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Universal Journal of Educational Research 8(4A): 45-50, 2020 http://www.hrpub.org
Analogy and Critical Thinking Skills: Implementation
Learning Strategy in Biodiversity and
Ade Suryanda*, Eka Putri Azrai, Mutia Nuramadhan, Ilmi Zajuli Ichsan
Department of Biology Education, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science, Universitas Negeri Jakarta, Indonesia
Received October 8, 2019; Revised January 27, 2020; Accepted March 24, 2020
Copyright©2020 by authors, all rights reserved. Authors agree that this article remains permanently open access under
the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 International License.
Abstract Critical thinking skills can be developed
using a learning strategy. Analogy strategy is one of the
strategies designed for the passive students with low
critical thinking skills. This study aimed to use analogy in
biology learning especially in biodiversity and
environment topics towards students' critical thinking
learning. The study used an experimental pretest-posttest
design and a control group design. The research was
conducted in 2014. The sample was taken with simple
random sampling with 120 students. The results showed
that the average value of the pre-post test score of the
experimental class was 51.8 and 64.76, while the average
score of a pre-post test of the control class was 47.9 and
58.28. Based on the t-test results obtaining t-value of 2.67,
the t-value was higher than t-table, which showed using an
analogy in biology learning had an effect on students'
critical thinking skills. This is related to the analogy
learning process step that students can discuss in the
learning process. The conclusion of this study was that
analogy strategy had an effect for students' critical thinking
Keywords Analogy, Biology Learning, Critical
The conventional biology learning process usually
emphasizes the process of memorizing knowledge, so that
it cannot develop students' skills, especially critical
thinking skills. The use of learning methods that are low
variations and focus on textbooks which make students
bored because they only emphasize the low cognitive
aspects. The teacher only focuses on improving students
'cognitive abilities at a low level, so that students' critical
thinking skills are still relatively not too high [1,2].
Critical thinking is a process that aims to make decisions
about a problem and solve it [3,4]. Critical thinking skills
in secondary schools have not received more attention to be
developed optimally. Students' critical thinking skills are
needed, such as thinking that involves testing, connecting
and evaluating all aspects of a situation or problem,
including gathering, organizing, remembering and
analyzing information [5,6]. Critical thinking is needed by
students in developing their knowledge because in social
life, they had problems in daily lives. The existing
problems need a good solution so that they can make the
right decision. This decision is adjusted with facts and clear
information. Students' critical thinking skills can be
improved and developed in learning activities. Learning
activities lead students to be ready to be confronted with
problematic situations and sensitive to problems. One of
them can be tried to implement learning activities using an
analogy learning strategy. Students’critical thinking is still
low and must be improved [7-8]
The analogy is one of the learning strategies that can be
applied in delivering topics in class. The analogy can be
used to solve learning communication difficulties between
teachers and students, especially when students had
learning difficulties in understanding new teaching topics
that have a similarity in the flow of thinking with previous
teaching topics . This similarity in the flow of thought
describes the topic being studied so that a referral concept
that has been taught and understood well by students is
needed. Then, the reference concept is developed to
explain the target concept, which is the concept of a new
teaching topic. Analogy presents early examples or simple
representations of scientific concepts. The teacher usually
introduces the introduction first in the explanation to
students through word expressions in the form of, exactly,
and similarly [10,11].
Introducing the concept of targets to students is the first
46 Analogy and Critical Thinking Skills: Implementation Learning Strategy in Biodiversity and Environment Topic
step in learning using an analogy. The second step is to
remind analog concepts that are known to students, for
example, the analog concept used is lego. After
determining the target concept and its analogous concept,
the next step is to identify the relevant things of the two, for
example, a cell is likened to a lego part so that a lego that is
put together can form a toy house while a cell if put
together will form a large thing like human. From this, it
can be related to the same thing from the analog concept
and the target concept and then it can be chosen which
analogy is not appropriate between the analog concept and
the target concept. In the final stage, students can give
conclusions from the topics learned and can make their
own cell analogy [12,13]. A comprehensive comparison
between the two concepts can broaden the horizons of both
teachers and students and prevent misconceptions by
maintaining true preconceptions or changing students'
concept maps of thinking from false preconceptions to true
concepts according to the theory applicable to a particular
teaching topic [14–16].
Previous research on critical thinking has been carried
out relating to the effects of using various learning models
[15,17,18]. In addition, research has also been carried out
relating to the use of analogy learning strategy [8,9,19].
However, there is still little research that measures
students' critical thinking using analogy learning strategy.
Based on this, it is necessary to conduct research on the use
of analogy strategy in biology learning and their effects on
students' critical thinking skills. This study aimed to
determine the use of analogy in biology learning and their
effect on critical thinking skills of high school students on
the topic of biodiversity and environment.
The study was conducted at SMA Negeri 1 Tambun
Selatan in September-October 2014. The research method
used was experiment with a quasi-experimental design.
The variable investigated in this study is the use of
analogy (X) strategy in biology learning on the topic of
biodiversity and the environment on students' critical
thinking skills (Y). The research design used was a
pretest-posttest experimental and control group. The
research sample were 120 students consisting of 60
students in the experimental class and 60 students in the
control class. Sample was carried out by simple random
sampling. Instruments will be given at the beginning of
learning (pretest) and the end of learning (posttest). The
test was in the form of a description of the topic of
biodiversity and the environment to measure students'
critical thinking skills.
The indicator instrument of students' critical thinking
skills is shown in Table 1. The results of the students'
critical thinking skills test scores are classified based on
the category of students' critical thinking skills. The
critical level thinking category with a score scale consists
of five categories, from very high (90-100), high (79-89),
moderate (65-78), low (56-64) and very low (0-55)
category . In addition to measuring the students'
critical thinking skills, observations are also made using
the observation sheet of the implementation of learning.
Table 1. Indicator of Students' Critical Thinking Skills question
Explain and identify the main problem
Identify the influence of other aspects of
Point of View
Use your own point of view in solving
Use clear and trusted information
Evaluate assumptions from existing
Provide conclusions related to answers
Source: Indicators adapted from Ennis 
Meanwhile, learning by analogy has implementation
steps developed by Glynn, Taashobshirazi, dan Fowler
, starting from introducing the concept of the target to
students. Furthermore, it reminds analog concepts that are
known to students, identifies relevant things from analog
concepts and target concepts, connects the same things
from analog concepts and target concepts, shows where
analogy are incompatible between analog concepts and
target concepts. The final stage of learning using an
analogy strategy is making conclusions.
3. Result and Discussion
The highest pretest and posttest scores were 65 and 82.
The results of the pretest and posttest scores in the
experimental class are grouped based on 5 categories that
have a certain range of values, which can be seen in Table
Table 2. Critical thinking skills score in the experimental class
Universal Journal of Educational Research 8(4A): 45-50, 2020 47
The results of the pretest and posttest scores in the
control class were grouped by 5 categories that have a
certain range of values, which can be seen in Table 3.
Table 3. Critical thinking skills score in the control class
The average score of the test before and after treatment
in the experimental class and the control class is different.
The average pretest score in the experimental class was
51.28 while in the control class was 47.9. The average
posttest scores in both classes were 64.76 and 58.28,
respectively. Comparison of the average pretest and
posttest scores in the experimental class and the control
class can be seen in Table 4.
Table 4. Comparison Critical thinking skills score
The results of the critical thinking skills test scores of the
experimental class showed that there were no students in
the very high category, high category with 6 students, the
moderate category with 24 students, the low category with
21 students, and very low categories with 9 students (see
Table 5. Frequency of Students Critical thinking score
Frequency of students
The activities carried out by the teacher and students
during the study were observed using the observation sheet
of the implementation of the learning. The percentage of
observations of the feasibility of the experimental class and
the control class was shown in Table 6. The average
percentage of the feasibility of the learning done by the
teacher in the experimental class is 86.3%. Whereas the
average percentage of the learning done by the teacher in
the control class is 80.7%. The average percentage of the
feasibility of learning carried out by students in the
experimental class is known to be 77.2%, while the
average percentage of the feasibility of learning carried out
by students in the control class is known to be 80.7%, for
details in Table 6.
Table 6. Feasibility of learning percentage
Hypothesis testing using t-test statistical analysis at the
significance level (α) = 0.05. Based on the calculation
results obtained, t-value > t-table is 2.67> 1.98, decision
was rejected Ho, which means there is an influence of the
use of analogy in biology learning on critical thinking
skills of high school students. The existence of this
influence is seen in the differences in the scores of
students' critical thinking skills in the experimental class
and the control class.
The results of the pretest and posttest showed that the
highest experimental class was 65 and 80 while in the
control class were 58 and 74. This showed that the results
of the pretest and posttest in the experimental class were
better than the control class because the scores in the
experimental class were higher. High scores were in the
experimental class because students were directed to
analyze analogy used in learning so that the learning
experience helped students' understanding. Learning
directed at providing direct experience can help students
gain a deeper understanding [22,23].
The average score difference of students' critical
thinking skills using analogy learning strategy was higher
than using the STAD model. This was because in the
learning process by using an analogy involving students'
thinking in connecting analogy used with concepts learned
by students, students are active in expressing their thought
ideas. The analogy can train students' critical thinking
skills and develop positive attitudes, such as critical,
logical and analytical thinking as part of character
The analogy learning strategy and the STAD model
applied to have in common, namely group discussion and
presenting the results of group discussion. The analogy
learning strategy influences students' critical thinking
skills because students are directed to express their ideas
and thus help them understand difficult concepts. This is
because analogy can help students build concept bridges
between something that is known and something new and
48 Analogy and Critical Thinking Skills: Implementation Learning Strategy in Biodiversity and Environment Topic
help students build their own knowledge [21,24,27].
Learning strategy using analogy has the initial stages of
introducing the concept of targets to students and
reminding analog concepts that are known to students. In
the initial stages, students are directed to know and
recognize the concept of targets and analog concepts
provided by the teacher. Next students analyze the target
concepts and existing analog concepts by identifying
relevant things, linking the same things and mismatches of
the target concepts and analog concepts conveyed by the
teacher and giving conclusions. These stages lead students
to develop their thinking towards the concept of targets
and analogy which are then analyzed for their suitability.
The use of analogy in learning can be described as
concept development and students will develop their
thinking concepts [12,21,28–30]. In addition, these stages
lead students in critical thinking, namely the stages of
students’analyzing, identifying relevant things, connecting
the same thing and the incompatible and giving
conclusions. In this case, students involve testing,
connecting, and evaluating all aspects of a situation or
problem, including collecting, organizing, remembering,
and analyzing information in their thought processes
Learning by using analogy directs students to develop
their thoughts and knowledge structures on information
provided by the teacher, namely information in the form
of topics, target concepts and analog concepts. Analogy
learning can be said as constructive learning because
students build their own knowledge structures based on
their cognitive abilities. Students’ knowledge cannot be
transferred from the teacher's mind to the student's mind
but the student is active in building his own knowledge
Complex and abstract concepts can be found in natural
science, one of which is biology. The concept can be
explained easily and simply by using an analogy. The use
of analogy is more interesting because of its ability to
explain complicated ideas in familiar terms. This is
because analogy can help in understanding and
communicating the complexity and difficulty of
expressing an idea [28,35].
Learning by using an analogy learning strategy is more
interesting for students’ learning interests because the
analogy used in conveying concepts is easily known and
uses students' everyday terms. For example, the use of the
supermarket analogy to analogize biodiversity and
environment is a topic that is conveyed at the time of
learning. This is supported by the implementation of good
learning. The use of analogy in learning can improve
students' understanding of scientific concepts. In this case,
the teacher needs to pay attention to the analogy to be
used in conveying a concept to students so that students
do not misunderstand what is conveyed by the teacher
Based on the results of the study, it can be concluded
that the use of analogy in biology learning affects the
critical thinking skills of high school students on the topic
of biodiversity and environment. The use of analogy in
learning can be used as an alternative way for teachers to
develop students' critical thinking skills in biology
learning. The use of analogy can make it easier for
students to receive complex biological concepts so that
they are easily understood by students. Based on research,
suggestions can be made that the use of analogy in the
delivery of abstract concepts needs to be well developed
in order to make it easier to understand the concepts to be
conveyed. The need for further research on analogy in
other fields is in order to add references and information
due to the lack of reference material about an analogy for
research, especially on the topic of biology. The use of
analogy should be adjusted and discussed properly in
accordance with the topics used to avoid mistakes.
The authors would like to thank all the students and
teachers who have been participated in this research. The
authors would also like to thank the expert who validating
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