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The race towards developing technologies, systems and management models to support organization development, leadership and prosperity created a complexity hard to manage within the existing workforce, especially in the developed world. The need for simplicity, mobility and accessibility were the major drivers towards creating a new discipline that can make technology 'gamified' for it to be used in a secure and controlled environment by everyone. Gamification can be seen as a new element in the technological revolution that can change the way people interact with technology and the way technology gets integrated with the current needs of the global economy and society. Gamification is not about making games, but a new culture driven by motivation and activation factors towards moving the gaming experience in the industry. This paper attempts to identify the role of gamification in the global economy, redefine the gamification concept under new uses of game technologies and indicate its significant impact in modern organizational management.
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The race towards developing technologies,
systems and management models to
support organizaon development,
leadership and prosperity created a
complexity hard to manage within the
exisng workforce, especially in the
developed world.
The need for simplicity, mobility and
accessibility were the major drivers
towards creang a new discipline that
can make technology ‘gamied’ for it
to be used in a secure and controlled
environment by everyone.
Gamicaon can be seen as a new
element in the technological revoluon
that can change the way people interact
with technology and the way technology
gets integrated with the current needs
of the global economy and society.
Gamicaon is not about making games,
but a new culture driven by movaon
and acvaon factors towards moving
the gaming experience in the industry.
This paper aempts to idenfy the role
of gamicaon in the global economy,
redene the gamicaon concept under
new uses of game technologies and
indicate its signicant impact in modern
organizaonal management.
The Industrial Revoluon marks a major
turning point in history; almost every
aspect of daily life was inuenced in some
way by it. Economists say that the major
impact of the Industrial Revoluon was
that the standard of living for the general
populaon began to increase consistently
for the rst me in history, although
others have said that it didn’t begin to
meaningfully improve unl the late 19th
to mid-20th century [1], [2], [3].
Aer the inial revoluon, a second
revoluon gradually grew that included
chemicals, most notably petroleum
(rening and distribuon), and, in the
20th century, the automove industries
developed, marking a transion of
technological leadership from Britain to
the United States and Germany [4], [5].
A third revoluon began with electricity
and electricaon, and the introducon of
hydroelectric power generaon in the Alps
enabled the rapid industrializaon of coal-
deprived northern Italy at the beginning of
the 1890s.
Unl the 1980s, it was universally
believed by historians that technological
innovaon was the heart of the Industrial
Revoluon and the key enabling technology
was the invenon and improvement of the
steam engine [6]. However, recent research
into the markeng era has challenged the
tradional, supply-oriented interpretaon
of the Industrial Revoluon [7].
The informaon revoluon, a fourth
revoluon, describes the development
of technologies (such as computers,
digital communicaon and microchips)
in the second half of the 20th century
that has led to a dramac reducon in
the cost of obtaining, processing, storing,
and transming informaon in all forms
(text, graphics, audio, video, etcetera)[8],
while the knowledge revoluon is about a
fundamental socioeconomic change from
adding value by producing things which
is ulmately limited to adding value by
creang and using knowledge which can
grow indenitely [9].
These ve are certainly not the only
revoluons, yet they indicate a connuous
eort of humanity towards achieving more
for less. Automaon, informaon, and
knowledge marked the key generaons of
the Industrial Revoluon’s evoluon, but
sll there is more ahead as the integraon
of the characteriscs of each generaon
creates the needs towards the next
supposedly impossible target.
The latest generaons of the industrial
revoluons emphasize the ulizaon
of technology in conjuncon with
the preexisng knowledge within
an organizaon. By understanding
organizaonal needs, technology is
used accordingly as the core tool for
opmizaon, eciency and producvity.
This new management paradigm created
the discipline of technology management,
a set of management disciplines that
allows organizaons to manage their
technological fundamentals to create
compeve advantages [10].
Technology management can also be
dened as the integrated planning, design,
opmizaon, operaon and control of
technological products, processes and
services. A beer denion would be the
management of the use of technology
for human advantage. The Associaon
of Technology, Management and
Applied Engineering denes technology
Evangelos Markopoulos, University of Vaasa (UVA), School of Technology,
Department of Production; Angelos Markopoulos, National Technical University of Athens (NTUA), School of
Mechanical Engineering, Department of Manufacturing Technology; Panos Markopoulos, University of the Arts
London (UAL), London College of Communication, School of Design; Mika Luimula, Turku University of Applied
Sciences (TAMK), School of Information and Communication Technology
management as the eld concerned with
the supervision of personnel across the
technical spectrum as well as across the
wide variety of complex technological
Technology management programs
typically include instrucon in producon
and operaons management, project
management, computer applicaons,
quality control, safety and health issues,
stascs, and general management
In the last three decades, technology
based management was the approach
adapted by most organizaons in nearly all
industries. They believed that informaon
technology automaon can reduce costs,
increase producvity, eciency and
operaons, and created a race between
organizaons to adopt the newest
technologies in an aempt to increase
or maintain their posion or lead in the
market [11].
Technology on the other hand is an
equaon with the organizaonal needs
on one side and organizaonal knowledge
at the other. Needs cannot be dened if
organizaonal knowledge does not exist
to dene them properly. Going aer
technological trends does not assure
the best soluons and desired results.
Aer great disappoints, organizaons
understood that technology without
organizaonal knowledge is not part of the
soluon, but part of the problem.
The organizaonal knowledge required for
the eecve ulizaon of the automaon
has been the inecon point in the modern
industrializaon period. The plethora of
technology on oer creates more problems
than the ones it solves if technology is
not adapted based on the capability and
the maturity of an organizaon.
Knowledge drives all progressive
acvies; iniaves, projects, processes
and anything that can be considered
a step ahead in business and personal
development. Despite the fact that
knowledge is certainly the magic recipe,
it has always been extremely dicult to
dene what knowledge is and what it is
not. The distance between knowledge
creaon and knowledge ulizaon is
tremendous as there are many steps that
interfere in this interpretaon, as well
as in the transformaon of knowledge
into something that can be capitalized
successfully, eecvely and rewardingly.
Today, knowledge management can
be dened as the process of capturing,
developing, sharing, and eecvely using
organizaonal knowledge [12]. It refers to
a mul-disciplined approach to achieving
organizaonal objecves by making the
best use of knowledge [13]. Knowledge
management eorts typically focus on
organizaonal objecves such as improved
performance, compeve advantage,
innovaon, the sharing of lessons learned,
integraon, and connuous improvement
of the organizaon [14].
It is organizaonal knowledge
that drives innovaon, which in turn
drives development and prosperity.
Organizaons fail not because they cannot
solve their problems, but because they
cannot recognize and nd them in the
rst place. Understanding organizaonal
needs and/or industry trends requires
knowledge management models to ulize
the organizaonal knowledge which exists
in the people. It is the people who dene
what is innovave and what is not; what is
a soluon and what is a failure; as they are
the ones called on to apply organizaonal
strategies. The challenge in knowledge
based management strategies and
leadership is the connuous elicitaon
of knowledge and its transformaon to
applied innovaon.
A model for knowledge-based strategic
management and leadership that
signicantly promotes applied innovaon
is the company democracy model visible
in Figure 1. This model is based on the
ulizaon of organizaonal knowledge
through democrac methods and
pracces in knowledge culture, creaon,
extracon, and sharing – all points toward
shared goals and objecves [15].
Problem idencaon and exploitaon
of possible soluons are approached in the
company democracy model by integrang
the concept of democracy for everyone,
as long as their problems, needs, ideas
or wishes are supported by a soluon
oering shared value of any type or size.
The model is executed through a
framework in which an organizaonal
evoluonary spiral method is ulized
for the creaon and execuon of
knowledge-based democrac cultures for
eecve organizaonal knowledge-based
management and strategic leadership
[16]. The co-evoluonary spiral method
in the model contributes towards the
idencaon and achievement of the
capacity, capability, competence, and
maturity needed to turn informaon and
knowledge into innovaons [17]. The
spiral process, in this context, is based on
the idea of the degree of democracy in
The integrated company democracy
model supports an interdisciplinary
approach (management strategy,
knowledge, innovaon, human resources,
technology, producon, leadership,
quality, processes, innovaon, research
and development, etcetera). It is a union of
administrave and technocrac processes
in an anthropocentric method that directs
all sciences and pracces towards the
eort to unite people through the freedom
of expression and to produce knowledge as
raw material for innovaon – to challenge
complexity with simplicaon.
The evoluon of the Industrial Revoluon
from industrializaon to automaon and
from the technology management to
the knowledge management indicates
the needs of the port industry and
society for creave simplicity. The need
for achieving more for less is highly
associated with simplicity that needs to
Figure 1. The Company Democracy Model Levels Structure.
exist in every organizaonal operaon.
More producvity with less eort, more
eciency with less errors, and protability
with less expenses requires the primary
preservaon of sources.
Complexity derives from simplicity, but
simplicity requires complexity to become
simple enough to achieve complex results
[18]. Knowledge management contributes
towards making complex things simple
through the ulizaon and integraon of
the people’s knowledge, capability and
maturity in the organizaonal processes
and systems. The integraon of behavioral
sciences within the engineering and
management sciences generates the
muldisciplinary eld of cognive sciences.
One of the areas cognive science
studies is the simplicaon of
organizaonal process to be understood
and accepted by the capability and
maturity of the personnel. By making
organizaonal systems and processes
simple, we can assure high-adaptability,
and in turn produce the desired results,
regardless how complex they can be.
People have been trained to believe,
not to think, therefore many simplied
frameworks that can form a complex
organizaonal ecosystem are much more
likely to be followed than a complex
process in a simplied system.
This has become a necessity to the
Western world as less people have the
capability to perform in high capacity
or complex tasks. In the New York Times
arcle, ‘Why Science Majors Change Their
Minds (It's Just So Darn Hard)’ [19], it is
reported that about 60% of US college
students who have started with the
intenon of geng a science, technology,
engineering or mathemacs (STEM)
degree switch to a non-STEM major, or
quit enrely. Although geng a degree can
prove to be dicult, obtaining a degree in
a STEM eld is even more dicult. This
result is alarming, as business leaders
as well as government ocials believe
that the only way for the US to remain
economically compeve is to have more
students, and in turn more professionals,
with STEM degrees.
This of courses is not only a US problem.
Deutsche Welle, Germany’s public
broadcaster, reported that Germany needs
more immigrants of qualied labour,
primarily from the non-EU countries to
maintain its needs. Today, Europe has
very high unemployment among college
graduates, but at the same me there is
a severe shortage of technology workers.
In the past ve years the need for
‘technologically skilled workers’ has
increased from 16% in 2012 to 25%
in 2013. The Associaon of German
Engineers reported that the shortage of
electrical engineers, mechanical engineers
and soware developers is “so severe”
[20]. In June, they reported that there
were 76,400 vacant engineering jobs
an all-me high [21]. Over the long term,
at least unl 2050, Germany will need to
aract an average of 533,000 immigrants
per year, plus the number of those that
emigrate from the country, according
to a study released by the Bertelsmann
Foundaon on March 27, 2015 [22].
On the contrary, there are countries that
export high-skilled qualied professionals
in the STEM sciences, primarily from
Eastern Europe and Asia. Greece, for
example, contributed to the German
economy with more than 90,000 sciensts
during the years of the nancial crisis,
most of those sciensts holding doctorate
degrees [23].
The reducon of the STEM professional
in most of the countries of the Western
world who beneed the most from
the Industrial Revoluon is now being
considered as a major threat to the global
economy. Therefore the need for the
best possible ulizaon of the exisng
workforce needs to be achieved as soon
as possible. Knowledge management
is a signicant approach towards
understanding the capability and maturity
of the organizaonal workforce in order
to adjust around technologies that can do
complex work in a simplied way.
Understanding the limits of what one
can do is half the soluon. The other half
is to develop the processes and systems
that can be used. The challenge of hiding
operaonal complexity into simplied
processes and technology can be achieved
via the upcoming discipline of gamicaon.
Gamicaon as an academic eld,
management and operaons pracce is
sll in its infancy and treated as an original
idea. A denion that is frequently cited in
relave works presents gamicaon as the
incorporaon of game elements into non-
game contexts [24]. The word gamicaon
could refer to games created with the
purpose of turning a resome and hard
task into an engaging acvity, while the
incorporaon of educaonal features is
Furthermore, gamicaon may refer to
the evolvement of an exisng structure, like
a website, an enterprise applicaon or an
online community, to an educaonal tool
by applying some of the techniques and
ideas that make games appealing. In other
words, gamicaon is the strategy which
uses game mechanics and techniques in
order to drive user behaviour by increasing
Gamicaon is a popular topic among
business professionals as well as the
academia and it is exercised in sectors such
as engineering, medicine and military. It is
described as serious games, poincaon,
behavioural games and games with a
purpose, with the aforemenoned terms
being similar, yet dierent.
The work of Seaborn and Fels [25] is
proposed where several denions of
gamicaon and the related concepts are
categorized and elucidated. Gamicaon
is considered by industries as a tool for
supplemenng branding iniaves, or as
a business strategy tool [26], [27]. In fact,
it has been esmated that by 2015 more
than 50% of organizaons that manage
innovaon processes will gamify some
aspects of their businesses [28].
In the business world and from the
standpoint of the enty that applies
gamicaon on its processes and products,
there are a lot of benets to be gained.
Although they vary from sector to sector,
they can be quaned up to a certain
degree in measurable metrics. Some
of these metrics include engagement,
inuence, loyalty, user generated content,
me spent and viral appeal, and of course
the simple, yet unquanable concept of
fun, which is probably the main reason for
which a game is played.
On the other hand, gamicaon is
cricized because popular gamicaon
strategies are considered sterile, arcial
and simply not interesng enough.
An opposing community is the game
designers who feel that gamicaon
excludes elements like storytelling and
experience, focusing instead on simple
reward systems. Some crics allege that
gamicaon is a populist idea which does
not benet the ordinary user but rather
the business that incorporates it into its
Nevertheless, a scienc approach
of gamicaon is needed. Hamari et al.
[29] searched well-known databases,
including Web of Science, Scopus, Google
Scholar, EBSCOHost, ACM Digital library,
AI Seland Proquest, for papers including
the terms gamicaon, gamif*, gameful
and movaonal aordance in the tle,
abstract, keywords and main body of the
From the query more than 7,500
texts were collected, comprising peer-
reviewed papers and other works.
From the analysis of the results, only
24 unique, peer-reviewed, empirical
research papers were idened, mostly
from computer science conferences.
Seaborn and Fels [25] conducted a similar
literature survey in EBSCOHost, JSTOR,
Ovid, ProQuest, PubMed, Scopus and
Web of Science databases. All subject
areas were searched, as gamicaon is a
muldisciplinary term, with “gamicaon
OR gamif*” keyword search in books,
journals, conference proceedings, reports,
theses and dissertaons.
The search resulted in 769 works,
reduced to 31 papers aer the authors
processed the data. In this search
conference papers were the larger group
of documents. This can be jused by
the fact that as a relavely new topic,
works appear rst in conferences rather
than scienc journals. The graph of
Figure2 shows that the papers from the
aforemenoned surveys are new and
grow in number each year; note that
although in the second survey there
are nine papers reported for 2013, the
search of the authors covered only the
rst seven months of that year [25].
Nevertheless, there are strong indicaons
that the interest in gamicaon is growing
and more theory papers and empirical
invesgaons are reported in scienc
journals by the day [30], [31].
Before examining gamicaon, its building
blocks – i.e. the games themselves – must
be studied. Everybody is familiar with
Figure 2: Literature survey on gamification
games, mainly through experience. Games
have changed over the last 40 years with
the huge technological advancements
of informaon technology and the vast
commercializaon of computers. Although
computer game characteriscs are
recognized almost everywhere, it is argued
that computer games either play a big part
in modern life, or they are a pasme for
male children or teenagers. Stascal data
may be used to exhibit the penetraon
of digital games in modern society and
provide the prole of the average gamer
[32], [33], [34].
Almost 40% of all gamers in the US are
36 years of age or older; thus clearly not
only children play games. The average
gamer age is 37 years, with 12 years of
gaming experience, while gamers older
than 50 years old make up 29% of gamers,
according to 2011 results, with an increase
of 20% since 1999. Furthermore, the
percentage of female gamers in the US
was at 48% in the 2011 results (and likely
growing) while the percentage of female
gamers rose from 10% to 49% in France
from 1999 - 2013. Moreover, female
gamers are mainly so called mobile social
gamers. Actually, the majority of mobile
social gamers older than 28 years of age
are typically female gamers [35].
Games have a signicant presence at
home and at work. It is esmated that 77%
of American households own videogames.
In Germany, 46.6% of employees play
games during working hours and 61% of
CEOs and CFOs do the same.
Games are a signicant feature of one
of the most rapidly growing commercial
industries, mobile technology. In 2015,
nearly 2 billion people own a mobile device
of some sort, and 70-80% of all downloads
on that device are games. About 215
million hours are spent per day in the US
for gaming; 5.93 million years have been
spent in total, playing World of Warcra, a
famous on-line game. Regarding the games
industry, revenue gures are compelling.
The American games industry for 2013
alone was a $21.53 billion market. In 2011,
gamers in Germany spent 380 million
Euros on virtual items and services and
have downloaded 2.6 million games.
From the informaon presented
above, it can be concluded that games
are an important part of modern life in
various cultures, ages, genders, economic
backgrounds and other social features.
Gamers are not only novices either,
as there are also experienced game
technology users. For the laer group
it is easier to assume that games will
eventually enter other parts of social life
like work or educaon. One of the vehicles
that will facilitate that entry is gamicaon.
In support of this statement, it is reported
that 68% of parents are of the opinion that
playing games provides mental smulaon
or educaon.
The basic way of gamifying an
applicaon, process or product is to apply
some of the so-called game mechanics.
Game mechanics are the various
acons, behaviours and control
mechanisms aorded to the player within
a gaming context [36]. Game elements
that can be helpful have been reported
to be achievements, levels, progression,
quests or challenges, status, community
collaboraon, loss aversion, leader boards,
recognizing paerns, collecng, and
nding random treasures [37], [38] [39].
One approach to gamification would
be to implement some or all of the game
elements into an existing application
without essentially changing the
application’s original purpose. Another
approach to gamification would be
to give to applications the form of an
actual game. In the latter approach, a
careful game type selection is essential.
The most frequent types of games can
be considered puzzle games, adventure
games, simulation games, strategy and
real time strategy (RTS) games, and
edutainment games.
Despite the fact that gamicaon is a
relavely new discipline, its applicaon in
many areas can be considered remarkable
and an indicaon of the crical role it will
play in reshaping the global industries,
economy and society.
In educaon and professional training,
gamicaon comes to contribute towards
making STEM curriculums simplied
through learning games, especially in a
highly digized environment as the one
that involves engineers and more.
Gamicaon is oen correlated to
digital game-based learning (DGBL), which
is dened as the use of “…game-based
mechanics, aesthecs and game thinking to
engage people, movate acon, promote
learning and solve problems” [40]. Digital
games have clearly provided a boost in the
eld of gamicaon. Sciensts, who have
grown in a popular culture of video games,
game consoles and on-line mulplayer
games used for entertainment, nd it
logical and easy to use these aspects of
everyday life for the purpose of educaon
and professional training.
KnowRe is an online adapve learning
plaorm that helps students to learn
mathemacs [41], with the use of
graphics, instruconal videos, pracce
problems and real-world applicaons.
Students earn coins for correct answers,
which they subsequently use to unlock
any lessons they wish; they can advance to
the next level only if they have successfully
completed the previous one. A feature
of the system is that it can idenfy each
student’s strengths and weaknesses and
use supporng videos and instrucons
based on its assessments, thereby
personalizing the learning process.
Although aimed at high school students,
KnowRe can be important in the process of
gamifying technical educaon in two ways;
rstly because it is applied on a purely
technical discipline such as mathemacs,
and secondly because it oers a signicant
level of customizaon to the user – a very
useful tool when dealing with individuals
who come from dierent educaonal
Gamicaon plaorms also exist that
are addressed to engineering problems
and environments. In 2011, Siemens
introduced Plantville, an online gaming
plaorm aimed at employees, customers
and students [42]. It was based on
the hugely successful Facebook game
Farmville and simulated the experience
of being a plant manager. In the game,
players are in charge of a facility and they
have the task of maintaining the operaon
of a plant, while at the same me trying
to improve its producvity, eciency and
In more specialized topics, such as in
engineering, gamicaon includes game
systems in CAD-type environments.
Brough et al. [43] developed the Virtual
Training Studio in which users train to
perform assembly tasks. Li, Grossman
and Fitzmaurice [44] presented GamiCAD,
a gamied tutorial for AutoCAD, based
on missions, scores and rewards.
Furthermore, the Monkey Wrench
Conspiracy project is a rst-person shooter
game that aims to train engineers to move
from 2D to 3D CAD systems. A review on
such systems can be found in the work of
Kosmadoudi et al. [45]. Another example
is the PTC Manikin extension [46], a
parametric 3D CAD/CAM/CAE soware
that provides ergonomic and human factor
analysis capabilies in the Pro/ENGINEER
Virtual reality training systems (VRTS)
are also popular educaonal tools.
BeWare of the Robot is a VRTS serious
game that simulates the cooperaon
between industrial roboc manipulators
and humans, execung manufacturing
tasks [47], [48]. These digital environments
aim to aid engineers’ study and analyse
interacons between people, products
and work staons in a virtual reality
context. Working in industrial producon
is related to interacon with machines,
or as depicted in Figure 3, with machine
The trained professional has to achieve
an opmal throughput, provide high
quality products and reduce downmes
to minimum. Using game inspired
features like animated 3D models can help
operators visualize and locate problems in
immense detail. Other issues include the
opmizaon of idle me and movaon
through reward [49].
Addionally, a gamicaon approach
has been designed by the RWTH Aachen
University and tested in cooperaon with
a German car manufacturer in order to
enhance training strategies for workers
in low volume assembly systems, while
increasing ramp-up performance, and
they have achieved promising results [50].
Furthermore, Hauge and Riedel [51]
tested two serious games, namely
COSIGA and Beware, in order to
evaluate gamification for engineering
and manufacturing training. In COSIGA,
a product scenario is introduced and
the player takes all the steps from
specifications to production, considering
several restrictions related to production.
Beware is dedicated to teaching users
of the risks in enterprise networks
and improving player skills in risk
management. It was concluded that the
evaluation of learning outcome is difficult
to be measured and the learning effect
can be assessed when the engineers
put their learning into practice in their
working environment.
Likewise, plantville is an engaging and
informave plant simulaon which puts
the player right in the shoes of a plant
manager at Siemens (Figure 4). The goals
of the game are the same as those of
plant managers in their daily working life,
namely, to improve safety, quality and
delivery, and manage funding maers [52].
Tom Warney, Head of Markeng
and Communicaons at Siemens, sees
Plantville as a tool to raise the interest of
younger generaons in the manufacturing
industry and educate society about the
company and its products.
Finally, Pourabdollahian et al. [53]
employed a set based concurrent
engineering (SBCE) game in order to bring
a hands-on experience on lean product
development. The game was tested in a
real industrial environment of an Italian
company and it was concluded that
the parcipants showed a high level of
Applying game technologies in
engineering is a unique business area
(and a quite unique research area).
As a conclusion, we have seen that an
ecient use of exisng digital content
such as 3D technical CAD drawings
together with game technologies is one
of the key elements of gamied industrial
applicaons. At present, we are currently
studying new value creaon, and in our
previous experiments we have studied
how complicated CAD drawings can be
ulized in game development.
These results have been ulized in the
game development of the IndustrySim
demonstraon (in Figure 5) which contains
CAD drawings of a coal red power plant.
This study, including the phases of the 3D
modeling process, has also been described
in detail within IndustrySim: Finding the
Fun in Industrial Simulaons’ [54].
IndustrySim as a case study can be
used here as an example of our research
philosophy. Our research approach has
characteriscs which can be found in
the IndustrySim research framework
presented by Hevner et al. [55]. Both
scienc evaluaons and industrial pilots
have formed an iterave and incremental
design process in which essenal feedback
has been gathered and analyzed for the
next construcon phases.
Gamicaon seems to become the
next revoluon in industrializaon, as
game technologies come to enrich data
visualizaon, enabling the visualizaon
of something which was not possible
with exisng technologies. The dramac
reducon of STEM graduates demands
simplicity in order to achieve eciency,
sustainability and development of the global
economy. Sciensts in this eld should
increase awareness of next generaon user
interface (UI) design (as we enter the era of
the virtuality connuum).
The bolenecks in this new era are
mainly in standardizaon or in openness,
but one of the bolenecks can be the
uncertainty or a lack of knowhow regarding
how new visualizaon technologies such as
game engines can innovavely be used in
this eld of science.
Simplicity can transmute complexity
and provide controlled, secure, reliable,
measurable fun as well as reducing
knowledge gaps and intellectual
discriminaons. Simplicity can increase the
number of qualied personnel to perform
in controlled environments [57]. Such a
workforce increase will resolve major issues
that exist in the most developed countries
related with the capability, maturity and
qualicaon of their nave populaon and
Taking the simplicity issue a step
further, its contribuon to the mobility
can be considered tremendous, with high
economic and developmental impacts.
Simplied applicaons, operaons,
processes, tasks and acvies, through
gamicaon, can be executed in mobile
devices anywhere and anyme.
As technology moves so fast on mobile
technologies, the workstaons of the
very near future will be able to be carried
anywhere (see Figure 4). The combinaon
of simplicity and mobility can give
tremendous advantages to the countries
that can support, deploy and apply such
technologies and management pracces to
their workforces. Put simply, by working in
a simplied and fun environment anywhere
and anyme, producvity increases.
Accessibility is another crical dimension
of gamicaon that together with
simplicity and mobility concludes the
major characteriscs of the gamicaon
revoluon. Accessibility, which seems to be
similar to mobility, is mostly related with
the use of simplied technologies that can
work anywhere and anyme. The nger can
be considered as the device of the future
as it replaces keyboards, the mouse, pens,
and all other input and control devices that
have existed unl now [58]. By not having
to carry all wireless or cabled devices
together with the advanced displays that
provide connuous progress, accessibility
makes mobility much more eecve.
Advanced research on state-of-the-
art displays started in the 2000s with
applicaons on smartphones and tablets
[59]. Imagine displays thin as paper, that
can be folded, and are capable of ng in
a pocket and unfolded enough to cover a
wall, while being easy to carry, share and
use in any desired way. Such displays,
that exist today, bring the concept of
accessibility to a totally new dimension,
which really redenes what mobility
really is [60]. Simplicity gives operaonal
substance to mobility and accessibility.
The next revoluon besides
organizaonal eciency to oer to those
who can aord it is the capability to create
the workforce needed towards achieving,
maintaining, or reaching organizaonal
The discipline of gamicaon and its
impact in the global economy has been
idened since the turn of the millennium.
Figure 3: BeWare of the Robot VRTS screenshot
Figure 4: Plantville screenshot
Inially, there were the smartphones, and
then the tablets which boosted up the
‘apps’ concept, generang a tremendous
market and global start-up trend. People
tend to believe that just a smartphone
applicaon is enough to make them rich
[61]. To a degree, this might be true as
there have been many success stories
indicang this new emerging economy of
web applicaons and games [62]. On the
other hand this cannot work for everyone
as there is not a market and the nancial
recourses to either sell or fund anything
that fails in this trend. Nevertheless it is
the hope and the opportunity that counts
and not the result [63].
In the game industry it is very dicult to
receive publicity in marketplaces and only
the big brand names have the resources
for aggressive markeng campaigns to
make their apps visible in the major lists.
On the other hand, if gamied soluons
are designed for B2B markets, under a
totally new business strategy and even
marketplace, a new economy can be
Innovaon in the contemporary age
is now much associated with web-
applicaons, especially game oriented
ones [64]. This new trend generated the
need for cered game developers as a
new profession to create the disncon
between the professional and amateur in
the global market [65].
Previous studies [66] have analysed
how universies have started to create
game oriented academic courses and
programmes that can be studies at
all levels (BA, BSc, MA, MSc, PhD).
Such programs vary according to the
specializaon of each course and the type
of the university. Academic courses and
programmes exist today in game design,
game development, game applicaon
development, 3D games and animaon,
game storyboard development, game arts,
game engineering, and much more. Such
programmes can be studies for both the
arts (BA, MA) and the sciences (BSc, MSc).
Arts, given academic programs emphasize
more on the creave dimension (concept
art, design, script, animaon, etcetera) of
the gamied applicaons [67], [68], [69]
while the science driven programmes
emphasize more on the engineering
dimension (soware engineering, coding,
graphics, etcetera) [70], [71].
The subjects covered in game design,
game development and game related
courses are not restricted in the
development of actual games but on the
integraon of arts and engineering for
business and pleasure applicaons. They
emphasize all key characteriscs of the
gamicaon discipline (simplicity, mobility
and availability) through the development
of real applicaons, environments, systems
and ecosystems for all industry needs and
at all types of industries.
Game design and development has
turned out to be one of the most popular
academic courses one can aend. The
wide concept of gamicaon, which is
not restricted to actual playable games,
but also to the gamicaon of business
applicaons, aracts some of the most
brilliant minds in arts and engineering with
an extremely promising future. In 2013,
the median salary for a game designer
was US$72,000, while the top salary was
$117,000 at a me when there were
520,800 jobs for game designers, while for
the next ten years there is an esmated
growth rate at least 27.6% per year in both
jobs and salaries [72]. In 2015 the average
salary is $87,000 ($88,000 in California),
while the top salary is $140,000 ($151,000
in California) [73]. This indicates a salary
increase of 15-25% in a year. Therefore,
game designers and developers with
academic qualicaons will lead the
development of an industry that totally
changes the world.
In general, the games industry can be
seen as an exceponal one. The prot
per employee is one of the highest in any
industrial eld. Two years ago Supercell,
with 100-150 employees sold 51% to
Soback for $1.53 billion, while Nokia,
with 60,000 employees was sold to
Microso for $7.6 billion.
Processing those gures further as in
Tables 1 and 2, it seems that the average
value of a Supercell employee – whom are
mostly game designers – is $20,000,000 ($3
billion/150) while the average employee
value in Nokia, mostly ICT engineers, is
$130,000 ($7,8 billion/60.000), giving a
rao of 1:154.
This analysis indicates that one employee
in a top gaming company can generate
154 mes the value of what an employee
can generate in a top ICT company. Both
Nokia and Supercell are considered as
exceponally successful cases, and this
is why they are compared. In general, an
average rao between employee value in
these two industries is probably 1:100.
The Nokia-Supercell case presents
another very interesng index for the
booming development of the gaming
industry. Supercell was established in
2010, and reached a company value of $3
billion in only 5 years (2010-2015), while
the Nokia Corporaon was formed in
1967 (originally Nokia was established in
May 12, 1865; as Tampere Grand Duchy of
Finland, named as Nokia in 1871) and hit a
reach company value of $7.8 billion in 48
years (1967-2015).
Prior to referring to the applicaon of
gamicaon in business management
there is a very important issue that needs
to be claried. There is a misunderstanding
on the contribuon of gaming technology
in business management and operaons,
as games are considered more like
entertainment applicaons. This is not
true as clever game technologies can be
used in business management various
ways (as can entertainment games,
serious games, gamied apps, business
simulaons, and so forth). This is the
reason that the term ‘serious games’ is
used to disnguish entertainment games
from business games.
The term serious game has been
used since the 1960s, long before the
introducon of computer and electronic
devices into entertainment [74]. It was
used to dene gamied processes without
the use of technology as a scenario based
model operang metaphorically as a game
of strategy with probabilies, possibilies
and skills on handling informaon,
condions, decisions and results.
Figure 5: Screenshot (with the GUI disabled) of an example coal-fired power plant built inside
the IndustrySim prototype [56]
This term could be considered quite
correct for the me of its development,
which was nearly 60 years ago, but it is
outdated now, and probably not fair to
be used today in order to disnguish the
entertainment games, as games disnct
from the business games, as serious
games. Many references dene serious
games or applied games as games designed
for a primary purpose other than pure
entertainment. The ‘serious’ adjecve is
generally prepended to refer to products
used by industries like defence, educaon,
scienc exploraon, health care,
emergency management, city planning,
engineering, and polics [75]. This kind
of characterizaon can be unfair to the
entertainment games that do have serious
scenarios, such as technology, graphics,
sound, animaon, eects and other
elements that can turn entertainment
games into unique experiences. Serious
games are actually successful if they are
designed around entertainment game
design principles. A good serious game
must be entertaining, or at least so
immersive that players are highly drawn to
the playing experience.
What is a serious game and what is not
serious cannot and shall not be determined
by the type of its user target group,
funconality or operaons, but solely on its
quality, eecveness and benets to those
using it for a specic purpose. For those
sll insisng on such a categorizaon, the
queson is if the adjecve serious is used
to determine entertainment gaming from
business gaming, and whether it could
also be applied to ‘serious’ and ‘unserious’
academicians, managers, policians, and
so forth.
They all act in a serious or unserious
manner, but they can’t be called ‘not
serious’, even if they are, as there is not
such a ‘serious’ or an ‘unserious’ university,
company or government categorizaon
based on the rankings of a university,
sales of a company, eecveness of a
government or other criteria.
The concept of gamicaon in systems and
technologies is a revoluonary approach
towards resolving many techno-economic
and socio-economic issues that trouble
the (primarily) Western world due to
the connuous lack of qualied human
recourses and unwillingness to step back
or slow down progression and leadership
in all sectors. The same concept can also
be applied in organizaonal management
via gamied processes, organizaonal
structures and operaons towards
achieving higher organizaonal goals [76].
By integrang gamied management
processes, methods, and pracces in
the exisng organizaonal operaons,
management and strategies, organizaons
can increase eciency, producvity,
innovaon and compeveness [77].
The most crical challenge organizaons
are facing, and it seems that they will
be facing for years ahead, are the
idencaon, extracon and ulizaon
of the organizaonal knowledge that
exists in the people as individuals or
teams. Forsten et al. [78] have developed
the so called ProDesim game (a business
simulaon game). In their studies, they
have found that it can be ancipated
that simulaon gaming oers students
the possibility for a quicker adaptaon of
strategic management techniques, which
in turn can lead to a more comprehensive
understanding of strategic management.
Formality and prosperity has created
bureaucracy, and that stands against
movaon, inspiraon, vision, and
creavity at a personnel level. Without
organizaonal knowledge and eecve
strategy management, it is quesonable
whether leadership can be possible
at all [79]. No plan can work if real
and valid knowledge has not taken
into consideraon, integrated with
assumpons, stascs, trends and
management intuion [80], [81].
As long as humans, as employees, have
a role, be it any role in an organizaon,
then their best possible ulizaon
towards achieving knowledge must be a
top management priority. Gamicaon
Figure 6: Organic Light Emitting Diodes Technology and Displays,
Table 1: Employee value between NOKIA and Supercell
NOKIA $7.800.000.000 60.000 $130.000
SUPERCELL $ 150 $20.000.000
Table 2: Employee value between NOKIA and Supercell
NOKIA $130.000 100,00% 1
SUPERCELL $20.000.000 15384,62% 153,85
in technological applicaons and systems
has been created to develop the simplicity
needs to make more people parcipate in
using the technology. In the same concept,
gamicaon in management processes will
create simplicity and reduce bureaucracy
for greater parcipaon which results in
more interacon, knowledge generaon
and ulizaon.
The company democracy model has the
ideal structure towards embedding the
gamicaon concept in it. The model has
been purely designed for organizaonal
management via the ulizaon of
organizaonal knowledge. The goals and
objecves of the model can be achieved
faster, easier and beer if gamicaon
management is integrated.
Level one of the model emphasizes on
creang a democrac culture in which
everyone has the capability and opportunity
to contribute with ideas, thoughts,
consideraons, experiences, and any other
type of informaon, towards opmizing
organizaonal operaons. The democrac
approach the model integrated eliminated
bureaucracy and formality, creang an
environment of equal opportunity, not in
theory but in pracce.
By gamifying level one of the model,
the knowledge elicitaon, analysis,
transfer and ulizaon can be more easy,
eecve and fun. The development of a
simplied process in game contents and
frameworks will increase parcipaon,
reduce insecuries, and generated the
best results.
Level two of the model emphasizes
the best possible ulizaon of the
knowledgeable people within the
organizaon. By moving the right people
to the right place in a dynamic organizaon
structure and hierarchy, organizaons can
successfully manage talent and ambion,
as well as anything that comes with it.
By gamifying the tasks and roles given to
those who have knowledge to prove it and
benet from the chance given to them,
the pressure for success is reduced and
beer results can be achieved for both the
people and the organizaon.
Level three of the model ulizes the
proven knowledge, skills and capabilies
developed in level two by placing the
right people at the right places, towards
the transformaon of this knowledge and
skill into new organizaonal produces,
processes, services, projects and
iniaves. Gamied management can
be applied in the development of the
prototypes and pilot iniaves through
which anything new is tested, with a
simplied and gamied involvement of not
only those developing a new iniave, but
also those who can use or judge it.
Level four of the model ulizes the
prototypes and pilot iniaves developed
at level three towards the development of
innovaon through the ones that are or
can be innovave. Innovaon management
via gamied process can result in brilliant
innovaons as they are developed with
the democrac freedom and gamied
simplicity. Likewise, level ve of the model
which emphasises intra-organizaonal
co-opeon and extra-organizaonal
compeon by turning organizaonal
innovaon into compeve advantage,
can also adopt a gamied process toward
analysing compeve advantages with
the simplicity, mobility and adaptability
needed for wider acceptance and stronger
compeveness. Level six of the model
promotes extroversion through the
ulizaon of the compeve advantages
generated at level ve, and can also
adopt gamicaon management in the
way internaonal partners and iniaves
are approached and tested. It is a level
that all the benets of the previous ve
levels are integrated towards achieving
internaonalizaon and extroversion.
The company democracy model is not
the one and only model that can adopt
gamied management. All models in
an organizaonal based management
strategy can integrate gamied processes
and pracces in their structure accordingly.
Once gamicaon will enter into
organizaonal management, expanding
from today’s success in systems and
technology, then game process designers,
game process engineering and other
related professions will emerge to support
this new revoluonary advancement of
the technology in its integraon with
organizaons management for more
promising and eecve results and
Gamicaon stated as a concept that
became a promising and leading discipline
with current applicaons in technology
and potenal applicaons in management
as well. As the world seeks simplicity to
resolve complexity, gamicaon is not only
a soluon but a strategy as well.
The gamicaon characteriscs based
on simplicity, mobility and accessibility are
strong enough to ignite a revoluon in the
industrializaon period, whose outcome
cannot be predicted at this me. The
adaptaon of gamicaon in technology
brings us closer to the reality many of the
science con scenes once considered far
away. The gamied usage of technology
increases the number of technology
users in a pleasant but also secured and
control environment. Such an increase
of technology users resolves many socio-
economic issues, especially in a developed
country which loses more and more of its
qualied workforce.
Gamicaon enters also into the
cognive science trend, which is based on
knowledge management and ulizaon.
Developing technology that can be used
by all, at all mes, with pleasure, security
and control, requires more than technical
and arsc experse.
Knowledge management in gamicaon
has a signicant role in the development
of gamied technologies but also gamied
organizaonal management models.
Simplicity and pleasure are the keys to
unlocking the complexity and knowledge
acquision towards achieving goals and
strategies that involve more and more
people in it. The art, science, management,
discipline, and strategy of gamicaon,
whatever this can be, or whatever it is,
for sure will have a strong, if not the
strongest impact, in the global economy
and society. It is too early to characterize
what gamicaon really is and what it can
do, but it will certainly be the subject of a
lot of research and management work for
years ahead.
Prof. Dr. Eng. Evangelos Markopoulos is an
expert, entrepreneur and scholar on Process
and Project Engineering and Management
and on Technocrac Enterprise Engineering,
Innovaon Management, Technology
Brokerage and Technocrac Investments
Management. He received his BS and MSc
on Computer Science and his PhD on ICT
Project and Investments Management. As
a Computer Scienst he worked mainly in
the USA and at ΙΒΜ, at Siemens and at
Bell Laboratories of AT&T. In his Academic
career he taught (Computer Science and
Mathemacs) as Adjunct Professor, and
worked as a Research Fellow in Research &
Development programs, in Universies and
Technical Instuons in Greece as well as in
related instutes and laboratories (Vaasa
University-Finland, Brunel University-UK,
Tampere University of Technology-Finland,
City University of New York-USA, University
of Piraeus-Greece, Gauss Instute-
Germany). As an innovave entrepreneur
and businessman later on, he established
and managed Sparthink (www.sparthink.
com), (a soware development company
in San Francisco specialized on iOS, Android
and Gaming Applicaons and Technologies),
but also the EMPROSS Group from:
EMPROSS Strategic IT Consultants, Athens,
Greece (Project Management), ANDgate
Technologies, Nicosia, Cyprus (Enterprise
Engineering), SmartGATE, Cairo, Egypt
(Innovaon Management). He invested
and developed a number of technologies,
patents and innovaons in Process and
Project Management and Engineering,
turning them all into applicable products
and services.
Prof. Dr. Eng. Angelos Markopoulos has
research, academic and professional and
business career in the eld of mechanical
engineering and informaon and
communicaon technology. His academic
career began at the Naonal Technical
University of Athens where he was
involved in research on advanced materials
management models in nanotechnology
applicaons. His research connued
to Hungary where he parcipated in
a special research team studying the
praccal applicaons of nanotechnology in
engineering. Prior his current professorship
at the Naonal Technical University of
Athens, he was a professor at University
of Thessaly, and also the University
School of the Armed Forces, mostly Air
Force Academy Air Force and the Naval
Academy in the Navy, teaching Mechanical
Engineering and Informaon Technology.
Panagios (Panos) Markopoulos is an
undergraduate student of Games Design
at the University of Arts London, College
of Communicaon, School of Design. His
areas of interest are concept design, gaming
environments, script and storyboard scenarios
and concept realizaon. He has professional
experience in the game design industry as a
member of a game design team in Rebel Crew
Games, a European Award Winner games
design company, but also in Sparthing (iOS/
Android and Gaming Technologies).
Prof. Dr. Mika Luimula is Head of the
Game Laboratory in the ICT Unity at
Turku University of Applied Sciences. Dr
Mika Luimula is working as a Principal
Lecturer in game development for Turku
University of Applied Sciences. He holds
a PhD in Informaon Processing Sciences
and a MSc in Mathemacs. Dr Luimula
is a Research Group Leader of Futurisc
Interacve Technologies and is leading game
development R&D acvies in Turku Game
Lab. His research interests include game
development, gamicaon, serious games,
health informacs, and locaon-aware
systems. In 2014, he received the Work-In-
Progress Award in IEEE VS-Games Conference
with his colleagues. Dr. Luimula has also
extensive research and industrial experse
on mobile and ubiquitous compung and
cognive transportaon systems. He has
published around 70 scienc papers in the
above menoned research areas.
Evangelos Markopoulos
University of Vaasa (UVA), School of
Technology, Department of Producon,
FI 65101, Vaasa, FINLAND
Angelos Markopoulos
Naonal Technical University of Athens (NTUA),
School of Mechanical Engineering, Department
of Manufacturing Technology, Heroon
Polytechniou 9, 15780, Athens, GREECE
Panos Markopoulos
University of the Arts London (UAL), London
College of Communicaon, School of Design,
Elephant & Castle, SE1 6SB, London, UK
Mika Luimula
Turku University of Applied Sciences (TAMK),
School of Informaon and Communicaon
Technology, Game Laboratory. Turku
University, Turku, FI 20014, FINLAND
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... Hence, it became relevant to understand and apply the logic behind video games to other platforms to foster behaviors beyond the gaming activity itself. Today, gamified technologies and solutions have been effectively used even in conservative sectors such as shipping (Markopoulos and Luimula, 2020), (Markopoulos et al., 2019a), Formula 1 racing (Markopoulos et at., 2019b), (Markopoulos et al., 2919c), cultural heritage (Markopoulos et al.2021a) in farming (Markopoulos et al., 2019d), and engineering (mechanical, industrial, etc.), (Markopoulos et al. 2017) where human interaction and expertise are critical for their operations. ...
... The "serious" adjective is generally prepended to refer to products used by industries like defense, education, scientific exploration, health care, emergency management, city planning, engineering, and politics (Damien 2011). What is a serious game, and what is not serious cannot and shall not be determined by the type of its user's target group, functionality, or operations, but solely on its quality, effectiveness, and benefits to those using it for a specific purpose, any purpose (Markopoulos et al., 2017). ...
... It is early to measure this impact, but it will undoubtedly be the subject of more applied research. (Markopoulos et al., 2017) The paper presents a gamified methodological approach and a process model that integrates democratic organizational culture elements that utilize gamification to achieve employee pro-environmental behaviors that can benefit both the economy and society. The multidimensional use of the DeG-PEBM and its adaptation to the ESG and CSR elements can be easier with a gamified process. ...
Conference Paper
This paper aims to analyze the extent to which gamification is an effective alternative to promote the adoption of democratic pro-environmental behaviors and contribute towards the creation of the relative organization culture. The accepted definition of gamification for this paper is the process of enhancing a service with affordances for gameful experiences to support users’ overall value creation. This marketing perspective approach focuses more on the effects obtained as a consequence of activating intrinsic and extrinsic motivation through gamified systems rather than the analysis of the characteristics of the game design elements and the incentives for its practical and actual adaptation and utilization within organizations. Furthermore, the proposed model is linked with the ESG criteria to further incentivize its organization’s adaptation from theory to practice. Finally, the paper indicates limitations and areas of further research towards green ocean strategies that can maximize its applications and impact.
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A highly interactive and immersive Virtual Reality Training System (VRTS) is developed, in terms of an educational serious game that simulates the cooperation between industrial robotic manipulators and humans, executing manufacturing tasks. "BeWare of the robot" application ultimately aims at studying the acceptability of human-robot collaboration, when both human and robot share the same workspace. The initial version of the application was evaluated by a group of users. Experimental results on usability and technical aspects are presented and several remarks about users' experience and behavior in the virtual world are discussed. © IFIP International Federation for Information Processing 2013.
Full-text available
In recent years, “gamification” has been proposed as a solution for engaging people in individually and socially sustainable behaviors, such as exercise, sustainable consumption, and education. This paper studies demographic differences in perceived benefits from gamification in the context of exercise. On the basis of data gathered via an online survey (N=195) from an exercise gamification service Fitocracy, we examine the effects of gender, age, and time using the service on social, hedonic, and utilitarian benefits and facilitating features of gamifying exercise. The results indicate that perceived enjoyment and usefulness of the gamification decline with use, suggesting that users might experience novelty effects from the service. The findings show that women report greater social benefits from the use of gamification. Further, ease of use of gamification is shown to decline with age. The implications of the findings are discussed.
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This paper reports on the evaluation methods and findings from serious games for teaching engineering and manufacturing. Two serious games are considered: Cosiga, a new product development simulation game and Beware, a risk management simulation game. These two games cover the front and middle parts of the engineering process – from design to manufacture to sale. For the Cosiga simulation evaluations of the communication and cognitive change were performed. For the Beware game evaluation of communication, risk awareness and improvement of risk management skills were performed The findings from the evaluations showed that serious games deliver learning outcomes. However, there are drawbacks to their use that need to be taken into account. Principally the high cost of development and the need for expert facilitators for running game sessions.
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This paper reviews peer-reviewed empirical studies on gamification. We create a framework for examining the effects of gamification by drawing from the definitions of gamification and the discussion on motivational affordances. The literature review covers results, independent variables (examined motivational affordances), dependent variables (examined psychological/behavioral outcomes from gamification), the contexts of gamification, and types of studies performed on the gamified systems. The paper examines the state of current research on the topic and points out gaps in existing literature. The review indicates that gamification provides positive effects, however, the effects are greatly dependent on the context in which the gamification is being implemented, as well as on the users using it. The findings of the review provide insight for further studies as well as for the design of gamified systems.
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In this paper, we discuss the development of Virtual Training Studio (VTS), a virtual environment-based training system that allows training supervisors to create training instructions and allows trainees to learn assembly operations in a virtual environment. Our system is mainly focused on the cognitive side of training so that trainees can learn to recognize parts, remember assembly sequences, and correctly orient the parts during assembly operations. Our system enables users to train using the following three training modes: (1) Interactive Simulation, (2) 3D Animation, and (3) Video. Implementing these training modes required us to develop several new system features. This paper presents an overview of the VTS system and describes a few main features of the system. We also report user test results that show how people train using our system. The user test results indicate that the system is able to support a wide variety of training preferences and works well to support training for assembly operations.
New estimates of nominal earnings and the cost of living are presented and used to make a fresh assessment of changes in the real earnings of male and female manual workers in Britain from 1770 to 1870. Workers' average real earnings are then adjusted for factors such as unemployment, the number of their dependants, and the costs of urbanization. The main finding is that the standard of living of the average working-class family improved by less than 15 percent between the 1780s and 1850s. This long plateau is shown to be consistent with other economic, political, and demographic indicators.
Why Science Majors Change Their Minds (It's Just So Darn Hard)'. The New York Times
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Karwowski, W. (editor), 2nd Edition, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA • DeGroot, Morris H. (1986), 'A Conversation with Persi Diaconis'. Statistical Science, volume 1, number 3, pp 319-334 • Drew C. (2011), 'Why Science Majors Change Their Minds (It's Just So Darn Hard)'. The New York Times, 4 November 2011, (accessed 15 October 2015). http://www.nytimes. com/2011/11/06/education/edlife/why-science-majorschange-their-mind-its-just-so-darn-hard.html?_r=0 • Vu John. (2013), 'The skills shortage in Europe' http:// Nov.1.2013, (accessed 16 October 2015).
The impact of gamification -Recommending education scenarios
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Siemens Launches Plantville-an Innovative Gaming Platform to Showcase Products and Solutions for Industry and Infrastructure
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