCE 1972 – 2001 26
F. KÜHN PRESENTATION of 27 July 2001 to KRRI 1/03/02
The urban community of Lille has 1,100,000 inhabitants, who live in 87 communes in an area of
a little more than 600 square km. The conurbation has many centres, and includes 4 important
focal points – Lille, Roubaix, Tourcoing and Villeneuve d’Ascq and continues beyond the
Belgian frontier, where almost 500,000 people live. Such a large urban structure involves a great
deal of movement, and called for a modern, diversified network of public transport which
encourages interchangeability to simplify the movements of its inhabitants.
5.3. The organisation of the modes of transport
The public transport network is organised around the heavy network which is well developed in
the territory of the Urban Community, with the TER (Regional Express Train), metro and tram :
- The TER allows acces to the metropolis and handles medium and long distance
journeys ;
- The metro and the tram offer frequent and rapid service to the most highly populated
urban areas ;
- The buses handle local service for urban areas and connection to main lines ;
- The coaches, which also handle connections to main lines, provide suburban and inter-
city connections ;
- The taxi terminals provide an additional service to peripheral areas ;
- The specialised services for handicapped people provide a service on request in the
conurbation.
Source : (CUDL, 2001)
Lille Europe High Speed Train Station
THE VAL : LILLE URBAN COMMUNITY SUBWAY’S EXPERIENCE 1972 – 2001 27
F. KÜHN PRESENTATION of 27 July 2001 to KRRI 1/03/02
Source : (CUDL, 2001)
A Tram line Terminal
Source : (CUDL, 2001)
An articulated bus PR 180 of bus network
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F. KÜHN PRESENTATION of 27 July 2001 to KRRI 1/03/02
6. The economics of VAL
6.1. Labor productivity
As developed for VAL, automation not only means driverless operation and high frequency at
low labor operation costs, but also a fully developed ATS6 with fully monitored systems
resulting in considerable savings in maintenance costs. By combining driverless train operation
with state of the art maintenance facilities, the VAL system achieves a quantum leap in labor
productivity. This high labor productivity is illustrated in the fact that wages and salaries account
for 43 %7 of total operating expenses. This proportion compares with 65 to 75 % for most
transportation systems in operation today.
Total 1988 staff for Lille line n° 1 (13 km and 18 stations) was 183 agents (cf details in annex)
A good measure of overall productivity is the ratio between total staff and number transported
by year.
The VAL of Lille with a staff of 183 in 1988 and ridership of 29,4 million has reached a ratio of
160,600 passengers per employee per year, a productivity nearly twice as high as the best
manually operated systems worldwide.
With the opening of Lille’s second line, total length has doubled, as well as the number of
stations and the fleet represented 83 VAL 206 train sets. In other words the system size has
doubled, yet total staff was only 285.
The figure below shows the VAL system compared to some of the best rail systems. In 1990, a
total staff of 266 produced 44.2 million passenger trips, i.e., a productivity of 170,000 trips per
employee per year.
With the same number of agents the number of trips increased until 48 million trips in 1998, i.e.
a productivity of 180,000 trips per employee per year. If the Lille system were manually
operated, multiple shift operation would require a minimum staff of 3 operators per train set.
The net savings of VAL over a driver operated system was in the order of 250 staff in 1990 and
4298 in 2001.
Thanks to extensive telemetry, immediate knowledge of the status of all sub-assemblies, rolling
stock as well as wayside equipment, is available. This results in substantial cost savings and
explains the fleet’s availability.
In Lille, maintenance staff required was 9,5 per million car-kilometers in 1990 ; the US average
for metro rail system is 26, in the case of the Lille light rail this ratio was 27 staff per million
car-kilometers.
6 ATS : Automatic Train Supervision
7 % of wages and salaries for the first line in 1985
8 143 train sets with 3 operators each
THE VAL : LILLE URBAN COMMUNITY SUBWAY’S EXPERIENCE 1972 – 2001 29
F. KÜHN PRESENTATION of 27 July 2001 to KRRI 1/03/02
Source : (Lardennois, 1993)
6. 2. Operating results
Patronage of Lille’s automated line n°1 has grown at a remarkable rate : 21.1 million in 1984 to
29.4 million in 1988. After the second line came into service in 1989, the patronage reached 48
million by 1992 and continued to grow. Some problems of frequentation9 and fraud occured
between 1995 and 199810 : the patronage lowered in 1997 to 45 million trips but soon increased
to 48 million in 1998, 55 million trips in 1999 with the opening of 16 stations on august 1999
and 62 million trips in 2000. In the same time the linear which was of 13 km and 18 stations on
1984 increased to 45 km and 62 stations, the rolling stocks increased from 38 trains in 1984 to
143 trains in year 2000.
The global patronage of Lille transit network (Tram + Bus + Val) increased between 1982 to
2000 from 48 million trips to 106.5 million trips thanks to frequentation of VAL which
increased from 0 to 62 million trips : the buses carry around 40 million passengers a year, tram
around 9 million passengers a year.
9 a problem of bomb in Paris RER occured in 1995 and a certain psychosis appeared in urban transport
10 In december 1998 a Local Contract for Safety was signed between Lille Urban Community and the State to
increase the human presence in public transport systems : 350 Safety operatives were recruited to ensure a
peaceful atmosphere, to resolve potential conflicts by mediation and to discourage fraud.
Labour productivity of various
urban rail networks 1988 - 1990
0
50000
100000
150000
200000
1
Transit Networks
Passengers/Year/
Employee
LILLE Line 1
LILLE Line 1&1 bis
MONTREAL
STOCKHOLM
HAMBOURG
PARIS
ATLANTA
Mean Value 15
networks
THE VAL : LILLE URBAN COMMUNITY SUBWAY’S EXPERIENCE 1972 – 2001 30
F. KÜHN PRESENTATION of 27 July 2001 to KRRI 1/03/02
Evolution in Traffic VAL + TRAM + BUS
from 1982 to 2000
Source : ‘(CUDL, 2001)
19821988 1990 1994 1998 2000
Millions voyageurs TRAM
Millions voyageurs BUS
Millions voyageurs VAL
TOTAL en millions voyageurs
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
Millions voyageurs TRAM
Millions voyageurs BUS
Millions voyageurs VAL
TOTAL en millions
voyageurs
THE VAL : LILLE URBAN COMMUNITY SUBWAY’S EXPERIENCE 1972 – 2001 31
F. KÜHN PRESENTATION of 27 July 2001 to KRRI 1/03/02
Documentation : (CUDL, 2001)
Network profitability
Documentation : (CUDL, 2001)
In 1994, the expenditures to operate (12 million vehicle-km) the Val were of an amount of 190
Million Francs with a revenue of 191 Million Francs. The ratio cost / revenue was equal to
1,005 .
In 2000, the expenditures (18,54 million vehicle-km) were of an amount of 199,6 MF, the
revenue increased to 269,6 MF. The ratio cost / revenue was equal to 1,350.
6. 3. Investment costs
The Automated Guided Transit system have to run on segregated right of way. Then we
understand all the benefits of reduced geometrical size and very short headways : a comparative
analysis comparing the civil engineering costs depending on the adopted transit systems done
by Inrets (Kühn F., 1992) allowed us to verify that the construction costs are linked to the
vehicle gauge of systems and that for an equivalent capacity, the civil engineering costs (tunnel
Metro Patronage & Linear1984 -2000
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
1984
1988
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
year
million trips/ km network
VAL Patronage
linear
0
50
1
00
1
50
2
00
2
50
3
00
Million Francs
1994
2
000
Year
1994 & 2000 VAL Operating Budget
Ex p e ndit ure
Re v e nue
THE VAL : LILLE URBAN COMMUNITY SUBWAY’S EXPERIENCE 1972 – 2001 32
F. KÜHN PRESENTATION of 27 July 2001 to KRRI 1/03/02
and underground stations with the cut and cover method at a superficial level) of VAL 206 are
lower by 8.4% to 16.9% than these of Light Rail for 7000 to 20000 p/h/d capacities, with 60
seconds headways for the VAL and 90 seconds for the LRT. For a deep tunnelling construction
carried out with a Tunnel Boring Machine (TBM), the differences of civil engineering costs of
Val 206 and Light Rail are between 17.3 to 31.4% less for the VAL 206 at 7000 to 20000 p/h/d
capacities.
6. 3. 1. Site type and investment
From different implemented projects in France we find that civil engineering costs ( not
including the track) are in a range of prices such as shown in the Table below :
Civil engineering costs of VAL 206
VAL Infrastructure on Surface Elevated Underground
Costs in MF 29 to 72 78 to 130 130 to 260
Costs in M $ U.S. 3.7 to 9.2 10 to 13.8 16.7 to 33.3
Source : (Lesne J., 1992) . Value 2001; 1 US $July 2001 = 7.80 Francs .
Source : (CUDL, 2001)
Source : (CUDL, 2001)
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Tunnel boring machine for the second line
Source : (Eudil, 2001)
Toulouse's VAL on a viaduct
Source : (CUDL, 2001)
Val 208 in a deep underground
THE VAL : LILLE URBAN COMMUNITY SUBWAY’S EXPERIENCE 1972 – 2001 34
F. KÜHN PRESENTATION of 27 July 2001 to KRRI 1/03/02
Source : (CUDL, 2001)
Cut and cuver civil engineering underground
6. 3. 2. Operation speeds
Automatic guided transit can be well-adapted to the track characteristics and adopts a monitoring
speed depending on the lengths of interstations, and acceleration-deceleration (tyres vehicle)
allowed by the motorisation of the vehicles. The stop times in station are programmed, the dead
time is suppressed, the high level commercial speed, around 35 km/h in relation to a submitted
conflicts transit system, is optimised and respected. This high speed reduces the necessary
number of vehicles to carry the same amount of passengers at peak hour : thus, with a 35 km/h
commercial speed we must use a fleet of 34 Val 206 rolling stocks to carry 7000 p/h/d on a 10
km line; with a 20 km/h commercial speed we must use a fleet of 51 Light Rail rolling stocks
(Grenoble type) that is to say 50% more.
6. 3. 3. Operating headway and service quality
The adopted headways on Lille's first line at the peak hour are between 60 and 100, 120 and
130 seconds and 3 to 6 minutes at off-peak hours and by night. This short headway allows a
service quality that cannot be offered by Light Rail subjected to traffic jams. The AGT has also
the regularity of a metronome, and a high degree of flexibility. We measure on VAL's operation
during 99.7 % of the time a running regularity at one second near. Automation allows for
substantial adaptability ; thus when there is a drift of peak hour with abnormal crowding, a
remote control signal from the central control room allows the injection of several trains without
the time needed to organise drivers, to oversee the staff, to plan the operating schedule, etc. The
operator adapts better to the users demand, which brings to the transport user another service
quality. ( Frémaux D., 1993).
6. 3. 4. Capacity
At the peak hour, with a minimum headway of 60 seconds the supply11 can be of 9600 p/h/d12.,
and increases until 19200 p/h/d with a two-car train at a normal load and 26160 p/h/d.
(excep.load).
As for VAL system, 4 lines under operation totalling 42.3 km in 1997 allows us to give the cost
of civil engineering and the cost of the specific equipment linked to the integral automated
11 At a normal load a VAL 206 car type carries around 160 pass.(4pass./m2) and 218 pass. (6 pass./m2) at an
exceptional load
12 p/h/d : passengers per hour per direction
THE VAL : LILLE URBAN COMMUNITY SUBWAY’S EXPERIENCE 1972 – 2001 35
F. KÜHN PRESENTATION of 27 July 2001 to KRRI 1/03/02
system control and the rolling stock. These costs are in a range of prices such as shown in the
Table below:
VAL investment costs
Source : (Lesne J., 1992). Value jan. 2001;
U.S.$ July 2001 = 7.80 Francs
We found that the mean cost per km for 42.3 km under operation before 1997 is 49 M US $
(value 2001). The last information given by CUDL was for the construction of the last 16.5 km
the cost was 5587 MF(716 M US $) i.e. 338 MF/km (43.3 M US $).
They bought 60 trains for 1085 MF (139 M US $) to operate the 19 km added since 1994 that
is to say 57 MF per km operated (7.3 M US $). If we add the 2 figures we found 395 MF (50.6
M US$) per km : this mean cost is similar to the result of the table above.
The cost range of "Civil Engineering" comes from the percentage of underground works : thus,
2 lines with 75% of their length in tunnel, one line with 90% of its length, at last one line with
40% of its length in tunnel.
The cost range of "Transit system" can be explained by the number of trains/km operated on
each line : thus, 2 lines operating 3.26 trains/km, 1 line with 2.98 trains/km, at last 1 line with
1.11 train/km.
The Light Rail lines are designed to supply of around 2500 p/h/d with one-car trains, the VAL's
lines are designed to supply 9600 p/h/d with one unit trains.
The commercial speed of Light Rail is around 20 km/h in France while the commercial speed of
VAL is 35 km/h, this being principally due to the necessary segregated right of way to operate
an Automatic Guided Transit.
6. 3. 5. Operating Costs
From a comparative analysis of French Metros operating costs we take the operation costs of
Lille's metro for the year 1986 (after 2 full years of operation of the first line 13.3 km long with
38 one unit trains), for the year 1988 (61 trains), for the year 1990 (2 lines of 25.3 km long
under operation with 83 trains), for the year 1995 (2 lines of 28.6 km long under operation with
83 trains), and for the year 2000 (2 lines of 45 km in operation with 143 trains) the amount of
supplied passenger places-km, of annual trips with the corresponding costs are represented in
the table below in Francs & Dollars (without general and structural expenses, and taxes).
Expenditures Cost in MF,
M. US $ per km
Average in MF,
M US.$ per km
Percentage
of total cost
Civil Engineering 128 to 334 MF
16.4 to 42.8 M$
231 MF
29.6 M$
61%
Transit System 120 to 180 MF
15.4 to 23 M$
150 MF
19.2 M$
39%
Total 248 to 514 MF
31.2 to 66 M$
381 MF
49 M$
THE VAL : LILLE URBAN COMMUNITY SUBWAY’S EXPERIENCE 1972 – 2001 36
F. KÜHN PRESENTATION of 27 July 2001 to KRRI 1/03/02
VAL Operating Costs
Source : (Dtt, 1995), (Dtt, 1990). (Kühn, 1997) & (CUDL, 2001)
P.P.K : Passenger Place-km. with 6 passengers/m2
Average value of US$ :1 $ 86= 6.93 Francs; 1$ 88= 5.96 Francs;
1$ 90 = 5.45 Francs; 1$ 95= 5.30Francs ; 1$ 2001 = 7,80 Francs
LILLE’s VAL 1986 1988 1990 1995 2000
P.P.K. x 106 643 681 1260 1396 2021
Trips x 10627 29 44 51 62
Operating
costs in MF
In US $
65 MF
9.4 M $
73 MF
12.2 $
115 MF
21.1M $
155 MF
29.2 M$
200 MF
28.7 M$
P.P.K. cost
In Francs
In US Cents
0.101 F
1.4 Cts
0.107F
1.79 Cts
0.091F
1.67 Cts
0.111 F
2 Cts
0.098 F
1.4 Cts
Trip cost
In Francs
In US Cents
2.40 F
34.7 Cts
2.51 F
42.2 Cts
2.61 F
48 Cts
3.04 F
57 Cts
3,22 F
46 Cts
THE VAL : LILLE URBAN COMMUNITY SUBWAY’S EXPERIENCE 1972 – 2001 37
F. KÜHN PRESENTATION of 27 July 2001 to KRRI 1/03/02
7. Automatic Guided Transit's evolutions
The first lines under construction and operation of the VAL system (Lille 2 lines, Toulouse 2
lines, Orly one line) are characterised by the following features :
- safety electronic equipments based on a "fail-safe" technology,
- fixed-block automatic protection system,
- platform protection by platform doors.
There has been however some evolution on the different points in the family of mass transit
systems, which will be briefly reviewed hereunder.
Use of microprocessors for safety functions
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
V
alue in Francs
ear
Costs
Opera ting-P.P.K.-Trip-Costs
P.P.K. cost x10 0
T
ri
p
cost x 10
Oper a ting cost x 10M
THE VAL : LILLE URBAN COMMUNITY SUBWAY’S EXPERIENCE 1972 – 2001 38
F. KÜHN PRESENTATION of 27 July 2001 to KRRI 1/03/02
The Paris Metro Authority, RATP, decided to develop a new control system, called Sacem, for
its regional network, the RER, in order to enhance the capacity of the lines ; this new system
required the extinction of the wayside signals, and the use of a cab-signal involving safe track-
vehicles transmissions and a safe computation of the stopping distances on board the trains. For
the safety functions, RATP has promoted the development of an architecture based on a single
microprocessor protected by data coding, called "vital coded monoprocessor".
This new architecture is now a standard for safety realisations in mass transit systems in
France (David Y., 1991), and has been already used on Paris Rer line A, on Laon Poma, and on
Lyons' Maggaly system, as well as on the Chicago Airport's VAL line and line 8 (Urban metro)
and line A (LRT) of Mexico network.
Development of a moving block (ATP) system
Lyon’s Authorities decided to adopt a moving block Automatic Train Protection (ATP) for the
4th line of their metro network in order to obtain a better flexibility of operation : a study
conducted in Lyon in 1987 had shown that the possibility of operating variable size trains
according to the time of the day, and to automatically achieve train separation in the train storage
facility could lead to significant savings, in order of 4 MF/year, in electric energy and in
maintenance.
Platform doors
Since the opening of the first Val line in Lille in 1983, the use of platform doors is considered in
France as the most efficient way for preventing accidents. In Lyon, the Authority and the metro
operator chose a conventional method based on a double barrier of infrared beams, regularly
spaced with 15 cm intervals, layed down above the tracks.
Other technical evolutions
In complement to these three main innovations concerning the "system" aspect of the lines
under consideration, a number of other technical evolutions in the design of the vehicles or of
the ground equipments have been introduced, for instance, on VAL line 2 of Lille network, the
use of :
- Electric vehicle doors instead of the pneumatic ones,
- GTO thyristors in the power control equipment,
- Optic fiber in ground transmissions,
- a new VAL vehicle called VAL 208 with the"wheel-motors", it means one motor of
synchronous type for each wheel of the vehicle instead of 2 DC motors in each
vehicle, with a traction chopper for each of them.
Mnd for all the informations givenaaaaMand MMai-Kyun MOK/Byung
THE VAL : LILLE URBAN COMMUNITY SUBWAY’S EXPERIENCE 1972 – 2001 39
F. KÜHN PRESENTATION of 27 July 2001 to KRRI 1/03/02
8. Manless systems in Urban Transit Applications
Automated trains have inherent advantages over their conventional or attended counterparts.
Over the past two decades, several manless systems were designed and put into operation,
offering a high quality of service, attracting more riders and generating increased revenues.
Unlike conventional or driverless (i.e. manned but not driven) metro systems, a manless solution
consists of fully automated trains, without any driver or attendant on board the vehicles. The
flexibility of operation of these systems leads to a well-quantifiable economic benefit. This is
due not only to their minimising overall life cycle costs, but especially because manless systems
provide very high flexibility to adapt in real time to traffic demand, including prompt reaction to
sudden increase in capacity demand and to unforeseen events without any constraint to any
system operating staff.
The analysis of existing fully proven manless technology in operation in the cities of Paris, Lille,
Toulouse, Lyon, Chicago O’hare and Taipei has demonstrated outstanding records in terms of
safety and availability. Moreover, by offering more interesting jobs, manless rail transit systems
achieve higher employee and passenger satisfaction.
The results speak for themselves. Since the start up of the VAL in Lille in 1983, more than one
billion passengers have been transported by these manless systems delivered by MTI, without
outstanding records in term of safety and availability. (Jarsaillon, 1999)
With the advanced automatic train control system of line 14 (METEOR) of the Paris Metro, the
brain of which engineered and developed the possibility of converting existing traditional
subway lines into manless operation can now be easily performed. With the METEOR
automatic train control allowing simultaneous manual and manless train operation, traditional
metros can be gradually upgraded into manless systems without system shutdown. Without any
doubt, this METEOR achievement is landmark for the future.
8. 1. The evolution of automation in mass transit system
Most of the Mass Transit Systems, currently in operation around the world are equipped with
more or less advanced Automatic Train Control (ATC) equipment for enforcing safety and
performances.
Basically the ATC functions are performed by one or a combination of the following
subsystems :
- Automatic Train Protection (ATP) (avoiding train collision)
- Automatic Train Operation (ATO) (providing regular service and optimising traffic
regulation)
- Automatic Train Supervision (ATS) (equipment and traffic data management)
Following the evolution of the technology and the requirements of transit authorities to meet the
ever demanding expectations of passengers and their employees, three basic concepts for the
automation of Mass Transit System were implemented during the past decades. They can be
classified as :
THE VAL : LILLE URBAN COMMUNITY SUBWAY’S EXPERIENCE 1972 – 2001 40
F. KÜHN PRESENTATION of 27 July 2001 to KRRI 1/03/02
First generation :
Conventional trains with drivers were initially equipped only with simple, basic equipment, the
function of which being to stop the train in case of non respect of the traffic signals by the
drivers. Further developments of ATP functions led to improve performances on lines equipped
with conventional signaling based on track circuits, by visual display in the drivers cab of some
operating and maintenance data. The London and Paris metro systems are examples of this
category.
Second generation A :
Trains were then equipped with ATP and ATO subsystems, relieving the drivers from some of
their functions. In normal operation, the driver tasks are limited to control of the proper berthing
at stations, the opening / closing of the doors in stations as well as the train departure from the
stations. The driver is also responsible for the train operation in case of ATP / ATO failure.
Such systems have been in operation for several decades in major cities all around the world.
The metros of Atlanta, Washington, and Singapore are such examples.
Second generation B :
This category is usually referred to as « driverless » because the trains are not equipped with
conventional driver cabs. However, the proper operation of the trains still relies on attendants on
board the trains, whose function is not only in some cases to acknowledge a safe departure of
the train after door closings in station, but primarely to restore, as quickly as possible, the
normal operation of the trains on the line in case of failures or abnormal conditions. A typical
example is the London Docklands network and the new Ankara metro.
Third generation :
« Manless » systems are those for which any normal or degraded modes of operation are either
system built in features or directly managed from an operation control center and thus they do
not require any driver or attendant on board the vehicles. The systems in Lille, Toulouse and the
new METEOR line are examples of this category.
These manless systems were initially developed for small airport applications, often referred to
as automated people movers. However, development of the manless technology is becoming
increasingly accepted by transit authorities for urban applications, achieving very high flexibility
in operation for the satisfaction of the passengers.
8. 2. The unique advantages of manless operation
There are several advantages of this third-generation system that are unique to this technology.
These include :
- A better quality of service by shorter but more frequent trains : very short headway can
be achieved since no driving or supervisory actions are required from on board
personnel and turnbacks at the end of the line are performed quickly and automatically
without the need for drivers or attendants to move from one end of the train to the
other. As an example, the VAL system in Lille has one minute headways during peak
hours, and down to six minutes during off peak hours.
THE VAL : LILLE URBAN COMMUNITY SUBWAY’S EXPERIENCE 1972 – 2001 41
F. KÜHN PRESENTATION of 27 July 2001 to KRRI 1/03/02
- The consequences are great : today, manless systems reach the same capacity as other
systems but with shorter train lengths. This helps to reduce the cost of the
infrastructure ; i.e. the length and the design of the stations, the size of the tunnels and
the guideways, contributing also to the reduction of time and nuisance during
construction. In addition, because waiting time in the station is vastly reduced, the
attractiveness of a manless system for the public translates into additional revenues for
the operators.
- Maximising the benefits of a multimodal integrated network : on segregated right of
way, manless systems provide high attractive commercial speed (nearly twice as much
as LRT’s) and punctuality, thus offering short travel time and high traffic volume.
Easy connection with other modes of transport is provided by the high frequency of
trains thereby avoiding dissuasive waiting times, at transfer stations, even during off
peak hours. As an example, in Toulouse, after only two years of VAL operation : 50
% of VAL ridership consists of mixed trips (VAL + bus, VAL + private cars, VAL +
railway). Moreover, with the VAL implementation, the traffic of the overall Public
Transportation Network has increased by around 40 %, with the following
breakdown : 110 % on the VAL corridor itself ; 30 % on the bus network itself, when
it is interconnected with the VAL line, and 1 % on the bus lines which are not
connected with the VAL.
- A highly flexible operation, adapted in real time to the demand, increases
transportation efficiency : manless systems translate into unprecedented flexibility for
metro operation, since no constraints arise due to the unavailability of drivers or
attendant personnel. At any time, trains can be automatically inserted or removed
into/from revenue service by simple, remote commands from central control operators,
adjusting the fleet to the demand for normal traffic as well as exceptional or
unforeseen events. Compared to other solutions, where the dependence on on-board
personnel leads to inflexibility in terms of shifts, and trade union work rules, manless
systems can offer an optimised transportation capacity. As an example, on the Paris
metro network, in December 1998, traffic was suddenly interrupted simultaneously on
both RER (regional express) line A and metro Line 1, and thousands of passengers
rerouted towards Line 14, the new Meteor line. Thanks to Meteor’s manless
operation, the authority could very quickly, without any constraints, increase the traffic
capacity of line 14 by shortening train headway from four minutes down to two
minutes.
- Human resources are shifted to passenger care instead of routine driving : in order to
increase quality of service, metro systems need to deploy more passenger care (to help
families, the elderly, handicapped persons, and tourists) by providing better
information, security in the trains and in the stations, particularly during off peak
hours, and increasing cleanliness of the trains and the stations. In addition, passengers
expect more frequent trains during off peak hours, in conventional systems this could
only be achieved by largely increasing the operating staff for systems. Such solutions
would lead either to increasing deficits of the operating companies or to higher prices,
the operators being trapped in a non-optimised system ; manless metros resolve easily
this dilemna by reassigning on board personnel to roving services without additional
expenses.
THE VAL : LILLE URBAN COMMUNITY SUBWAY’S EXPERIENCE 1972 – 2001 42
F. KÜHN PRESENTATION of 27 July 2001 to KRRI 1/03/02
9. Conclusion
The completion of the metro system and the openeing of the first section to the public in may
1983 marked a turning point in the development of Lille and its surroundings. The putting into
service of an automatically operated metro with no driver on board was a world first.
This is the Lille Subway System – certainly the most modern of subways, but perhaps the most
traditional of new systems : no linear motors, magnetic supports, etc. This results from a
deliberate desire to call upon, as far as possible, tried and tested equipment similar to that used
on existing subways. This approach enables a high quality of service to be provided, capable of
giving public transport a new image, while at the same time avoiding the serious difficulties
encountered by a certain number of avant-garde systems.
A very wide range of collective means of transport serve the Lille community territory : trains,
the VAL, the tramway with its integral low floor, the bus and taxis upon request. The
complementary nature of the means of transport provided to travellers aims to make
intermodality part of their everyday lives.
In 2000, over 106 million people used the multimodal network. There will be 200 million, in the
horizon 2010 – 2015, if the objective defined in the development and Urban Planning
Guidelines, set down to promote a synergy between the different means of transport in the
metropolitan territory, is reached.
REFERENCES
CUDL, « The Val : a fully automatic subway », edited by Lille Urban Community, December
1999.
DAVID Y., INRETS, « Unmanned operation : economical evaluation and quality of service », in
proceedings of Urban Public Transport : a challenge for our cities, conference organised by
ENPC, mai 1988.
DAVID Y., INRETS, « Technological Evolutions of Unmanned Transportation Systems in
France », in APM conference, Yokohama 7-10 October 1991.
DTT, CETUR, « Coûts d'exploitation des métros de province » , edited by CETUR, 1989.
DTT, CETUR, « Annuaire statistique sur les TCU », Nov. 1995.
DUQUENNE N., INRETS, « Maintening safety in automated transit, the Val experience », in
APM conference, San Francisco, July 2001.
EPALE, « CUDL : Metro line n°1 : the fundamental options », edited by the public Agency for
the management of the New City of East Lille, metro Agency, april 1979.
THE VAL : LILLE URBAN COMMUNITY SUBWAY’S EXPERIENCE 1972 – 2001 43
F. KÜHN PRESENTATION of 27 July 2001 to KRRI 1/03/02
FERBECK D., MATRA, « The VAL product line », in APM 91, Automated people Movers III,
Yokohama, october 1991.
FRÉMAUX D.,"Automatisme contre automobile", in Transport Public Review, mai 1993.
JARSAILLON R., MATRA, « Systèmes entièrement automatisés dans les transports publics :
avantages et spécificités », dans la revue TPI mars 1999.
JERNSTEDT G.W., « Give the city back to people : new mobility can make our cities a joy
again », book published by Cityscope & Mobility Company, Bolivar, PA, 1994
KÜHN F. ,INRETS, « Light rail or Automatic guided transit » in APM conference, Las Vegas,
April 1997.
KÜHN F. , INRETS, MARTINET C., SEMALY, « Comparative study of civil engineering
costs according to the mass transit systems », rapport Inrets-Cresta à l’AFME, 1992.
LARDENNOIS R., MATRA, « VAL Automated Guided transit Characteristics and
Evolutions », in Journal of Advanced Transportation, 1993, Vol.27, N°1, pp. 103 – 120.
LESNE J., « Panorama des systèmes de Tcsp », in Ceifici conference, Paris, 1992.
MIMOUN S. MATRA, « LILLE DPM system & VAL family », in conference APM I,
American Society of Civil Engineers,1985.
SEMITAN, " Coût et rentabilité de la ligne de tramway de Nantes", résultats 1987.
TREMONG F. , MATRA, « The Lille Underground – First Application of the Val System », in
journal of Advanced Transportation pp39-53,vol. 19 n° 1 , Spring 1985.
THE VAL : LILLE URBAN COMMUNITY SUBWAY’S EXPERIENCE 1972 – 2001 44
F. KÜHN PRESENTATION of 27 July 2001 to KRRI 1/03/02
ANNEX
VAL SYSTEM CHARACTERISTICS
Characteristics obtained with VAL 20613 vehicle
System Performance
Max. theoretical one-way capacity14 12,480 pas/h
Max. practical one-way capacity15 9,400 pas/h
Normal one-way design capacity 7,500 pas/h
Practical headway with on-line stations 60 seconds
Service availability Schedule : 20 h/day
Type of service Line-haul ; on-line stations
Type of network Line-haul
Traveling unit Married pair
Interior noise 75 db A
Exterior noise16 72 db A
Unit Performance
Max.speed 80 km/h (50 mph)
13 According to MTI standards, the number following VAL is the width in centimeters of the train unit.
14 with 6 pas/m2 and jump seats up
15 with 4 pas/m2 and jump seats up
16 At 60 km/h and at 7.5 m distance from track
THE VAL : LILLE URBAN COMMUNITY SUBWAY’S EXPERIENCE 1972 – 2001 45
F. KÜHN PRESENTATION of 27 July 2001 to KRRI 1/03/02
Commercial speed 34 km/h (21.75 mph)
Speed manual mode 18 km/h (workshop)
3 km/h (accosting speed)
Max.grade on line with full performance17 7 %
Average acceleration / deceleration 1.3 m/sec2 (0,132 g)
Max.jerk 0,65 m/sec3 (0,66 g/sec)
Min.emergency deceleration 1.8 m/sec2 (0.183 g)
Max.emergency deceleration 2.4 m/sec2 (0.244 g)
Stopping precision in station 0.3 m
Degredation if guideway is wet None
Degredation for ice & snow None – electrically heated
Unit design capacity 68 seated and 56 standing viz. 124 spaces
Unit crush capacity 44 seated and 164 standing viz. 208
spaces.
Energy consumption of two car unit 6 kWh/mile
Stations
Type On-line, 1-berth
Type boarding Level
Tickets & fare collection Automatic fare collection with honor
system
Security Closed circuit TV ; Police
Max. wait time (off-peak) 5 minutes
Vehicle in-station dwell time 10 – 30 sec.
Station spacing (average) 0.85 km (.52 mile)
Reliability & safety
Fail-safe features Components individually fail-safe
Strategy for passenger evacuation Walkways
17 Using two motors of four
THE VAL : LILLE URBAN COMMUNITY SUBWAY’S EXPERIENCE 1972 – 2001 46
F. KÜHN PRESENTATION of 27 July 2001 to KRRI 1/03/02
Strategy for removal of failed vehicle Automatic push capability ; manual backup ; &
small recover diesel vehicles
System life Design goal 30 years
Unit life Design goal 30 years
System mean time between failure 52 hours (est.)
(MTBF)
System mean time to restore 0.3 hours
(MTTR)
System availability Design 99 % ; Operational 99.4 %
Vehicle MTBF 624 hours
Guideway MTBF 926 hours
Control Center and communication 2880 hours
MTBF
Fixed ATC equipement MTBF 303 hours.
Personnel Requirements Total Staff
Line 1 (13 km) in 1988
Units & stations Unmanned
1. Central control 28
2. Maintenance
Rolling stock 31
Fixed sytem equipement 18
Track and building 24
Fare collection system 3
Management 9 85
3. Roving teams 10
4. Ticket control, passenger information
and fare collection operation 34
and passenger information
5. Administrative & management 26
TOTAL Staff 1988 183
THE VAL : LILLE URBAN COMMUNITY SUBWAY’S EXPERIENCE 1972 – 2001 47
F. KÜHN PRESENTATION of 27 July 2001 to KRRI 1/03/02
VAL Vehicle Characteristics
Dimensions
Unit length, overall 25,840 mm (84.8 feet)
Width, outside 2,060 mm (6.8 feet)
Height, clear inside 2,045 mm (6.7 feet)
Width, clear inside 2,010 mm (6.6 feet)
Height, overall 3,250 mm (10.7 feet)
Floor height 950 mm
Weight, empty 29,600 kg (65,120 pounds)
Weight,gross 208 passagers = 14,560 kg
44,160kg (97,152 pounds)
Suspension
Supported, vertical Air cushion (4 per vehicle) elastomeric series suspension with 4
pneumatic tires per vehicles mounted on 2 axles
Axle Steerable
Lateral guidance 8 pneumatic horizontally mounted rubber tires per vehicle
In switching area 4 vertically mounted steel wheels
Roll 4 hydraulic shock absorbers
Propulsion & braking
Type & n° of motors
VAL 206 : 2 DC rotary 380 V motors in series
Motor rating : 120 kW x 2
THE VAL : LILLE URBAN COMMUNITY SUBWAY’S EXPERIENCE 1972 – 2001 48
F. KÜHN PRESENTATION of 27 July 2001 to KRRI 1/03/02
Type drive Mechanical coupling through a differential
Type power 750 V DC
Power collection Sliding contact shoes on steel power rails ; 5 shoes per car (+, - ,
& ground)
Auxiliaries 72 V DC stepped down from 750 V DC
Battery 72 V with battery charger.
Type motor controller Chopper
Type service brakes Conjugated regenerative braking and pneumatic friction disks
Type emergency brakes Pneumatic friction disks
Body
Type frame one-piece integrated body and frame made of aluminum
Body end material Reinforced fiberglass
Doors VAL 206 : 6 bi-parting, externally hung, pneumatically powered
per side
VAL 208
Characteristics
Carriage weight : 28,000 kg (61,600 pounds)
Usable internal space : 46 m2
Power supply : 750 V (D.C.)
Unit Power : 520 kW
1 motor per wheel ( 8 per unit)
Options
THE VAL : LILLE URBAN COMMUNITY SUBWAY’S EXPERIENCE 1972 – 2001 49
F. KÜHN PRESENTATION of 27 July 2001 to KRRI 1/03/02
Air conditioning
Onboard video surveillance
Dynamic route map display
Modulated organisation of internal space
Onboard maintenance service system
Dimensions of VAL 208
Width, outside 2,080 mm instead of 2,060 mm
Weight, empty 28,000 kg
Weight, normal 156 passengers = 10,920 kg
38,920 kg (85,624 kg)
Weight,gross 245 passengers = 17,150 kg
45,150 kg (99,330 pounds)
The other dimensions are similar to VAL 206’s dimensions
Capacity
Unit design capacity 4 pas/m246 seated and 110 standing viz. 156 spaces
Unit crush capacity 6 pas/m240 seated and 170 standing
Viz. 210 spaces
Energy consumption of two car unit 6 kWh/mile
Propulsion & braking
Type & number of motors
VAL 208 : 4 wheel – motors synchronous type with permanent magnet in
each unit
THE VAL : LILLE URBAN COMMUNITY SUBWAY’S EXPERIENCE 1972 – 2001 50
F. KÜHN PRESENTATION of 27 July 2001 to KRRI 1/03/02
Motor rating : 65 kW x 8 = 520 kW
Body
Type frame one-piece integrated body and frame made of aluminum
Body end material Reinforced fiberglass
Doors 6 bi-parting , externally hung, electically powered per side
... Source : (Kühn, 2001); valeur 2002 1 US $ = 1 Euro ...
... Source : (Kühn, 2001), (Kühn, 2002); valeur 2002 1 US $ = 1 Euro ...
... Source : (Kühn, 1997), (Kühn, 2001); valeur 2002 1 US $ = 1 Euro La fourchette des coûts dans le poste "Génie civil" s'explique en partie par le pourcentage de travaux en souterrain : ainsi, 3 lignes avec 80 % de leur linéaire en tunnel, une ligne qui a 90 % de son linéaire en souterrain, enfin une ligne qui a 40 % de son linéaire en souterrain. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
La qualité et l'attractivité du transport public urbain ont bénéficié de plusieurs innovations technologiques ces vingt dernières années. Les conditions d'exploitation se sont transformées, avec une sécurité et une souplesse améliorées ; l'adaptation aux besoins des passagers et des exploitants sont assurées grâce aux possibilités offertes par l'automatisation. Les systèmes de métro léger et de métro automatique présentent des caractéristiques intermédiaires entre celles des autobus circulant sur voie banalisée et celles des métros conventionnels en site propre intégral, du point de vue des coûts d'investissement, le métro léger peut aussi, plus ou moins, offrir un service et des coûts d'exploitation similaires. Dans cette communication sont présentés, les deux types de nouveaux systèmes exploités en France depuis plus de 15 ans : le métro léger ou tramway moderne et le métro automatique.
Article
The VAL system was the first totally automatic transit system opened in France. This paper examines the reasons behind the development and application of the VAL technology to date. The technology is described including the vehicles, guideway and supporting equipment, as well as its operating system. The paper concludes with a review of the experimental operation of the first section of the line and the public's reaction.
39 8. 1. The evolution of automation in mass transit system
  • Manless Systems
  • Urban
  • .............................................................. . Applications
MANLESS SYSTEMS IN URBAN TRANSIT APPLICATIONS................................................................... 39 8. 1. The evolution of automation in mass transit system.............................................................. 39 8. 2. The unique advantages of manless operation......................................................................... 40 9. CONCLUSION......................................................................................................................... 42 REFERENCES......................................................................................................................... 42
Automatisme contre automobile
  • Frémaux D
FRÉMAUX D.,"Automatisme contre automobile", in Transport Public Review, mai 1993.
« Give the city back to people : new mobility can make our cities a joy again
  • G W Jernstedt
JERNSTEDT G.W., « Give the city back to people : new mobility can make our cities a joy again », book published by Cityscope & Mobility Company, Bolivar, PA, 1994
« Comparative study of civil engineering costs according to the mass transit systems », rapport Inrets-Cresta à l'AFME
  • F Kühn
  • Martinet C Inrets
  • Semaly
KÜHN F., INRETS, MARTINET C., SEMALY, « Comparative study of civil engineering costs according to the mass transit systems », rapport Inrets-Cresta à l'AFME, 1992.
Coût et rentabilité de la ligne de tramway de Nantes
  • Semitan
SEMITAN, " Coût et rentabilité de la ligne de tramway de Nantes", résultats 1987.