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Life cycle assessment and nutrient balance for five different treatment methods for poultry litter

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... 2 In particular, the reuse of poultry litter (PL) shows several advantages since (a) compared to other by-products, it has a high nitrogen and phosphorus (P) content, (b) compared to other wastes it is relatively dry and consequently more adequate for energy recovery and (c) it is easier to transport. 3 Different treatments are proposed to reuse PL, starting from composting and anaerobic digestion to direct combustion. 4 A recently published paper 3 shows that (among the proposed management strategies) Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) demonstrates that the thermal conversion of PL is the most environmentally friendly method and has a low environmental impact. ...
... 3 Different treatments are proposed to reuse PL, starting from composting and anaerobic digestion to direct combustion. 4 A recently published paper 3 shows that (among the proposed management strategies) Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) demonstrates that the thermal conversion of PL is the most environmentally friendly method and has a low environmental impact. Thermal treatment also has the advantage to destroy pathogen agents and organic pollutants that may be present in PL. ...
... 36 RHPLA raw samples were prepared at a grain size of less than 0.2 mm and the amount was 0.1 g with a 0.0001 g measured accuracy. Then, RHPLA samples were solubilized with a mixture of concentrated acids 2 : 1/H 2 SO 4 : HNO 3 . To prevent the colorimetry operation, the silicic acid that produces the opaque solution was removed by ltration. ...
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In the Italian and European context, sewage sludge (SS) production and disposal from urban wastewater is a very current problem, with environmental and economic repercussions. The large amount of waste to be treated makes landfill disposal no longer viable. Alternative methods have been proposed: agricultural use, compost and incineration. In particular, mono-incineration is an option that allows the recovery of both energy and matter, minimizing waste. Incinerated sewage sludge ashes (ISSA) from different European plants were studied to evaluate the recovery of their most interesting components: phosphorus (P) and silicon (Si). A procedure for the simultaneous P and Si recovery was proposed, starting from the ISSA acid leaching. P dissolved in solution after the leaching, is selectively precipitated, to create a calcium phosphate product for fertilizer applications. Si is recovered in subsequent steps as amorphous silica (SiO2) and proposed as adsorbent for the removal of drugs from wastewater.
... 2 In particular, the reuse of poultry litter (PL) shows several advantages since (a) compared to other by-products, it has a high nitrogen and phosphorus (P) content, (b) compared to other wastes it is relatively dry and consequently more adequate for energy recovery and (c) it is easier to transport. 3 Different treatments are proposed to reuse PL, starting from composting and anaerobic digestion to direct combustion. 4 A recently published paper 3 shows that (among the proposed management strategies) Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) demonstrates that the thermal conversion of PL is the most environmentally friendly method and has a low environmental impact. ...
... 3 Different treatments are proposed to reuse PL, starting from composting and anaerobic digestion to direct combustion. 4 A recently published paper 3 shows that (among the proposed management strategies) Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) demonstrates that the thermal conversion of PL is the most environmentally friendly method and has a low environmental impact. Thermal treatment also has the advantage to destroy pathogen agents and organic pollutants that may be present in PL. ...
... 36 RHPLA raw samples were prepared at a grain size of less than 0.2 mm and the amount was 0.1 g with a 0.0001 g measured accuracy. Then, RHPLA samples were solubilized with a mixture of concentrated acids 2 : 1/H 2 SO 4 : HNO 3 . To prevent the colorimetry operation, the silicic acid that produces the opaque solution was removed by ltration. ...
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The livestock sector is one of the most important sectors of the agricultural economy due to an increase in the demand for animal protein. This increase generates serious waste disposal concerns and has negative environmental consequences. Furthermore, the food production chain needs phosphorus (P), which is listed as a critical raw material due to its high demand and limited availability in Europe. Manure contains large amounts of P and other elements that may be recycled, in the frame of circular economy and “zero waste” principles, and reused as a by-product for fertilizer production and other applications. This paper focuses on the extraction and recovery of amorphous silica from rice husk poultry litter ash. Two different extraction procedures are proposed and compared, and the obtained silica is characterized. This work shows that amorphous silica can be recovered as an almost pure material rendering the residual ash free of P. It also addresses the possibility of more specific phosphorous extraction proceduresviaacid leaching.
... However, the major fraction of the heavy metals remains in the resulting sewage sludge ash (SSA) and can pose, depending on local legislation, a regulatory constraint for direct application of the SSA as fertilizer [9][10][11]. On the other hand, animal manure is widely applied as fertilizer, although it is often present in excess in areas of intensive livestock farming [12][13][14]. Therefore, an alternative to direct land application is incineration of the animal manure, which reduces its volume whilst part of its energy content is recovered [14][15][16][17]. ...
... On the other hand, animal manure is widely applied as fertilizer, although it is often present in excess in areas of intensive livestock farming [12][13][14]. Therefore, an alternative to direct land application is incineration of the animal manure, which reduces its volume whilst part of its energy content is recovered [14][15][16][17]. The power plant of BMC Moerdijk (the Netherlands) for instance, annually converts about 420,000 tonnes of poultry manure (PM) into green energy, producing about 55,000 tonnes of poultry manure ash (PMA). ...
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Phosphorus (P) rich ash from biomass incineration is a potential promising alternative for non-renewable phosphate rock. This study considered the P recovery potential of poultry manure ash, sewage sludge ash and meat and bone meal ash through wet chemical extraction. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that these three ash types had a distinct P mineralogy. If inorganic acids were used for the extraction, the P extraction efficiency was not or only slightly affected by the P mineralogy. Contrarily, for the organic acids, alkaline extraction liquid and chelating agents considered, the P extraction efficiency was highly affected by the P mineralogy, and was also affected by the elemental composition of the ash and/or the chemical characteristics of the extraction liquids. Alkaline extraction liquids showed in general low heavy metal co-extraction, in contrast to the inorganic acids. From an economic point of view, of all extraction liquids considered, sulfuric acid was the most interesting to extract P from all three ash types. Oxalic acid could be a more sustainable option for P extraction from sewage sludge ash. In addition, extraction of poultry manure ash with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid showed a relatively high P extraction efficiency combined with relatively low heavy metal co-extraction. Graphic Abstract
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Animal waste, including chicken manure, is a category of biomass considered for application in the energy industry. Poland is leading poultry producer in Europe, with a chicken population assessed at over 176 million animals. This paper aims to determine the theoretical and technical energy potential of chicken manure in Poland. The volume of chicken manure was assessed as 4.49 million tons per year considering three particular poultry rearing systems. The physicochemical properties of examined manure specimens indicate considerable conformity with the data reported in the literature. The results of proximate and ultimate analyses confirm a considerable effect of the rearing system on the energy parameters of the manure. The heating value of the chicken manure was calculated for the high moisture material in the condition as received from the farms. The value of annual theoretical energy potential in Poland was found to be equal to around 40.38 PJ. Annual technical potential of chicken biomass determined for four different energy conversion paths occurred significantly smaller then theoretical and has the value from 9.01 PJ to 27.3 PJ. The bigger energy degradation was found for heat and electricity production via anaerobic digestion path, while fluidized bed combustion occurred the most efficient scenario.
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Purpose The use of life cycle assessment (LCA) as a decision support tool can be hampered by the numerous uncertainties embedded in the calculation. The treatment of uncertainty is necessary to increase the reliability and credibility of LCA results. The objective is to provide an overview of the methods to identify, characterize, propagate (uncertainty analysis), understand the effects (sensitivity analysis), and communicate uncertainty in order to propose recommendations to a broad public of LCA practitioners. Methods This work was carried out via a literature review and an analysis of LCA tool functionalities. In order to facilitate the identification of uncertainty, its location within an LCA model was distinguished between quantity (any numerical data), model structure (relationships structure), and context (criteria chosen within the goal and scope of the study). The methods for uncertainty characterization, uncertainty analysis, and sensitivity analysis were classified according to the information provided, their implementation in LCA software, the time and effort required to apply them, and their reliability and validity. This review led to the definition of recommendations on three levels: basic (low efforts with LCA software), intermediate (significant efforts with LCA software), and advanced (significant efforts with non-LCA software). Results and discussion For the basic recommendations, minimum and maximum values (quantity uncertainty) and alternative scenarios (model structure/context uncertainty) are defined for critical elements in order to estimate the range of results. Result sensitivity is analyzed via one-at-a-time variations (with realistic ranges of quantities) and scenario analyses. Uncertainty should be discussed at least qualitatively in a dedicated paragraph. For the intermediate level, the characterization can be refined with probability distributions and an expert review for scenario definition. Uncertainty analysis can then be performed with the Monte Carlo method for the different scenarios. Quantitative information should appear in inventory tables and result figures. Finally, advanced practitioners can screen uncertainty sources more exhaustively, include correlations, estimate model error with validation data, and perform Latin hypercube sampling and global sensitivity analysis. Conclusions Through this pedagogic review of the methods and practical recommendations, the authors aim to increase the knowledge of LCA practitioners related to uncertainty and facilitate the application of treatment techniques. To continue in this direction, further research questions should be investigated (e.g., on the implementation of fuzzy logic and model uncertainty characterization) and the developers of databases, LCIA methods, and software tools should invest efforts in better implementing and treating uncertainty in LCA.
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For centuries, animal manures have been a traditional source of nutrients in agriculture. However, disposal of animal manure has become an environmental problem in recent times as a result of increased concentration of animal production within small geographic areas. Manure nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) applied in excess of the assimilative soil capacity have the potential to reach and pollute water resources through soil leaching or runoff. Yet, conservation and recovery of N and P is a concern in modern agriculture because of the high cost and future limited supply of commercial fertilizers, particularly P which is extracted from mineral deposits. Therefore, N and P recovery methods are necessary to reduce their excess prior to manure soil application and recover them as valuable products. This article is a review of existing technologies for animal waste treatment and additional new methods for recycling manure N and P and possible recovery as valuable byproducts.
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[Free access until 18/Feb/2018: https://authors.elsevier.com/a/1WIzB_Kykxfh89] Excess manure can have two common fates: to be exported and applied to agricultural land, or to be treated, possibly with resource recovery (i.e. energy and/or nutrients). In this study, the environmental performance of a treatment system of pig manure (centrifugation and subsequent biological nitrogen removal from the liquid fraction and composting of the solid fraction) has been assessed using life cycle assessment (LCA) with the ReCiPe method to assess environmental impacts at midpoint and endpoint level. Such treatment system is typical for Flanders (Belgium), a region characterized by a manure excess. The performance of this treatment-scenario has been compared to the direct field application of untreated manure (no-treatment-scenario) to gain insight in the environmental trade-offs between them. The hotspots dominating the environmental impact for manure treatment were the field application of compost and the effluent from the biological treatment, and the electricity needed to run the treatment facility. The substitution of synthetic fertilizers played an important role in both scenarios (mitigation of potential damaging impacts). The comparison between the two manure management scenarios showed that the treatment scenario scores better in some categories and vice versa. Manure treatment does prevent marine eutrophication and must be carried out in nitrate-vulnerable zones, such as the studied region of Flanders. Finally, the use of single score through normalization and weighting of midpoint impacts was evaluated. This underscores a policy direction towards manure treatment, but this message should be interpreted with care as the approach of normalization and aggregation can be questioned.
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Four different techniques for applying liquid manure on grassland were evaluated in two grass fields to examine the impact of each technique on the environment and agronomic response. The techniques studied were injection (IJ), sub-canopy banding using a sleighfoot (SF), incorporation using an aerator (AR), and surface banding using a dribble bar (DB). The environmental impact of each technique on the odor concentration and ammonia volatilization was assessed, and agronomic responses were measured by grass damage and grass yield. Among the four techniques, the IJ resulted in lower ammonia and odor concentrations on the land surface immediately after manure application. However, its odor concentration was significantly higher than the background value because of the manure pooling on the soil surface. The injector had the potential to cause grass damage associated with its soil cutting action. However, an over 100% increase in grass yield was achieved when the injection was used, in comparison to the control plot. This increase in yield can be attributed to the efficiency of the injection in placing the manure in the soil where the nutrients present in the manure can be made readily available. The availability of nutrients compensated the loss of yield associated with the cutting action of the injector. The yield response for the SF, AR, and DB was comparable to that of the IJ, except for the SF in one field having a lower yield owing to the grass damage caused by raking during the operation. The AR technique was the only one, which showed yield response at the earlier harvest. The DB and AR techniques resulted in the highest and second highest level, respectively, of ammonia concentration front the soil surface.
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Population growth and the consequent increase in food demand will certainly intensify the threat to the environment. Brazil, the fourth largest producer and exporter of swine meat, has an important role to ensure the fulfillment of the goals of food security and climate change mitigation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the environmental impact of swine production in Brazil based on life cycle assessment, comparing four manure management systems: liquid manure storage in slurry tanks; the biodigestor by flare; the biodigestor for energy purposes; and composting. Additionally, we performed a Monte Carlo simulation to evaluate the uncertainty due to different emissions factors to estimate nitrogen-related emissions from the manure-handling stage. The functional unit considered was 1000 kg of swine carcass in the equalization chamber for cutting or further distribution. The results indicated an environmental profile of swine production in Brazil of 3503.29 kg of CO2 eq. for climate change, 76.13 kg of SO2 eq. for terrestrial acidification, 2.15 kg of P eq. for freshwater eutrophication, 12.33 kg of N eq. for marine eutrophication, 21521.12 MJ for cumulative energy demand, 1.63 kg of 1.4-DB eq. for terrestrial ecotoxicity, 1706.26 BDP for biodiversity damage potential and 14.99 m² for natural land transformation. Feed production had a significant contribution with a range of 17.6-99.5% for all environmental impact categories. Deforestation represented 9.5 and 31.3% of the total impacts for cumulative energy demand and climate change, respectively. Therefore, avoiding the use of grain from deforested areas can significantly decrease the impacts for these impact categories. Regarding the uncertainty analysis, we observed greater variations for terrestrial acidification in slurry tanks, biodigestor by flare and for energy purposes, while for the case of composting, major uncertainties were observed for climate change. For manure management systems, efforts should be made to reduce the emissions of methane in the storage and ammonia in the field application. In this sense, the comparative life cycle assessment indicated that the biodigestor for energy purposes had the best environmental performance for almost all the environmental impacts, mainly due to the biogas capture and the potential of energy saves. Nevertheless, if the goal is to decrease the impacts for terrestrial acidification and marine eutrophication, the slurry tanks is the most preferable scenario compared to all alternative options.
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The oversupply of organic fertilizers causes an urgent need for alternative treatments of manure. CO2 neutral electricity is produced from poultry manure, a renewable fuel which is relatively dry and has a heating value of 6-8 MJ/kg. The electricity production from manure saves emissions from fossil fuel combustion, resulting in a reduced environmental impact in the impact category climate change. Moreover, as manure contains a large amount of ammoniacal N, and due to nitrification and denitrification processes, land spreading of poultry manure causes larger emissions of NH3, N2O and NOx than combustion. Electricity production from manure therefore outperforms land spreading in the impact categories terrestrial acidification, particulate matter formation, marine eutrophication and photochemical oxidant formation. The fluidized bed combustor of BMC in the Netherlands generates zero waste, as the ash is recovered as a PK fertilizer, which is odorless, dry, sterile and has a lower mass and volume than the manure, making it more suitable for export to regions with a high P demand. The ash does however cause technological problems, such as agglomeration and deposition.
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Agriculture is the major source of ammonia (NH(3)). Methodologies are needed to quantify national NH(3) emissions and to identify the most effective options to mitigate NH(3) emissions. Generally, NH(3) emissions from agriculture are quantified using a nitrogen (N) flow approach, in which the NH(3) emission is calculated from the N flows and NH(3) emission factors. Because of the direct dependency between NH(3) volatilization and Total Ammoniacal N (TAN; ammonium-N + N compounds readily broken down to ammonium) an approach based on TAN is preferred to calculate NH(3) emission instead of an approach based on total N. A TAN-based NH(3)-inventory model was developed, called NEMA (National Emission Model for Ammonia). The total N excretion and the fraction of TAN in the excreted N are calculated from the feed composition and N digestibility of the components. TAN-based emission factors were derived or updated for housing systems, manure storage outside housing, manure application techniques. N fertilizer types, and grazing. The NEMA results show that the total NH(3) emission from agriculture in the Netherlands in 2009 was 88.8 Gg NH(3)-N, of which 50% from housing, 37% from manure application, 9% from mineral N fertilizer, 3% from outside manure storage, and 1% from grazing. Cattle farming was the dominant source of NH(3) in the Netherlands (about 50% of the total NH(3) emission). The NH(3) emission expressed as percentage of the excreted N was 22% of the excreted N for poultry, 20% for pigs, 15% for cattle, and 12% for other livestock, which is mainly related to differences in emissions from housing systems. The calculated ammonia emission was most sensitive to changes in the fraction of TAN in the excreted manure and to the emission factor of manure application. From 2011, NEMA will be used as official methodology to calculate the national NH(3) emission from agriculture in the Netherlands.
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Liquid animal manure and its management contributes to environmental problems such as, global warming, acidification, and eutrophication. To address these environmental issues and their related costs manure processing technologies were developed. The objective here was to assess the environmental consequences of a new manure processing technology that separates manure into a solid and liquid fraction and de-waters the liquid fraction by means of reverse osmosis. This results in a liquid mineral concentrate used as mineral nitrogen and potassium fertilizer and a solid fraction used for bio-energy production or as phosphorus fertilizer. Five environmental impact categories were quantified using life cycle assessment: climate change (CC), terrestrial acidification (TA), marine eutrophication (ME), particulate matter formation (PMF), and fossil fuel depletion (FFD). For pig as well as dairy cattle manure, we compared a scenario with the processing method and a scenario with additional anaerobic digestion of the solid fraction to a reference situation applying only liquid manure. Comparisons were based on a functional unit of 1 ton liquid manure. System boundaries were set from the manure storage under the animal house to the field application of all end products. Scenarios with only manure processing increased the environmental impact for most impact categories compared to the reference: ME did not change, whereas, TA and PMF increased up to 44% as a result of NH3 and NO(x) emissions from processing and storage of solid fraction. Including digestion reduced CC by 117% for pig manure and 104% for dairy cattle manure, mainly because of substituted electricity and avoided N2O emission from storage of solid fraction. FFD decreased by 59% for pig manure and increased 19% for dairy cattle manure. TA and PMF remained higher compared to the reference. Sensitivity analysis showed that CH4 emission from manure storage, NH3 emission from processing, and the replaced nitrogen fertilizer by the mineral concentrate were important parameters affecting final results. It was concluded that processing fattening pig and dairy cattle manure to produce mineral fertilizer increased overall environmental consequences in terms of CC (except for dairy cattle manure), TA, PMF, and FFD compared to current agricultural practice. Adding the production of bio-energy reduced CC and FFD. Only when NH3 emission from processing was low and bio-energy was produced, overall equal or better environmental performance was obtained for TA and PMF. It was emphasized that real time measurements should be done to enhance the environmental assessment of manure processing technologies. Results of this study present the full environmental consequences of manure processing and key parameters affecting the environmental impact of manure management. Outcomes can be used for decision making and further tackling of environmental problems related to manure management.
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In the methodological context of the interpretation of environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) results, a normalisation study was performed. 15 impact categories were accounted for, including climate change, acidification, eutrophication, human toxicity, ecotoxicity, depletion of fossil energy resources, and land use. The year 2000 was chosen as a reference year, and information was gathered on two spatial levels: the global and the European level. From the 860 environmental interventions collected, 48 interventions turned out to account for at least 75% of the impact scores of all impact categories. All non-toxicity related, emission dependent impacts are fully dominated by the bulk emissions of only 10 substances or substance groups: CO(2), CH(4), SO(2), NO(x), NH(3), PM(10), NMVOC, and (H)CFCs emissions to air and emissions of N- and P-compounds to fresh water. For the toxicity-related emissions (pesticides, organics, metal compounds and some specific inorganics), the availability of information was still very limited, leading to large uncertainty in the corresponding normalisation factors. Apart from their usefulness as a reference for LCA studies, the results of this study stress the importance of efficient measures to combat bulk emissions and to promote the registration of potentially toxic emissions on a more comprehensive scale.
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