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The Impact of Tourism Service Quality in Improving Mental Imagery: A Study of Tourism Companies in Erbil, Kurdistan Region of Iraq

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The ultimate goal of this research was to examine the impact of tourism service quality in improving the mental imagery from the managers’ perspectives working for tourism companies in Erbil. Also, understand the concept of tourism service quality and its various dimensions. However, to collect empirical data, the researchers used a self-designed survey questionnaire. The survey sample comprises 136 managers, who randomly selected from different tourism companies to reply to the survey questions. The empirical data were analyzed using a partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM), which is a common analysis method for assessing models, in particular with latent variables and their correlations. The findings confirmed that tourism service quality impacted the mental imagery of tourists in destination facilities in Erbil, which contributes to tourist satisfaction, and attracting tourists. The tourism service quality plays a vital role by increasing the level of tourist satisfaction through improving mental imagery. The results in this research supported the evidence that tourism service quality dimensions positively and significantly contribute to improving the mental imagery. Keywords: Tourism Service Quality, Tourism Companies, Tourists, and Mental Imagery
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International Journal of Psychosocial Rehabilitation, Vol. 24, Issue 05, 2020
ISSN: 1475-7192
DOI: 10.37200/IJPR/V24I5/PR201994 Received: 25 Feb 2020 | Revised: 20 Mar 2020 | Accepted: 30 Mar 2020 2889
Abstract--- The ultimate goal of this research was to examine the impact of tourism service quality in improving
the mental imagery from the managers' perspectives working for tourism companies in Erbil. Also, understand the
concept of tourism service quality and its various dimensions. However, to collect empirical data, the researchers
used a self-designed survey questionnaire. The survey sample comprises 136 managers, who randomly selected from
different tourism companies to reply to the survey questions. The empirical data were analyzed using a partial least
squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM), which is a common analysis method for assessing models, in
particular with latent variables and their correlations. The findings confirmed that tourism service quality impacted
the mental imagery of tourists in destination facilities in Erbil, which contributes to tourist satisfaction, and
attracting tourists. The tourism service quality plays a vital role by increasing the level of tourist satisfaction
through improving mental imagery. The results in this research supported the evidence that tourism service quality
dimensions positively and significantly contribute to improving the mental imagery.
Keywords--- Tourism Service Quality, Tourism Companies, Tourists, and Mental Imagery.
I. INTRODUCTION
In recent years, the Kurdistan Region has realized various changes in its market, especially in the capital city-
Erbil. One of these changes is regarding the tourism sector, as the tourism industry has become one of the fastest
developed areas in the modern business environment since it has become vital to the region's economy. Thus, KRG's
related departments, private companies, business people, and universities have established their aim to develop this
industry. Currently, it has many tourism and travel companies; due to the transportation facilities, having many
luxurious restaurants and hotels. In this context, the internal marketing practice is essential that practitioners in the
tourism industry would have their strategic plans to gain the success of the companies, maintain and improve this
sector continuously by the focus on creating a good relationship with all the relevant parties to improving mental
imagery of tourists. In this regard (Matos et al., 2015) addressed the role of imagery and tourism experiences in the
construction of a tourism destination imagery, and emphasized the constructed imagery importance at all stages of
consumption, since the intangibility characterizes tourism and services in general. They also mentioned that this
aspect is gaining significance because tourists cannot experience the desired holidays before the visit, which leads to
the mental imagery becoming an essential element to inspire and effect them throughout the decision-making
process, and consumption before, during, and after the experience. As referred by (Adams, 2004), mental imagery
Asreen Ramzi Hassan, The College of Administration and Economics, Salahaddin University- Erbil.
Hussein Ahmad Mustafa, The College of Administration and Economics, Salahaddin University- Erbil.
Gibraeel Ahmed Ismael, The College of Administration and Economics, Salahaddin University- Erbil.
The Impact of Tourism Service Quality in
Improving Mental Imagery: A Study of Tourism
Companies in Erbil, Kurdistan Region of Iraq
Asreen Ramzi Hassan, Hussein Ahmad Mustafa and
Gibraeel Ahmed Ismael
International Journal of Psychosocial Rehabilitation, Vol. 24, Issue 05, 2020
ISSN: 1475-7192
DOI: 10.37200/IJPR/V24I5/PR201994 Received: 25 Feb 2020 | Revised: 20 Mar 2020 | Accepted: 30 Mar 2020 2890
permits tourists or consumers to consider ideas and narratives of the destinations. The importance of the research is
to realize the theoretical concepts and applied practices of the variables and its benefits in improving the mental
imagery of the tourist and achieve more profits to tourism companies in Erbil. However, the subject is relatively
new, besides the diversity of entrances and intertwined relations may provide an opportunity for addition and
renewal by the researchers in improving the mental imagery of the tourist and the achievement of profits for private
sector companies. Further, the practical research importance is to contribute to the tourism companies in Erbil on
how to improve the mental imagery of the tourist by building a model for study and testing it. The result and
suggestions from this research may contribute or benefit the tourism companies in adopting the tourism service
quality and enhance its position, besides enabling it to stay and continue in the market and compete with other
tourism facilities.
1.1. Research Problem and Question
The research problem can express through the following questions: What is the reality of tourism service
quality provided by the tourism companies in Erbil? What are the mental imagery levels of the tourist in surveyed
companies? Is there a relational impact of the tourism service quality on the mental imagery of the tourist? To
address the research problem, we have to answer the main research question, which stated that to what extent does
the tourism service quality impact in improving the mental imagery of the tourists.
II. LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1. Tourism Service Quality
Tourism is one of the tops and fastest-growing sectors in the world; it plays an essential role in the economy and
stimulates economic growth (Osman and Sentosa, 2013). Thus, the tourism industry has developed significantly,
mostly in the past two decades. Perhaps the main reason is the development of transport, information, and
communication. Consequently, the world has turned into a small global village (Khalifah and Mustafa, 2019). The
service quality considered as dealing with tourists or customers respectfully and helpfully, David Garvin's analysis
of quality and defines it in different approaches. To the superior approach, quality is synonymous with innate
excellence, absolute and universally recognizable: 'customers will know it when seeing it.' Accordingly, a product or
service is called qualify if it meets standards, or when it obtains the highest standard (Le, 2010). Service quality has
defined as a gap between the customer's expectations of service and the client's or tourists' perceptions of the service
received (Parasuraman et al., 1985).
Also, it defined by (Crompton and Mackay, 1990) as the quality of service attributes and investigations on the
importance of those attributes based on types of service categories. Bouchsheya and Munir, (2017) examined the
quality of the service and its impact on tourism promotion, and the researchers argued that the quality of tourism
service is a measure to the point that the level of customer service meets their expectations, thus providing excellent
quality service and means to match the actual level of quality with the expectations of tourists or superiority in some
cases. These expectations are built based on the dimensions to judge the quality of service. While (Reeves and
Bednard, 1994) proposed that there is no universal, parsimonious, or all-encompassing definition or model of
International Journal of Psychosocial Rehabilitation, Vol. 24, Issue 05, 2020
ISSN: 1475-7192
DOI: 10.37200/IJPR/V24I5/PR201994 Received: 25 Feb 2020 | Revised: 20 Mar 2020 | Accepted: 30 Mar 2020 2891
service quality. As service quality is becoming an essential part of business practice in the tourism industries, it is
essential to define clearly the quality of tourism services and develop a psychometrically sound measurement tool
(Mei et al., 1999; Nadiri and Hussain, 2005). Therefore, as explained by (Rashid et al. 2019; Khatab et al. 2019;
Sadq, 2019; Othman et al., 2019) that the tourism industry is not exempt from service quality concerns, managers
should understand and satisfy tourists' needs and wants by offering high-quality services (Nadiri and Hussain, 2005).
In this context, Parasuraman et al. (1985) proposed that service quality is a multidimensional concept consisting
of five key dimensions: namely, reliability, responsiveness, assurance, empathy, and tangibles. Hence, in this
research, five key dimensions were used. We started with the first dimension, reliability, which is defined as the
ability to deliver the promised service reliably and accurately. However, Kotler (2000) indicates that reliability is a
natural means of the company and its ability to provide reliable and accurate service as per the date. It is the
responsibility to keep promises regarding service delivery, pricing, complaint handling, and the like. The second
dimension, responsiveness, is the willingness to help customers by providing prompt service as soon as a request is
received. The service employees have to provide prompt attention to all their customers' requests, questions, and
complaints. As indicated by Jain (2013:102), responsiveness refers to the staff's willingness to help clients and the
ability to provide prompt service more precisely, it relates to the nature of the human interaction between a
company, staff, and clients.
Davis et al., (2003: 221) realize responsiveness as the willingness of the companies to provide service to the
customer efficiently to excel in the response dimension. Therefore, companies should reduce the gap between their
contexts and the client's expectations regarding the specific objective criteria in the speed of delivery and delivery
procedures in a manner that achieves the objectives of both parties; however, Jain (2013:104) mentioned that
responsiveness is crucial to enhancing customer service through four primary indicators of services delivery to
clients by staff promptly; a willingness to support clients at all times by staff, staff’s response to clients’ queries
despite being busy and the ease of obtaining service connection information from the service provider. The third
dimension, assurance, refers to the capability to motivate trust and confidence in the product or service provided.
According to Kotler, (2000:59), all organizations pursue to win the trust of the clients to gain customer satisfaction
and the ability of the service providers besides their ability to inspire trust.
Davis et al., (2003: 220) believe that it is the credibility and trustworthiness that the customer believes. Alnsour
et al., (2014) argue that empathy refers to the personalized and caring attention paid by staff to clients. Empathy is
the service quality aspect that focuses on dealing with customers as individuals. However, according to Kotler,
(2000: 59), empathy means caring for the client (tourists) and taking care of the problems many faces in the
company and working to find solutions in a superior human way. According to Davis et al., (2003:220) tangibility
means the physical evidence service that defines by the official uniform of the company's staff and the right place
for staff to provide excellent client service promptly. Kotler, (2000:59) argues that tangibility means the material
means of public utilities and staff companies often rely on substantial distance to build good relationships with
current and prospective clients.
International Journal of Psychosocial Rehabilitation, Vol. 24, Issue 05, 2020
ISSN: 1475-7192
DOI: 10.37200/IJPR/V24I5/PR201994 Received: 25 Feb 2020 | Revised: 20 Mar 2020 | Accepted: 30 Mar 2020 2892
2.2. Mental Imagery
Imagery is a strategic asset that will ensure the survival and continuity of business organizations, including
tourism companies, by influencing the fundamental public opinion about the various relevant aspects of the
organization and factors related to its composition (Smaizien and Orzekauskas, 2006). Mental imagery is defined as
tourists' or individuals' impressions and opinions that are composing and holding for something (Khatib, 2011). It
reflects opinions held by tourists from the tourism companies or surrounding environment with all its components,
these opinions reflected in their knowledge and experience of direct and indirect interactions of the environment,
which help them to live and adapt to it. Suhartanto and Kandampully (2003), stated that imagery is developed in the
customer's (tourists) mind through the impacts of promotion, advertisement, public relations, word-of-mouth, and
customer's encounter with the products and services. (Mohajerani and Miremadi, 2012) described that image is the
overall impression made in the minds of the public about something, they also stated that the imagery of the service
organization is diverse, and therefore, each customer has different types of expected impression, experiences and
contacts with the organization, and that leads to a different image acceptance. The mental imagery includes three
main types (Sakarneh, 2012): Firstly, self-image is a sense of self-organization and appreciation for itself through its
employees and their dealings with each other and with external publics. Secondly, the desired image means how the
organization wants to appear itself to the others. Finally, the perceived image is the perceptions of individuals and
their impressions about the organization and its products that reflect their behavior and decisions. So the actions are
a result of perceptions that may not be true sometimes (Synder, 2000). As described by (Rhaimi, 2015) in his article
that mental imagery formed of three components:
1. The cognitive component is an individual can attain information and knowledge by an on a topic from the
surrounding environment.
2. The affective component is about the attitudes, feelings, and emotions about a specific topic according to the
joy, sadness, and anger.
3. The behavioral component is the personalities of an individual when it reflects the various concerns of
his/her life to satisfy needs and desires.
Thus, mental imagery is one of the most critical elements which create the public's acceptance and preference for
competitors and attract them to deal with it through a sense of ethical, emotional, and social responsibility. The
imagery also, captures the attention to organization products/services, creates the right dealing with the environment,
and improves working conditions, clarity of vision, and creates a successful leadership (Rhaimi, 2015).
2.3. Research Purpose and Hypotheses Development
The research purpose was to build a model that examines the impact of the tourism service quality (reliability,
responsiveness, assurance, empathy, and tangibility) in improving the mental imagery of tourists in Erbil. Figure 1,
below demonstrates the research model. The model comprises seven constructs or variables. These variables are the
tourism service quality (TSQ), service reliability (SR), responsiveness to tourists (RT), service assurance (SA),
empathy with tourists (ET), product/service tangibility (PST), and the mental imagery (MI). Accordingly, the
following hypotheses were developed.
International Journal of Psychosocial Rehabilitation, Vol. 24, Issue 05, 2020
ISSN: 1475-7192
DOI: 10.37200/IJPR/V24I5/PR201994 Received: 25 Feb 2020 | Revised: 20 Mar 2020 | Accepted: 30 Mar 2020 2893
Figure 1: The Research Model
H1. The tourism service quality has a positive significance relational impact in improving the mental imagery of
the tourist.
H1a. Service reliability positively and significantly contributes to improving the mental imagery of the tourist.
H1b. Responsiveness to tourists positively and significantly contributes to improving the mental imagery of the
tourist.
H1c. Service assurance positively and significantly contributes to improving the mental imagery of the tourist.
H1d. Empathy with tourists positively and significantly contributes to improving the mental imagery of the
tourist.
H1.e. Product/service tangibility positively and significantly contributes to improving the mental imagery of the
tourist.
III. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
In this research, the researchers used the quantitative research method. At the same time, it is a suitable method
as it assists the research purpose to examine the impact of tourism service quality in improving the mental imagery:
from managers' perspectives of tourism companies operating in Erbil city. A quantitative research method is also,
frequently used in the studies that use statistical data. Thus, this research established a relational impact research
model design as it describes and finds the correlation and impacts between research variables.
International Journal of Psychosocial Rehabilitation, Vol. 24, Issue 05, 2020
ISSN: 1475-7192
DOI: 10.37200/IJPR/V24I5/PR201994 Received: 25 Feb 2020 | Revised: 20 Mar 2020 | Accepted: 30 Mar 2020 2894
3.1. Survey Instrument
The survey instrument or questionnaire developed by the researchers. Based on the research model, and refined
the questionnaire to comprise seven constructs, two main variables, five sub-variables. The survey instrument
suitable for the research design, and the potential benefits it can provide. Accordingly, the constructs are tourism
service quality, service reliability, responsiveness to tourists, service assurance, empathy with tourists, product/
service tangibility, and mental imagery. The survey instrument used the following measuring scale: 5 Strongly
Agree
,
4 Agree, 3 Neither Agree nor Disagree, 2 Disagree, 1 Strongly Disagree.
3.2. Subjects and Procedure
The survey questionnaire administered among managers from all levels of management in various tourism
companies operating in Erbil, the capital city of the Kurdistan Region, in particular of the 272 subjects (tourism
companies), hence, 140 completed the survey, and four of the 140 surveys eliminated because of the missing data
yielding a final sample of 136. The outcomes of demographic variables based on 136 survey participators from
tourism companies calculated by using smart-PLS 3. However, a further understanding of the respondents' profile
shown in Table 1, below.
Table 1: Respondents' Profile from Tourism Companies Operating in Erbil
Profile
Description
Frequency
Total
Gender
Male
Female
90
46
136
Age
21-30 years
31-40 years
41-50 years
51 and Above
44
49
35
8
136
Educational Qualification
Master's degree
Bachelor's degree
Diploma
2
89
45
136
Overall Job Experience
1-10 years
11-20 years
21-30 years
31 and Above
83
34
18
1
136
Number of tourism training courses participated
Not participated
1-5
6-10
11 and More
4
105
21
6
136
The result reveals that tourism companies mainly characterized by a considerable number of male managers
(66.2%, n=90) as opposed to female employees (33.8%, n=46). Regarding the age groups, (36%, n=49) aged
between 31-40 years, while (32.4%, n=44) aged from 21 to 30 years; also (25.7%, n=35) participators aged between
41-50 years; however, (5.9%, =8) of the total survey sample aged 51 and above.
Table 1, shown that all these managers are relatively highly qualified, with (65.4%, n=89) managers holding
bachelor's degrees, however, those hold a diploma came at (33.1%, n=45). Lastly, (1.5%, n=2) master's degree
International Journal of Psychosocial Rehabilitation, Vol. 24, Issue 05, 2020
ISSN: 1475-7192
DOI: 10.37200/IJPR/V24I5/PR201994 Received: 25 Feb 2020 | Revised: 20 Mar 2020 | Accepted: 30 Mar 2020 2895
holders. Regarding the managers' overall job experience, it obtained that of the total respondents, (61%, n=83)
experienced between 1-10 years and followed by (25%, n=34) who experienced 11-20 years, while (13.2%, n=18)
experienced between 21 to 30 years. Finally, (0.7%, n=1) of the total survey sample experienced 31 and more, as
revealed in Table 1. Their number of tourism training courses participated, the result shows that (77.2%, n=105)
contributed in 1 to 5 training courses. While (15.4%, n=21) participated in 6 to 10 courses, though, (4.4%, n=6)
participated in 11 and more training courses. Lastly, 2.9%, n=4) managers of the total respondent did not participate
in any course related to tourism.
3.3. Data Analysis
For analyzing the research data and checking hypotheses, we have used partial least squares structural equation
modeling (PLS-SEM), which is a common analysis method for assessing path models, in particular with latent
variables and their correlations (Sarstedt et al., 2017). As the first step of the PLS analysis, we have assessed the
measurement model. As mentioned by Hair et al., (2010), this step reveals the directions of correspondence among
measured latent variables. However, path modeling runs three significant examines before checking the research
hypotheses. These examine are convergence validity test, discriminant validity, and examining the structural model
(Ringle et al., (2005).
To establish convergent validity as the amount of which a measure relation positively with an alternative
measure of the same construct the indicators loading values for each of latent variables should be significant and
greater than 0.70; while the average variance extracted (AVE) should be greater than 0.50, and the composite
reliability (CR) for each of latent variables should be greater than 0.80. To launch the discriminant validity, the
square root of the average variance extracted of a latent variable should be greater than its relations with all other
latent variables LVs.
IV. RESULTS
4.1. Establishing Construct Reliability and Validity
In order to confirm the convergence validity, we checked the results of each latent variable by the indicators’
loadings value, the AVE, and the CR. As previously mentioned, all indicators’ loadings value for each latent
variable must be greater than 0.70. The ―tourists requests‖ indicator from the responsiveness to tourists RT, the
―human sense‖ indicator from the service assurance SA, and the ―honesty‖ indicator from the mental imagery MI
were removed from the model as the values of the loading of these indicators were less than 0.70. So, after the
elimination of these indicators, the values of the loading for each variable loaded value greater than 0.70, (see Table
2) below. The outcomes of AVEs for all six constructs loaded values are (0.660, 0.568, 0.591, 0.627, 0.699, and
0.703), respectively, for service reliability SR, responsiveness to tourists RT, Service Assurance (SA), empathy with
tourists ET, product and service tangibility PST, and mental imagery MI, which all values greater than 0.50. The CR
index for all variables are (0.941, 0.843, 0.876, 0.890, 0.952, and 0.911) respectively, that greater than 0.80. Thus,
the results positively conformed the convergence validity of the research model (see Table 2).
International Journal of Psychosocial Rehabilitation, Vol. 24, Issue 05, 2020
ISSN: 1475-7192
DOI: 10.37200/IJPR/V24I5/PR201994 Received: 25 Feb 2020 | Revised: 20 Mar 2020 | Accepted: 30 Mar 2020 2896
Table 2: Measurement Model
Constructs
Loadings
AVE
Composite reliability
Cronbach’s α
Service Reliability (SR)
SR 1
0.709
0.660
0.941
0.846
SR 2
0.726
SR 3
0.770
SR 4
0.805
Responsiveness to Tourists (RT)
RT 1
0.742
0.568
0.843
0.802
RT 2
0.705
RT 3
0.718
Service Assurance (SA)
SA 1
0.881
0.591
0.876
0.821
SA 2
0.788
SA 4
0.726
Empathy with Tourists (ET)
ET 1
0.751
0.627
0.890
0.856
ET 2
0.706
ET 3
0.855
ET 4
0.785
Product and Service Tangibility (PST)
PST 1
0.960
0.699
0.952
0.901
PST 2
0.809
PST 3
0.770
PST 4
0.877
Mental Imagery (MI)
MI 1
0.752
0.703
0.911
0.873
MI 2
0.896
MI 3
0.803
MI 4
0.807
MI 5
0.707
MI 6
0.754
MI 7
0.792
MI 8
0.714
MI 9
0.966
Through the first step, we have established the convergence validity, for all model’s variables, as the second
step, we look at the results of Cronbach's α, However, the reliability test efforts to find constancy of the survey
instrument. In contrast, validity tests attempt to find out how accurate a survey instrument measures a specific
concept, and it is designed to measure (Sarstedt et al., 2017). The results of Cronbach's α, for all latent variables in
the research model, are (0.846, 0.802, 0.821, 0.856, 0.901, and 0.873), respectively, so, all values higher than 0.6,
and this indicate that the survey could be considered as highly reliable, (see Table 2).
4.2. Establishing Discriminant Validity
The discriminant validity of a model construct can be calculated by comparing the square root of the AVE scores
with LVs correlations. However, the square roots of AVE coefficients should be revealed in the correlation matrix
along the diagonal. Hence, the squared root of each constructs’ AVE should be greater than its higher relationship
with any other construct to evidence discriminant validity (Hair et al., 2010). As shown in Table 3, the sufficient
discriminant validity that AVE root square values are higher than correlations with any other LV of the construct.
Thus, we may confirm that the research model highly reliable, (see Table 3).
International Journal of Psychosocial Rehabilitation, Vol. 24, Issue 05, 2020
ISSN: 1475-7192
DOI: 10.37200/IJPR/V24I5/PR201994 Received: 25 Feb 2020 | Revised: 20 Mar 2020 | Accepted: 30 Mar 2020 2897
Table 3: Correlations between LVs and Square Roots of AVEs
TSQ
SR
RT
SA
ET
PST
MI
TSQ
0.872
SR
0.730
0.889
RT
0.844
0.758
0.823
SA
0.856
0.596
0.797
0.780
ET
0.789
0.689
0.638
0.619
PST
0.707
0.665
0.645
0.737
0.658
0.771
MI
0.668
0.647
0.609
0.609
0.619
0.669
0.703
Note Tourism Services Quality (TSQ), Service Reliability (SR), Responsiveness to Tourists (RT), Service
Assurance (SA), Empathy with Tourists (ET), and Product Service Tangibility (PST), and Mental Imagery (MI).
4.3. Results of Structural Equation Modeling
The structural model estimated that the R2 values 0.38, of the mental imagery as the dependent variable,
positively confirmed the predictiveness of the research model. The results of the structural model presented that
there is a bilateral impact between tourism service quality and mental imagery of 0.460. So, this indicates that the
development in tourism service quality by 1% will result in an increase in the mental imagery of the tourists by
0.460. However, the results revealed positive improvements in service reliability (SR), responsiveness to tourists
(RT), service assurance (SA), empathy with tourists (ET), product/ service tangibility (PST) have a positive impact
in improving mental imagery by 34.7%, 32.5%, 38.9%, 39.4%, and 34.5% respectively, (see Table 4).
Table 4: Path Coefficients and t-values
Standardized Path Coefficient SPC
t-value
p-value
Hypothesis accepted or reject
TQS
--->
MI
= 0.460
6.003
< 0.001
Accepted
SR
--->
MI
= 0.347
4.279
< 0.001
Accepted
RT
--->
MI
= 0.325
3.976
< 0.003
Accepted
SA
--->
MI
= 0.389
4.890
< 0.001
Accepted
ET
--->
MI
= 0.394
4.966
< 0.001
Accepted
PST
--->
MI
= 0.345
4.261
< 0.001
Accepted
a. Dependent Variable: Mental Imagery (MI)
b. Predictors: (Constant), Tourism Services Quality (TSQ), Service Reliability (SR), Responsiveness to Tourists
(RT), Service Assurance (SA), Empathy with Tourists (ET), and Product Service Tangibility (PST).
4.4. Accepting/Rejecting the Hypotheses
The results from the tables above showed survey reliability, correlation, and particularly Table 4, which shows
the SEM estimate results Beta, the t-value, and the p-value for determining the acceptance or rejection of the study’s
hypotheses. H1 stated, ―the tourism service quality has a positive significance relational impact in improving the
mental imagery of the tourist‖ was accepted (
= 0.460, t=6.003, p=< 0.001). H1.a, that stated, ―service reliability
positively and significantly contributes to improving the mental imagery of the tourist‖ was accepted (
= 0.347,
t=4.279, p=< 0.001). H1.b that stated, ―responsiveness to tourists positively and significantly contributes to
improving the mental imagery of the tourist‖ was accepted (
= 0.325, t=3.976, p=< 0.003). H1.c that stated ―service
assurance positively and significantly contributes to improving the mental imagery of the tourist‖ was accepted (
=
International Journal of Psychosocial Rehabilitation, Vol. 24, Issue 05, 2020
ISSN: 1475-7192
DOI: 10.37200/IJPR/V24I5/PR201994 Received: 25 Feb 2020 | Revised: 20 Mar 2020 | Accepted: 30 Mar 2020 2898
0.389, t=4.890, p=< 0.001). H1.d that stated, ―empathy with tourists positively and significantly contributes to
improving the mental imagery of the tourist‖ was accepted (
= 0.394, t=4.966, p=< 0.001). H1.e that stated,
―product/service tangibility positively and significantly contributes to improving the mental imagery of the tourist‖
was accepted (
= 0.345, t=4.261, p=< 0.001).
V. DISCUSSIONS
The purpose of this research was to examine a positive and significant contribution of tourism service quality in
improving the mental imagery within tourist destinations in Erbil. Particularly to observe how the implementation of
tourism service quality and achieve it can use to refining the mental imagery of tourism companies in Erbil. Such
follows opinions, which contend that proper service reliability can achieve by the companies to provide tourism
services on time and as quickly as possible, besides service considered by accuracy, then lack errors. Furthermore,
the companies should attempt to provide tourism services well, sincerely, and with a high degree of concern. The
obtained results on responsiveness to tourists may contribute to improving the mental imagery, when the tourists
informed precisely of the date of service delivery, completion, and the places to be visited. Managers respond to any
inquiry or complaint without criticism or negligence. Also, employees ready to cooperate with the tourists and meet
tourists' requests, regardless of the degree of their preoccupation. The service assurance also contributes to
improving mental imagery. Perhaps when tourism companies pursue to win the trust of the tourists and increase
their satisfaction. By having a good reputation in providing tourist services.
Moreover, maintaining a human sense and morality that embodies the company employees' behavior in their
dealings with tourists, whatever their type, and these in line with (Mohajerani and Miremadi, 2012). Further,
companies follow up on the tourist's condition even after the completion of providing tourist services. The results on
empathy with tourists may contribute to refining the mental imagery. Through achieving respect, and friendliness by
staff contact with the tourists, it may also achieve by attention and level of care of the company staff to the tourists.
In particular, when company employees show personal knowledge of the tourist and better deal with them, as well
as putting comfort at the forefront of tourism management and tourism managers' concerns, as confirmed by (Brown
et al., 1992; Tsaur and Lin, 2004). The obtained results on tourism product tangibility are in line with the ideas
provided by researchers such as (Mei et al., 1999; Nadiri and Hussain, 2005). Such ideas do show that the
companies’ managers should have a high degree of cleanliness, culture, service, and tangible experiencefinally,
the overall appearance of tourism facilities most refined and attractive to tourists.
VI. CONCLUSIONS, LIMITATIONS, AND FUTURE RESEARCH
This research constructed a research model to examine the impact of tourism service quality in improving the
mental imagery within tourist destinations in Erbil capital city of the Kurdistan Region. The results showed a
positive and significant linear connection among tourism service quality, and it is dimensions as service reliability,
responsiveness to tourists, service assurance, empathy with tourists, product/service tangibility, and the mental
imagery. This research also found a significant impact of the tourism service quality in improving the mental
imagery of tourists, which contributes to tourist satisfaction, and attracting tourists. The tourism service quality
plays a vital role by increasing the level of tourist satisfaction through improving mental imagery. Therefore, the
International Journal of Psychosocial Rehabilitation, Vol. 24, Issue 05, 2020
ISSN: 1475-7192
DOI: 10.37200/IJPR/V24I5/PR201994 Received: 25 Feb 2020 | Revised: 20 Mar 2020 | Accepted: 30 Mar 2020 2899
results in this research supported the evidence that tourism service quality dimensions positively and significantly
contribute to improving the mental imagery. This research may not be without limits, because the data collection
tool was self-designed. The population sample for this research was only among the tourism companies operating in
Erbil, and a larger sample may have generated better susceptibility to the generalization of the results. Future studies
should focus on a different and larger population sample, such as hotels or hotel industries.
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... The behavior of service providers within banks is the solid ground upon which banks build their success due to important considerations represented in an interactive relationship between clients and service providers. The success of the service institution (bank) depends mainly on the extent of its success in attracting, developing, and employing distinguished employees capable of effectively implementing the system of targeted relationships with clients (Hassan et al., 2020). In this context, the banks' ability is critical to deal with clients' problems that must be quickly controlled, which is necessary to attract the client's attention about their seriousness and sense of responsibility in the performance of services (Mustafa et al., 2020). ...
... The success of the service institution (bank) depends mainly on the extent of its success in attracting, developing, and employing distinguished employees capable of effectively implementing the system of targeted relationships with clients (Hassan et al., 2020). In this context, the banks' ability is critical to deal with clients' problems that must be quickly controlled, which is necessary to attract the client's attention about their seriousness and sense of responsibility in the performance of services (Mustafa et al., 2020). ...
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