This study describes the complex state of social studies instruction in Ohio. It explores teacher conceptualizations of the purpose of social studies and the impact of state standards and high-stakes testing on the citizenship mission of social studies. Understanding the impact of state standards and high-stakes testing on the citizenship mission of social studies is essential for teachers as ... [Show full abstract] they attempt to respond to this mission while simultaneously ensuring student mastery of prescribed content. Unfortunately, the findings show that teachers may not recognize the congruence of this mission with state standards and high-stakes testing. Although some of the instructional strategies the teachers in this study reported using were aligned with Ohio's goals, other pedagogical issues, such as infrequent attention to multiple perspectives, lack of document analysis, and infrequent attention to economic concepts require attention.