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Abstract

Over the last months and weeks of the pandemic of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) (January-May 2020) caused by the Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), there has been a significant hope for the development of vaccines against this emerging coronavirus. Dozens of vaccine candidates are currently under assessment in clinical trials already recruiting patients, then there is a real chance to have effective biologicals in relatively short-time, compared to other vaccines. Copyright © 2020 Patel et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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... Finally, we need to increase the diagnostic capacity in the region, in order to increase the number of RT-PCR for SARS-CoV-2 performed in order to better approach to the real epidemiological situation of Latin America 19,20 . Whilst we wait an effective vaccine, the best control is preventive measures, as those suggested in this mini-review 20 . ...
... Finally, we need to increase the diagnostic capacity in the region, in order to increase the number of RT-PCR for SARS-CoV-2 performed in order to better approach to the real epidemiological situation of Latin America 19,20 . Whilst we wait an effective vaccine, the best control is preventive measures, as those suggested in this mini-review 20 . ...
Article
Latin America is suppose to have significant advantages over other developing regions, such as Asia and Africa, given the time where the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), causing the Coronavirus Diseases 2019 (COVID-19), arrived, mainly from Europe. This occurred on February 26, 2020. Then, multiple previous measures were taken in order to prevent and mitigate the impact of pandemic in the region. In the current mini-review update we discuss the possibilities of "crushing" the transmission curve of COVID-19 in the region after two months of the arrival of this emerging coronavirus.
... La enfermedad por Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) representa uno de los mayores retos contemporáneos de la salud pública y global (34) . En ese contexto, el desarrollo de vacunas eficaces y seguras, se ha convertido en una estrategia crucial en la lucha contra esta enfermedad emergente (35) . Por ello, el conocer la intención de vacunación y sus factores asociados, con el fin de desarrollar estrategias de intervención, se vuelve crucial para las acciones a desarrollar en salud pública, que incluyen una apropiada difusión de la información relacionada con la eficacia y seguridad con las diferentes plataformas biotecnológicas o tipos de vacunas que están siendo aplicadas en Perú, y en otros países (36) . ...
Preprint
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Objetivo: Determinar la prevalencia y factores asociados a la intención de vacunación (IDV) contra la COVID-19 en el Perú. Material y métodos: Estudio transversal analítico utilizando la encuesta realizada por Universidad de Maryland, EUA, en Facebook. Las variables dependientes fueron la IDV. Se calcularon razones de prevalencia (RP) crudas y ajustadas, con sus intervalos de confianza al 95% (IC95%), mediante modelos lineales generalizados de la familia Poisson, para evaluar la asociación de variables sociodemográficas, cumplimiento de estrategias comunitarias de mitigación, síntomas de COVID-19, salud mental y aceptación de la vacunación ante la recomendación (AVR) por diversos actores y autoridades sanitarias, con la IDV. Resultados: Se analizaron los datos de 17.162 adultos. La prevalencia general de IDV fue de 74,9%. Se asoció a menor prevalencia de IDV el sexo femenino, vivir en un pueblo o zona rural y la AVR de políticos, RP=0,95 (IC95%:0,94-0,96), RP=0,95 (IC95%:0,91- 0,99), RP=0,90 (IC95%:0,86-0,93) y RP=0,89 (IC95%:0,87-0,91); respectivamente. Contrariamente, tener síntomas de COVID-19, inseguridad económica, miedo a que un familiar enferme de COVID-19, síntomas depresivos y la AVR de familiares y amigos, trabajadores de la salud, organización mundial de la salud y funcionarios del gobierno se asociaron con mayor prevalencia de IDV, RP=1,05 (IC95%:1,03-1,08), RP=1,03 (IC95%:1,01-1,06), RP=1,48 (IC95%:1,35-1,63), RP=1,03 (IC95%:1,01-1,06), RP=1,10 (IC95%:1,08-1,12), RP=1,29 (IC95%:1,26-1,32), RP=1,34 (IC95%:1,29-1,40) y RP=1,18 (IC95%:1,15-1,21); respectivamente. Conclusión: Tres cuartas partes de los encuestados manifiestan IDV. Existen factores potencialmente modificables que podrían mejorar la aceptación de la vacuna
... The continuous escalation of the virus underscores the need to accelerate the development of COVID-19 vaccines. Over 150 researchers consisting of virologists, vaccine scientists, product developers, manufacturers, regulators and funding agencies are all in a race to find a vaccine to stop the spread of the deadly virus, as nations of the world grapple with the economic and societal consequences of the virus lockdowns [18][19][20][21]. Countries around the world are using different vaccine technologies to try and find one that can halt the pandemic. ...
Article
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Background: Developing an effective and safe COVID-19 vaccine is a global public health necessity in containing the pandemic, however, recruiting volunteers can be challenging in a clinical trial phase because of poor knowledge, negative perception, ethical issues and safety concerns. Aim: The survey was conducted to assess the knowledge, perception and readiness of Nigerians to participate in the COVID-19 vaccine trial. Methods: This is a cross-sectional, web-based study conducted among the Nigerian populace from the 19th May to the 22nd of May, 2020. A 39-item survey instrument (questionnaire), which required about 7 minutes to complete, was developed using google forms via the Survey Monkey Platform, validated and the internet link distributed randomly to consenting participants from the six geopolitical zones of the country via the social media. Descriptive statistics were carried out using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences Software-Version 25 (SPSS-25) to measure frequencies and percentages of the variables. Bivariate analysis was also conducted using chi-square and bivariate logistic regression, and statistical significance was determined by p<0.05 to identify predictors of Nigerians’ readiness to participate in COVID-19 vaccine trials. Results: A total of 465 responses were gathered from adult respondents (aged 18 years and above; median age: 34.5 years) from the six geopolitical zones of the Country: South-west (48.4%), North-central (17.2%), South-south (16.3%), South-east (9.7%), North-west (4.5%) and North-east (3.9%). A higher proportions of the respondents were Christians by religion (84.5%) and were medical students (48.6%), followed by medical professionals (20.2%). Most of the participants used the social medial (80.2%) as their source of COVID-19 information. 96.0% of them had poor knowledge of the disease, while 39.0% had poor perception of the COVID-19 Vaccine trial. 22.6% were indifferent to the initiation of COVID-19 vaccine trial in Nigeria, 59.8% were in support, while 17.6% were not in support. A higher proportion of the respondents (80%) were unwilling to participate in the COVID-19 vaccine trial, while 20% were willing. Age, gender, educational level, religion, occupation, nature of monthly income and geopolitical zone had no significant impact (p>0.05) on the perception and readiness of the respondents to participate in the COVID-19 vaccines trial. However; religion significantly (p=0.0001, χ2=20.797) influenced the knowledge of the disease among the respondents. Conclusion: Misinformation and disinformation strengthen vaccine skepticism and could undermine efforts to end the coronavirus pandemic. The outcome of this study further underscores the need for adequate public health enlightenment on the role of vaccine in curbing the COVID-19 pandemic. This will ensure adequate deployment and acceptance of the vaccine when it finally arrives.
... The overall antigen prediction score was 0.4683 (probable antigen) at a threshold value of 0.4. A recent review of the genomic and proteomic analysis of SARS-CoV-2 found that certain of its proteins, including M, SGP, E, and N, had the ability to confer a protective immune response against SARS-CoV-2 [57]. Additionally, a recent study proposed that epitopes on the SGP and N proteins of SARS-CoV-2 elicited strong T-cell immune responses for longer periods of time; therefore, these might be ideal vaccine candidates [58]. ...
Article
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Aims With a large number of fatalities, coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) has greatly affected human health worldwide. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the virus that causes COVID-19. The World Health Organization has declared a global pandemic of this contagious disease. Researchers across the world are collaborating in a quest for remedies to combat this deadly virus. It has recently been demonstrated that the spike glycoprotein (SGP) of SARS-CoV-2 is the mediator by which the virus enters host cells. Main methods Our group comprehensibly analyzed the SGP of SARS-CoV-2 through multiple sequence analysis and a phylogenetic analysis. We predicted the strongest immunogenic epitopes of the SGP for both B cells and T cells. Key findings We focused on predicting peptides that would bind major histocompatibility complex class I. Two optimal epitopes were identified, WTAGAAAYY and GAAAYYVGY. They interact with the HLA-B*15:01 allele, which was further validated by molecular docking simulation. This study also found that the selected epitopes are able to be recognized in a large percentage of the world's population. Furthermore, we predicted CD4⁺ T-cell epitopes and B-cell epitopes. Significance Our study provides a strong basis for designing vaccine candidates against SARS-CoV-2. However, laboratory work is required to validate our theoretical results, which would lay the foundation for the appropriate vaccine manufacturing and testing processes.
... An effective vaccine may take more than a year to become widely available. However, considering the rapid pace of vaccine development, there are grounds for optimism concerning the availability of an effective COVID-19 vaccine sooner rather than later (48). In the present scenario, self-quarantine or self-isolation is enforced in most countries to control or mitigate the overwhelming detrimental effects of this pandemic. ...
Article
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The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic wreaked havoc worldwide, with more than 20 million confirmed cases and nearly 0.75 million deaths as of 10th August 2020. Various factors determine the severity and symptoms of this infection. Older age and underlying diseases are the challenges being faced in controlling and treating COVID-19. In 2019, 703 million of the global population was older than 65 years of age. The estimated mortality due to COVID-19 in people older than 76 years of age is reportedly 18%. Frequent infections in older people, higher disease severity, and increased mortality are major challenges in the implementation of appropriate preventive measures and future strategies to protect against this disease in geriatric population. Poor health status, weak immune function, lowered organ function, increased probability of multiple underlying diseases, and poor attention to personal health can increase the susceptibility to various diseases in the geriatric population. Concerning inadequate immunity, the decrease expression of receptors and exaggerated pathophysiologic responses can be debilitating. However, future studies will reveal the hidden facets in these aspects in this COVID-19 catastrophe. In this article, we reviewed the main concerns of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in the geriatric population, including the risk of acquiring severe COVID-19 resulting in mortality, variation in clinical manifestations, and other pandemic-related concerns. We also discussed the need for increasing attention towards the elderly, taking appropriate prevention and control measures, and considering geriatric-related adjustments in vaccine design and development.
... Currently, there are no specific vaccines available against COVID-19, but there are many candidates under development [192,[200][201][202]. Attempts are being made for the development of safe and effective prophylactic strategies [201,203]. ...
Article
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A novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), causing an emerging coronavirus disease (COVID-19), first detected in Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China, which has taken a catastrophic turn with high toll rates in China and subsequently spreading across the globe. The rapid spread of this virus to more than 210 countries while affecting more than 25 million people and causing more than 843,000 human deaths, it has resulted in a pandemic situation in the world. The SARS-CoV-2 virus belongs to the genus Betacoronavirus, like MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV, all of which originated in bats. It is highly contagious, causing symptoms like fever, dyspnea, asthenia and pneumonia, thrombocytopenia, and the severely infected patients succumb to the disease. Coronaviruses (CoVs) among all known RNA viruses have the largest genomes ranging from 26 to 32 kb in length. Extensive research has been conducted to understand the molecular basis of the SARS-CoV-2 infection and evolution, develop effective therapeutics, antiviral drugs, and vaccines, and to design rapid and confirmatory viral diagnostics as well as adopt appropriate prevention and control strategies. To date, August 30, 2020, no effective, proven therapeutic antibodies or specific drugs, and vaccines have turned up. In this review article, we describe the underlying molecular organization and phylogenetic analysis of the coronaviruses, including the SARS-CoV-2, and recent advances in diagnosis and vaccine development in brief and focusing mainly on developing potential therapeutic options that can be explored to manage this pandemic virus infection, which would help in valid countering of COVID-19.
... Researchers are now attempting to develop SARS-CoV-2-specific vaccines and therapeutics based on their research experience with SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV (Frediansyah et al., 2020;Dhama et al., 2020c;Tanuj et al., 2020). Several vaccine and therapeutic candidates are currently being evaluated worldwide (Patel et al., 2020;Sharun et al., 2020c;Sharun et al., 2020d). Convalescent plasma, monoclonal antibodies, neutralizing antibodies, and other immunotherapeutic strategies can also be considered for treating COVID-19 patients (Sharun et al., 2020e). ...
Article
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The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has created an opportunity to rethink and rectify the existing loopholes in the global food production system. The continuing ‘illegal’ attacks of human being over the environment for decades has taken a turn back in the form of a novel pandemic virus. This is not the first time we are facing a setback due to our invalid and primitive food habits that has been followed by certain sections of the society in different parts of the globe. Considering the current scenario, it is necessary to update our food habits and food culture as it is the need of the time. Although several studies have proven the persistence of viral particles on the surface materials that are routinely used in the food production systems. Further studies are required to explore the possibilities of SARS-CoV-2 transmission via food and food packaging materials. Although the pandemic has created a bit of awareness among the people, further campaigning is required to achieve an effective food safety system. The strict implementation of FSMS (food safety management systems) such as GMP (Good Manufacturing Practices), HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points) is advised for improving the food supply chain. Beside these, proper cleaning and sanitization, GHP (Good Hygienic Practices), and efficient packaging systems are also necessary to generate wholesome food from farm to fork.
... Researchers are trying to develop SARS-CoV-2-specific vaccines and therapeutics to counter this pandemic. A few of these candidate vaccines and therapeutics are already undergoing clinical trials and have shown promising results (Haritha et al., 2020;Malik et al., 2020b;Patel et al., 2020). Some of the repurposed drugs include ivermectin, dexamethasone, ebselen etc (Haritha et al., 2020;Sharun et al., 2020c;Sharun et al., 2020d). ...
Article
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Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a novel zoonotic coronavirus that has emerged from Wuhan, China. Compared to its predecessors, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome CoV (SARS-CoV) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome CoV (MERS-CoV), SARS-CoV-2 has exhibited efficient human-to-human transmission. In addition to the efficient human-to-human transmission, SARS-CoV-2 is also reported to infect other animal species such as cats, tigers, lions, dogs, and minks. The susceptibility of other felines such as cheetah, puma, jaguar, leopard, and lynx are unknown. The reports of SARS-CoV-2 natural infection in animals opens up several oppurtunities to identify suitable animal models for the evaluation of SARS-CoV-2-specific vaccines and therapeutics. Ivermectin is a macrocyclic lactone endectocide that has broad-spectrum anti-parasitic activity. The wonder drug ivermectin was also found to possess anti-viral, anti-bacterial, and anti-cancer activity. The antiviral activity exhibited by ivermectin against SARS-CoV-2 is believd to be mediated via targeting the importin α/β-mediated nuclear transport and requires further validation. Since, the antiviral activity of ivermectin is through a host-directed mechanism, it can reduce the viral load even if administered at a lower dose. Further studies are required to evaluate the efficacy of ivermectin based on in vivo as well as the clinical trials. Being an FDA approved antiparasitic drug, repurposing it for treating COVID-19 patients will be an easy task once it is found to have therapeutic potential.
... However, multiple efforts made worldwide and the rapid pace of vaccine development ensure the availability of an effective COVID-19 vaccine soon. 33 In this context, many vaccine platforms are being explored globally, including nonreplicating vectors, DNA, RNA, subunit structures, inactivated virus-like particles, and live-attenuated vaccines. 34 Moreover, as of All these vaccines were administered through the intramuscular route and evaluated for 14-21 d (inactivated vaccines) or 28 d (mRNA vaccines), whereas information about the non-replicating viral vector vaccines (ChAdOx1-S, adenovirus type 5 vector) is not available. ...
Article
Full-text available
The rapid worldwide spread of the COVID-19 pandemic, caused by the newly emerged severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has resulted in tens of millions of infections and over one million deaths. SARS-CoV-2 infection affects all age groups; however, those over 60 years old are affected more severely. Moreover, pre-existing co-morbidities result in higher COVID-19-associated mortality in the geriatric population. This article highlights the associated risk factors of SARS-CoV-2 infection in older people and progress in developing COVID-19 vaccines, especially for efficient vaccination of the older population. There is also a summary of immunomodulatory and immunotherapeutic approaches to ameliorate the outcome of COVID-19 in older individuals.
... The level of despair and hopelessness felt by humanity against the onslaught of the virus was unimaginable (Hacimusalar, Civan Kahve, Yasar, & Aydın, 2020; Usher, Durkin, & Bhullar, 2020). With such hopelessness, the last resort of humanity in their titanic fight against the virus is the vaccine (Calina et al., 2020;Mullard, 2020;Patel et al., 2020). With the rapid rate of genetic mutations in viruses and many other factors including age (Lord, 2013), behavioural (smoking, alcohol consumption, sleep, etc.) (Zimmermann & Curtis, 2019), and non-health-related factor (improper storage of vaccine, etc.) (Weinberg & Szilagyi, 2010), the effectiveness of vaccines may have been severely affected and therefore, the last hope for a vaccine to wipe out this menace does not look promising. ...
Conference Paper
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Rubrics are powerful instruments to help direct students’ learning towards a set of pre-defined learning outcomes. Defining a set of objectively defined rubric items that also triggers critical thinking and creative expressions remains to be a big challenge. This paper explores the knowledge gaps that hinder the formulation of such rubrics. The need for an instrument to systematically identify and chart innovation is then highlighted. A framework based on Genrich Altshuler’s Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (TRIZ) is explored for formulating rubrics that correspond to and measures the learners’ stage in problem solving while explicitly linking to innovative expressions. The resulting rubrics, which separate critical thinking and problem-solving forms part of its criteria and descriptors in addressing the knowledge gaps mentioned earlier. The proposed framework has enabled the benchmarking of student works with the global collection of millions of patents and offers a new perspective for measuring the ability to innovate. Keywords: TRIZ course; critical thinking; innovative problem solving; assessment rubrics
... [8,9] Countries all over the world are constantly working for the rapid development of COVID-19 vaccines. [10,11] Normally, vaccine development would take years and perhaps decades. Hence, the public acceptance for a new vaccine for the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic which is being developed with short period of testing remains uncertain. ...
Article
Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was declared as a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) on March 11, 2020. Researchers have evaluated many repurposed drugs for treating COVID-19 in terms of both efficacy and safety in the past several months. It has been seen that vaccination is an effective way to stop the pandemic from spreading further. Being frontline workers dealing with COVID-19 patients, the healthcare workers (HCWs) in public and private sectors were prioritized to get vaccinated first. Also, HCWs are a reliable source of information on vaccination to patients; therefore, their acceptance or otherwise of COVID-19 vaccines may influence the uptake of COVID-19 vaccine among the general population. Methodology: A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the acceptance and adverse effects following the first dose of COVID-19 vaccine among HCWs of Shaheed Hasan Khan Mewati Government Medical College (SHKM GMC), a tertiary healthcare centre located in the district of Nuh Haryana. Result: In our study, more than half of the respondents (63.8%) experienced mild-moderate anxiety while the rest of the respondents experienced mild anxiety or moderately high levels of anxiety prior to the first dose, which is indicative of hesitancy towards the vaccine. Two-thirds of respondents in our study reported mild and common symptoms following vaccination while the remaining one-third did not report any symptom. More than half of the respondents (67.3%) claimed not taking the first dose even after two months after the initiation of vaccination drive at SHKM GMC, stating fear of some kind of reaction or side-effects, safety concerns regarding vaccine, reservations concerning the success of vaccination, and the efficiency of the vaccine. Conclusion: Our findings highlighted reasons for hesitancy among HCWs regarding COVID-19 vaccination along with the adverse effects encountered after the first dose. COVID-19 vaccine concerns among the HCW population should be addressed so that HCWs can be empowered to lead communication campaigns to improve COVID-19 vaccine uptake among the general population. Thus, it is important to hold such surveys.
... The viral structural and non-structural proteins, replication mechanism, genetic material and its pathogenesis are potential targets that are being explored to develop vaccines. A clear understanding of the virus pathogenesis and antigenic structures are important in developing an efficient vaccine (Patel et al., 2020). Like SARS-CoV, the novel SARS-CoV-2 utilize the ACE2 receptor-like and majority of vaccine candidates aim to trigger neutralizing antibodies against the viral spike protein that is critical in attachment, binding, fusion, and entry to host cells thereby preventing uptake via the human ACE2 receptor (Amanat and Krammer, 2020). ...
... Felizmente en todo ello, también se encuentra un (26)(27)(28)(29)(30)(31)(32) significativo avance en el desarrollo de vacunas , las cuales están llegando al final de su fase 3 de ensayos clínicos, y están no solo siendo aprobadas para uso de emergencia en múltiples países del mundo, sino que ya se ha iniciado en muchos, incluidos de América Latina, su aplicación con diferentes candidatos (Pfizer®, Moderna®, Sinopharm®, Sputnik V®, AstraZeneca®, entre otras). A la fecha, en América Latina se han vacunado ya casi 200.000 personas, fundamentalmente profesionales de la salud. ...
Article
A finales del año 2019 se presentó una situación completamente inesperada para la humanidad , como es la pandemia de la enfermedad por coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19), causada por el coronavirus del síndrome respiratorio agudo severo tipo 2 (SARS-CoV-2), que fue anunciado inicialmente por el Centro de Control de Enfermedades de China (CCDC) el 8 de enero de 2020, siendo declarada como una Emergencia Sanitaria de Preocupación Internacional (ESPI) el 30 de enero de 2020. La enfermedad fue denominada por la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) como COVID-19, el 11 de febrero de 2020 . Un mes después, 11 de marzo de 2020, la OMS la declara una pandemia, misma que persiste a la fecha (11 de enero de 2021).
... Uno de los casos críticos, es el sarampión, el cual con su genotipo D8, se ha diseminado significativamente en toda Sudamérica. Pero en Venezuela también se ha observado una crítica reemergencia de difteria, tosferina, y riesgos significativos para polio y fiebre amarilla, entre otras Rodríguez-Morales et al., 2020;Bonilla-Aldana et al., 2020;Villamizar-Pena et al., 2020;Escalera Antezana, 2020; Rodríguez-Morales et al., 2020;Patel et al., 2020; Villamil-Gómez et al., 2016;Sánchez Duque et al., 2020;Singh et al., 2020;Bastola et al., 2020;Sah et al., 2020).En el mes de octubre de 2020, en Perú, se ha presentado un brote epidémico de difteria, una enfermedad que estaba, por consecuencia de la vacunación, ausente en el país, y ahora se han generado casos y desenlaces fatales asociados. En muchos países de América Latina, ciertamente, el COVID-19 ha impacto negativamente las actividades, programas y control de enfermedades transmitidas por vectores, y también enfermedades inmunoprevenibles. ...
Article
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Durante el año 2020 la compleja situación ocasionada por la pandemia de la enfermedad por coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) plantea retos significativos en el mundo, impactando no solo directamente por todas sus implicaciones, en una enfermedad que resultó ser multisistémica, con consecuencias agudas y no agudas, con impacto significativo en el personal de salud, así como nuevas manifestaciones mediadas inmunológicamente en niños pero también en adultos, con la posibilidad de evolucionar a formas graves y fatales, especialmente en los pacientes con factores de riesgo y comorbilidades, como la hipertensión arterial, diabetes, cáncer, enfermedad pulmonar entre otras (Sanchez-Duque et al 2020; Cimerman et al 2020; Dhama et al 2020 ; Rodriguez-Morales et al 2020 ;Rodriguez-Morales et al 2020;Rodriguez-Morales et al 2020). Si todo ello no fuera complejo, en una pandemia que lleva casi 50 millones de casos y más de 1,2 millones de muertes en el mundo, en regiones del mundo, como América Latina, ya previo a la llegada del COVID19 se presentaban situaciones complejas que podrían estar agravándose con el coronavirus. Tal es el caso de la importante epidemia de dengue en múltiples países de la región, como el caso de Brasil, Colombia, Venezuela, Honduras, entre otros, que especialmente en 2019 venía produciéndose en la región y que continuó en 2020 con el curso concurrente de la epidemia. Pero también un considerable impacto desde por los menos los últimos 5 años, con la migración forzada de Venezuela, que ha conllevado a la diseminación de enfermedades inmunoprevenibles, para las cuales se dejó de vacunar significativamente en el país, lo cual ha llevado a una caída importante de las coberturas de vacunación, que hacen que los migrantes y refugiados que se mueven a otros países, como Brasil, Colombia, Ecuador, entre otros, lleguen siendo portadores de algunas de ellas. Uno de los casos críticos, es sarampión, el cual con su genotipo D8, se ha diseminado significativamente en toda Sur América. Pero en Venezuela también se ha observado una crítica reemergencia de difteria, tos ferina, y riesgos significativos para polio y fiebre amarilla, entre otras (Dhama et al 2020;Rodriguez-Morales et al 2020; Bonilla-Aldana et al 2020; Villamizar-Pena et al 2020; EscaleraAntezana , 2020; Rodriguez-Morales et al 2020; Patel et al 2020; Villamil-Gomez et al 2016; SanchezDuque et al 2020; Singh et al 2020; Bastola et al 2020; Sah et al 2020). En el mes de octubre de 2020, en Perú, se ha presentado un brote epidémico de difteria, una enfermedad que estaba, por consecuencia de la vacunación, ausente en el país, y ahora se han generado casos y desenlaces fatales asociados. En muchos países de América Latina, ciertamente, el COVID-19 ha impacto negativamente las actividades, programas y control de enfermedades transmitidas por vectores, y también enfermedades inmunoprevenibles. Con ello, es muy posible que muchas enfermedades tengan la posibilidad de reemerger e incluso de presentarse no solo coepidemias, sindemias sino también coinfecciones en muchos pacientes, como se ha venido documentando con dengue, influenza, tuberculosis y otras patologías endémicas regionales, que incluso podrían incluir la enfermedad de Chagas y la leishmaniasis, dado que el COVID-19 ha afectado tanto zonas urbanas como rurales. (Epidemiological Update Measles, 2020; Rodriguez-Morales AJ et al, 2019). La vigilancia epidemiológica no puede bajar la guardia, para ninguna de estas condiciones. Sin lugar a dudas, todo ello plantea un reto, en el curso de una pandemia que aun no cuenta con terapias antivirales específicas efectivas, así como tampoco con vacunas, pese a los avances, investigación y desarrollo en los mismos, pero que plantea que quizá solo para 2021 se podrá contar con ellos, progresivamente en el mundo. El llamado continua a la educación, prevención y promoción, uso de los protocolos de bioseguridad y cautela en el retorno a las actividades de una “nueva normalidad”, que plantea riesgos de rebrotes, reinfecciones y del COVID-19 que será endémico, como otros coronavirus humanos y otros patógenos respiratorios (Ellwanger et al, 2018; Carrion et al, 2017; Ibrahim et al,2020; Daughton, 2020).
... Globally, there are still multiple challenges in the control of COVID-19 (25,26). Vaccination is a critical tool for the integrated control of this deadly emerging disease (27,28), particularly amongst healthcare workers, a risk population, that has been significantly impacted, particularly in Latin America and moreover Colombia (29,30). There is a high perception of the intention to vaccinate doctors in Colombia against COVID-19. ...
Preprint
Introduction: The SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 pandemic has triggered the need for developing rapidly effective and safety vaccines to prevent infection, particularly in those at-risk populations such as medical personnel. The objective of this study was to assess perception of COVID-19 vaccination amongst Colombian physicians featuring two different sceneries of COVID-19 vaccination. Methods: A cross-sectional analytical study was carried out through an online survey, directed at medical staff in several cities in Colombia. The percentage of physicians who have a positive perception to be vaccinated and the associated factors that determine that decision were determined. A binomial regression analysis adjusted for age and sex was carried out, taking as a dependent variable the acceptance of free vaccination with an effectiveness of 60 and 80%. The most significant factors were determined in the non-acceptance of vaccination. Results: Between 77.1% and 90.8% of physicians in Colombia, accept COVID-19 vaccination, according to the scenario evaluated where the effectiveness of the vaccine was 60 or 80%, respectively. Medical specialty, have ever paid for a vaccine, recommend administrating the vaccine to their parents or people over 70 years and dispense the vaccine to their children were the factors to be vaccinated for free with an effectiveness of 60% and 80%. Conclusions: There is a high perception of the intention to vaccinate physicians in Colombia against COVID-19. But it is very similar to that of the general population, according to results reported in other studies.
... Considering the high number of people with COV-ID-19 and the number of deaths from the disease, many people are expected to have hope for access to vaccines and drugs to treat the disease as soon as possible [12]. Therefore, it is necessary to pay attention to people's attitudes towards the COVID-19 vaccine, which will probably be produced in the near future. ...
Article
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Background: Given the importance of using the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine in the control and prevention of this disease, the aim of this study was to investigate the attitudes of Iranian medical and healthcare professionals regarding COVID-19 vaccination. Materials & Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in August 2020. The target population was professors and researchers of Iranian universities of medical sciences. Data were collected using a questionnaire designed in a study on mapping global trends in vaccine confidence. The participants were invited through an online invitation to respond to the questionnaire. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and compared using the Chi-square test. Results: Out of 16500 invitations, 918 subjects participated in the study. Most of the participants were female (55.7%). Almost 51% of participants had a Ph.D. degree. The results showed that 46.3% were not sure about the effectiveness and safety of the COVID-19 vaccine. The majority of participants (67.2 %) responded that the country has to provide the vaccine for free rather than paying the cost of the vaccine. Moreover, 73.0 % preferred the COVID-19 vaccine made in a foreign country to the COVID-19 vaccine made in their own country. The United States followed by Germany have been selected by most Iranian researchers to produce the COVID-19 vaccine. Conclusion: This study showed the high importance of creating a culture and raising the level of awareness and knowledge of the people before the preparation and distribution of the COVID-19 vaccine in the community.
... Furthermore, certain key factors such as severity of the disease, previous vaccination history, lack of belief in health care services, route of administration of vaccine, economic and educational status of the individuals, recommendations from doctors, and cost of vaccine also determines the acceptance of vaccines. The first and foremost public concern about the novel vaccines against new emerging pandemics is the safety and effectiveness of candidate vaccines as witnessed in 2009 H1N1 pandemic [11]. ...
Article
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Background: The COVID-19 pandemic is expected to continue to impose enormous burdens of morbidity and mortality while severely disrupting societies and economies worldwide. Vaccines are a key strategy to stop the escalation of the COVID-19 pandemic. Vaccines are the effective way to control and prevent a several diseases, save lives, and reducing current health emergency, as well as increasing the immunity of the population. Objective: To find out eagerness to acceptance of COVID-19 vaccine among health care workers in oromia regional state, Ethiopia: An online-based cross-sectional study. Methods: An online based cross sectional study design were carried out from April 18, 2021 to June 19, 2021. Data was collected through employing online questioner, and then the collected data were coded and analyzed by statistical packages for social sciences 25.0 version statistical software. The statistical significance was set at a P-value ≤0.05. Findings: The current study revealed that 178 (42.2%) of health care workers intended to receive the COVID-19 vaccines. The results of our study showed that the majority of participants don’t believe that COVID-19 vaccine is effective and safe (n=279.66.1%), and couldn’t save lives (n=228, 54.1%). Factors such as age group >55 (AOR: 2.75; 95% CI: 1.092-5.472; P=0.008), Female(AOR: 1.86; 95% CI: 1.243-2.796; P=0.003), nurses (AOR: 2.17; 95% CI: 0.621-5.087; P=0.0094) and midwives (AOR: 2.521; 95% CI: 2.497-8.24; P=0.0002), married (AOR: 1.74; 95% CI: 0.218-4.530; P=0.006), health care workers who had contact with COVID-19 patient were twice as likely to accept the vaccine (AOR: 1.93; 95% CI: 1.360- 3.784; P=0.0001) and health care workers who indicated that they had more serious medical condition (AOR: 2.61; 95% CI: 0.981-3.618; P=0.007) proved to be significant predictors of the acceptability of the COVID-19 vaccine. Factors such as taking vitamin C (AOR: 1.624; 95% CI: 0.945-2.596; P=0.0003), poor safety of vaccines (AOR: 7.041; 95% CI: 3.692-13.375; P=0.000), those believe effective medicine avail for treating COVID-19 (AOR: 2.16; 95% CI: 1.596-3.485; P=0.0076), no adequate trials about COVID-19 (AOR: 7.041; 95% CI: 3.692-13.375; P=0.000), and unwanted side effects of the vaccines (AOR: 3.422; 95% CI: 1.448-8.096; P=0.005) were identified as indicators why health care workers would decline uptake of COVID-19 vaccines. Conclusion and Recommendation: Our survey revealed that the eagerness to acceptance of covid-19 vaccine among health care workers in oromia regional state was somewhat meagre. Nurses and Midwives were more likely to accept the COVID-19 vaccines than others health care workers. Oromia health bureau should have to give training about COVID-19 vaccine to all health care workers.
... The viral structural and non-structural proteins, replication mechanism, genetic material and its pathogenesis are potential targets that are being explored to develop vaccines. A clear understanding of the virus pathogenesis and antigenic structures are important in developing an efficient vaccine (Patel et al., 2020). Like SARS-CoV, the novel SARS-CoV-2 utilize the ACE2 receptor-like and majority of vaccine candidates aim to trigger neutralizing antibodies against the viral spike protein that is critical in attachment, binding, fusion, and entry to host cells thereby preventing uptake via the human ACE2 receptor (Amanat and Krammer, 2020). ...
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An unprecedented outbreak of the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) causing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been declared a global pandemic and a threat to public health by the World Health Organization (WHO). This review aims to highlight the current researches on the epidemiology, pathogenesis, transmission and management, clinical features and diagnosis of COVID-19. Researchers are studying a number of potential drug targets for COVID-19. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has granted emergency use of convalescent plasma therapy to treat COVID-19. In the absence of safe, effective and affordable vaccines, the pandemic calls for rapid and accurate diagnostic tools for early detection and management. Significant efforts are underway to develop vaccines against COVID-19.
... Thus far, the lack of effective treatment means vaccination, alongside other public health mitigation measures such as hand hygiene and social distancing, remains the only pathway to suppression of the virus and release from the pandemic. As a result, many governments have approved the rollout of some vaccines through emergency approval procedures, and several clinical trials are ongoing worldwide to find specific treatments and vaccines for COVID-19 [13][14][15]. However, fears, rumors, and misconceptions persist, particularly regarding COVID-19 vaccines. ...
Article
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Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by a new species of β-coronavirus genus named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. The COVID-19 pandemic, which started in late 2019 and continues as at mid-2021, has caused enormous damage to health and lives globally. The urgent public health need has led to the development of vaccines against COVID-19 in record-breaking time. The COVID-19 vaccines have been widely rolled out for the masses by many countries following approval for emergency use by the World Health Organization and regulatory agencies in many countries. In addition, several COVID-19 vaccine candidates are undergoing clinical trials. However, myths, fears, rumors, and misconceptions persist, particularly in regard to adverse events. In this commentary, we describe the adverse events associated with COVID-19 vaccines and discuss why it is essential to have a functional adverse event monitoring system in this context.
... The level of despair and hopelessness felt by humanity against the onslaught of the virus was unimaginable (Hacimusalar, Civan Kahve, Yasar, & Aydın, 2020;Usher, Durkin, & Bhullar, 2020). With such hopelessness, the last resort of humanity in their titanic fight against the virus is the vaccine (Calina et al., 2020;Mullard, 2020;Patel et al., 2020). With the rapid rate of genetic mutations in viruses and many other factors including age (Lord, 2013), behavioural (smoking, alcohol consumption, sleep, etc.) (Zimmermann & Curtis, 2019), and non-health-related factor (improper storage of vaccine, etc.) (Weinberg & Szilagyi, 2010), the effectiveness of vaccines may have been severely affected and therefore, the last hope for a vaccine to wipe out this menace does not look promising. ...
Conference Paper
The ongoing pandemic of COVID-19 has significantly disrupted the livelihood, lifestyle and lives of humanity and decreased the quality of life for many people worldwide. These disruptions are caused by a virus, a microscopic pathogen. Pathogens such as viruses, bacteria, and others have been increasingly threatening our ability to treat their infections effectively. As pathogens mutate and adapt, they become more resistant to medical treatments. Antibiotics and vaccines are becoming more ineffective and the need for the development of new treatments arises. This paper aims to carry out a literature survey to review and explore the past, present and prospective methods of detection and inactivation of these pathogens with a specific focus on SARS-COV-2 to conjecture potential new methods to deal with these pathogens based on TRIZ tools. This paper will first explore and study superficially the key morphologies of pathogens, particularly SARS-COV-2, to identify as well as to superficially hypothesise possible means of research prospects and barriers in detection and inactivation of these pathogens from the perspective of TRIZ.
... For all these reasons, since the beginning of the pandemic, more than a year ago, it was understood the urgent need for efficacious and effective treatments and vaccines (9,10). Fortunately, on this stone road, the rapid development of a plethora of COVID-19 vaccine candidates paved the way for the hopes of pandemic control (11). ...
Article
Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), have caused considerable havoc on society (1). Indeed, this has been a chronicle of an announced zoonosis (2, 3). Its impact has been even deeper in developing countries (4, 5), such as Colombia (6-8). So far, up to March 9, 2021, the world has recorded 117.5 million cases of COVID-19, with 2.6 million deaths (2.22%). Colombia is included in the Top 20 countries with the highest number of cases (2,282,372) and the Top 20 deaths globally (60,676). Despite the relative number of cases evolving to severe and fatal outcomes, given the pandemic's magnitude, its clinical significance is so relevant, as this emerging disease affects disproportionally people above 60 years old and with risk factors, especially under poverty. Among them are concentrated severe and fatal cases. For all these reasons, since the beginning of the pandemic, more than a year ago, it was understood the urgent need for efficacious and effective treatments and vaccines (9, 10). Fortunately, on this stone road, the rapid development of a plethora of COVID-19 vaccine candidates paved the way for the hopes of pandemic control (11). Twenty-one vaccines reached phase 3 trials, with six of them authorized, under early or limited use, and six approved by international regulatory agencies, such as FDA and EMA. Even more, 30 are on track at phase 2 and 42 on phase 1, not mentioning dozens or hundreds of additional preclinical candidates under study (11).
... Globally, there are still multiple challenges in the control of COVID-19 [33,34]. Vaccination is a critical tool for the integrated control of this deadly emerging disease [35,36], particularly amongst healthcare workers, a risk population that has been significantly impacted, particularly in Latin America and Colombia [37,38]. There is a high perception of the intention to vaccinate doctors in Colombia against COVID-19. ...
Article
Introduction: The SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 pandemic has triggered the need to develop rapidly effective and safe vaccines to prevent infection, particularly in those at-risk populations such as medical personnel. This study's objective was to assess the perception of COVID-19 vaccination amongst Colombian physicians featuring two different scenarios of COVID-19 vaccination. Methods: A cross-sectional analytical study was carried out through an online survey directed at medical staff in several cities in Colombia. The percentage of physicians who have a positive perception to be vaccinated and the associated factors that determine that decision were determined. A binomial regression analysis adjusted for age and sex was carried out, taking as a dependent variable the acceptance of free vaccination with an effectiveness of 60 and 80%. The most significant factors were determined in the non-acceptance of vaccination. Results: Between 77.0% and 90.7% of physicians in Colombia accept COVID-19 vaccination, according to the scenario evaluated where the vaccine's effectiveness was 60 or 80%, respectively. Medical specialty, having never paid for a vaccine, recommending the administration of the vaccine to their parents or people over 70 years, and dispensing the vaccine to their children, were the factors to consider to be vaccinated for free with an effectiveness of 60% and 80%. Conclusions: There is a high perception of the intention to vaccinate physicians in Colombia against COVID-19, and this is very similar to that of the general population. Citation: Alvarado-Socarras, J.L.; Vesga-Varela, A.L.; Quintero-Lesmes, D.C.; Fama-Pereira, M.M.; Serrano-Diaz, N.C.; Vasco, M.; Carballo-Zarate, V.; Zambrano, L.I.; Paniz-Mondolfi, A.; Rodriguez-Morales, A.J. Perception of COVID-19 Vaccination Amongst Physicians in Colombia. Vaccines 2021, 9, 287.
... Countries were constantly trying to develop a COVID-19 vaccine rapidly. 4 As a result, there is an enormous growth of scholarly literature on the subject globally. In India also, there is a considerable and constant growth of publications on COVID-19 from mid-April. ...
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The acceptance of any vaccine relies on the belief and perception towards it. After a wait of almost 10 months, the COVID-19 vaccine is ready with the first phase in progress in India. The aim of this study is to assess the impact on the acceptance intentions of COVID-19 vaccine among the general population of India after the vaccine is inoculated to health care workers in the first phase. An empirical study was conducted by analyzing the data collected by a self-administered questionnaire. The various variables that were addressed were the socio-demographic variables, past behavior of participants towards such seasonal influenza vaccine, awareness about the vaccine and adoption intention post vaccination drive. Logistic regression was used to identify the association between various variables and the predicting variables for the vaccine acceptance. Majority of them were ready for the COVID-19 vaccine. However, there was a decline in the acceptance rate post vaccination drive. Age, Gender and Region were found as the major factors affecting this decision. To analyse, 1. The shift in confidence level in COVID-19 vaccine; 2. The role of Social Influence (SI) towards COVID-19 vaccine; 3. The role of past behavior towards seasonal influenza vaccines (Swine Flu, Ebola or similar) in acceptance of COVID-19 vaccine; 4. The association bet ween awareness of the COVID-19 vaccine and rate of adoption. : The study was conducted by analyzing the data collected by a self-administered questionnaire that was shared online across India in January 2021 – February 2021. The variables that were addressed through the questionnaire were the socio-demographic variables, past behavior of participants towards such seasonal influenza vaccine, awareness about the vaccine and adoption intention post vaccination drive. Associations between various variables were observed during analysis. Logistic regression was also used to identify the predicting variables for the vaccine acceptance. Statistical analysis used: Odds Ratio, p-value, logistic regression Out of 456 respondents, 59.21% were ready to uptake the COVID-19 vaccination, whereas 16.67% respondents declined to take the vaccine. There were 24.12% respondents who were not sure about the acceptance of the vaccine. Younger age groups specifically male from Northern India were more likely to accept the vaccine. The major findings of the study shows that after the start of implementation of COVID-19 vaccination drive, there is a drop in the number of people who are ready to take the vaccine as compared to the number before the arrival of the vaccine. This may lead to the conclusion that the faith of general people of India has declined in the COVID-19 vaccine post vaccination drive.
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Durante el año 2020 la compleja situación ocasionada por la pandemia de la enfermedad por coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) plantea retos significativos en el mundo, impactando no solo directamente por todas sus implicaciones, en una enfermedad que resultó ser multisistémica, con consecuencias agudas y no agudas, con impacto significativo en el personal de salud, así como nuevas manifestaciones mediadas inmunológicamente en niños pero también en adultos, con la posibilidad de evolucionar a formas graves y fatales, especialmente en los pacientes con factores de riesgo y comorbilidades, como la hipertensión arterial, diabetes, cáncer, enfermedad pulmonar entre otras (Sanchez-Duque et al 2020; Cimerman et al 2020; Dhama et al 2020 ; Rodriguez-Morales et al 2020 ;Rodriguez-Morales et al 2020;Rodriguez-Morales et al 2020). Si todo ello no fuera complejo, en una pandemia que lleva casi 50 millones de casos y más de 1,2 millones de muertes en el mundo, en regiones del mundo, como América Latina, ya previo a la llegada del COVID-19 se presentaban situaciones complejas que podrían estar agravándose con el coronavirus. Tal es el caso de la importante epidemia de dengue en múltiples países de la región, como el caso de Brasil, Colombia, Venezuela, Honduras, entre otros, que especialmente en 2019 venía produciéndose en la región y que continuó en 2020 con el curso concurrente de la epidemia. Pero también un considerable impacto desde por los menos los últimos 5 años, con la migración forzada de Venezuela, que ha conllevado a la diseminación de enfermedades inmunoprevenibles, para las cuales se dejó de vacunar significativamente en el país, lo cual ha llevado a una caída importante de las coberturas de vacunación, que hacen que los migrantes y refugiados que se mueven a otros países, como Brasil, Colombia, Ecuador, entre otros, lleguen siendo portadores de algunas de ellas. Uno de los casos críticos, es sarampión, el cual con su genotipo D8
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Currently, with a large number of fatality rates, coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) has emerged as a potential threat to human health worldwide. It has been well-known that severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is responsible for COVID-19 and World Health Organization (WHO) proclaimed the contagious disease as a global pandemic. Researchers from different parts of the world amalgamate together inquest of remedies for this deadly virus. Recently, it has been demonstrated that the spike glycoprotein (SGP) of SARS-CoV-2 is the mediator behind the entrance into the host cells. Our group has comprehensibly analyzed the SGP of SARS-CoV-2 through multiple sequence analysis along with the phylogenetic analysis. Further, this research work predicted the most immunogenic epitopes for both B-cell and T-cell. Notably, we focused mainly on major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I potential peptides and predicted two epitopes; WTAGAAAYY and GAAAYYVGY, that bind with the MHC class I alleles which are further validated by molecular docking analysis. Furthermore, this study also proposed that the selected epitopes were shown availability in a greater range of the population. Hence, our study comes up with a strong base for the implementation of designing novel vaccine candidates against SARS-CoV-2, however adequate laboratory works will need to be conducted for the appropriate application.
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Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Virus-2 (SARSCoV-2), pandemic has caused huge panic, havoc and global threats worldwide. The origin of this virus has been linked to animals, intermediate host is still to be identified, and studies are being carried out that how it got transmitted to humans and acquired rapid human-to-human transmission. Within a short time period of only 05 months, SARS-CoV-2 has spread to 213 countries, and till 28th May, 2020, nearly 5.8 million confirmed cases have been reported while taking lives of 0.36 million persons. Seeing the current situation of rapid increase in COVID-19 cases daily in many countries, this seems to be the deadliest pandemic after the 1918 Spanish Flu. There is currently no specific effective treatment for COVID-19 and also in absence of vaccine the radical cure of the disease is far away. Researchers are pacing high to design and develop effective vaccines, drugs and therapeutics to counter COVID-19, however such efforts, clinical trials, necessary approvals and then to reach the level of bulk production of many millions of doses may still take much time. Prevention and control of COVID-19 outbreaks requires an evidence-based, multi-factorial and effective mitigation strategy to be adopted. The current review discusses on the research advancements, challenges and opportunities in COVID 19 management with a focus on its transmission, prevention, treatment and control.
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Despite the increasing large population of COVID-19 ⁺ infected patients, knowledge of the disease remains limited. Understanding the effects and long-term implications of COVID-19 will be paramount to implementing the right public health measures and developing future preventive and effective treatments. In this article, we discuss currently available information with COVID-19-related neurological complications, possible routes of virus infection into the central nervous system, and hypothesis about virus-induced cytokine storm syndrome, long-term outcomes, as well as ongoing clinical studies of novel therapies and biomarkers for COVID-19. Understanding the effects of COVID-19 on neurological systems is crucial for properly diagnosing and caring for the disease. We need to be prepared that COVID-19 could cause long-lasting debilitations after the infection has cleared. Investigating long-term effects of the disease will yield insight for providing comprehensive care to the survivors. Understanding these risks will also lead to better treatments as well as inform policies to create a system capable of caring for those affected by COVID-19 long after the pandemic has subsided.
Chapter
Over the year 2020, the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) impact, caused by the Severe Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2, has been highly significant in the world. As expected, resource-constrained areas of the world, as is the case of Latin America, have been more affected given their previous epidemiological context, health care systems, and socioeconomic conditions. In this chapter the main epidemiological features of the COVID-19 during the first year of the pandemic in this region are revised.
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Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was first reported in the sea-food market of Wuhan, China which and later declared as a pandemic. The novel coronavirus responsible for COVID-19 was later given the name severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) due to its close similarity with SARS-CoV. The entry of the virus is mediated through the interaction of spike glycoprotein with the host receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). The Spike protein plays a pivotal role in SARS-CoV-2 infection as it is required for both receptor binding and viral fusion, hence the key target for neutralizing antibodies. Owing to its important role, Spike protein stands as the prime target for developing vaccines and therapeutics. The S glycoprotein carries the receptor-binding domain and the major B cell and T cell epitopes, which indicate that it is a potential target for vaccines and therapeutics. Several candidate vaccines have already entered into the clinical trials. The commonly employed vaccine platforms for COVID-19 include subunit, virus-like particles (VLPs), DNA, RNA, and viral vector-based platforms. The majority of these vaccine candidates target the Spike glycoprotein to elicit an efficient immune response. The safety profile and clinical efficacy of COVID-19 vaccines that are currently under trials are quite reassuring, but it is still way ahead from attaining commercial utility. In this review, we have highlighted the recent advances in S protein-based vaccine and anti-viral platforms along with their importance in prophylaxis and control of COVID-19.
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Background: COVID-19 pandemic is essentially a zoonotic disease. In this context, early in 2020, transmission from humans to certain animals began reporting; the number of studies has grown since. Objectives: To estimate the pooled prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 natural infection in animals and to determine differences in prevalence between countries, years, animal types and diagnostic methods (RT-PCR or serological tests). Methods: A systematic literature review with meta-analysis using eight databases. Observational studies were included but analyzed separately. We performed a random-effects model meta-analysis to calculate the pooled prevalence and 95% confidence interval (95%CI) for prevalence studies and case series. Results: After the screening, 65 reports were selected for full-text assessment and included for qualitative and quantitative analyses. A total of 24 reports assessed SARS-CoV-2 infection by RT-PCR, combining a total of 321,785 animals, yielding a pooled prevalence of 12.3% (95%CI 11.6%-13.0%). Also, a total of 17 studies additionally assessed serological response against SARS-CoV-2, including nine by ELISA, four by PRTN, one by MIA, one by immunochromatography (rest, two studies, the method was not specified), combining a total of 5,319 animals, yielding a pooled prevalence of 29.4% (95%CI 22.9%-35.9%). Conclusion: A considerable proportion of animals resulted infected by SARS-CoV-2, ranking minks among the highest value, followed by dogs and cats. Further studies in other animals are required to define the extent and importance of natural infection due to SARS-CoV-2. These findings have multiple implications for public human and animal health. One Health approach in this context is critical for prevention and control.
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AIMS: The COVID-19 pandemic suddenly and significantly increased hospitalizations for pneumonia with systemic inflammatory disease. Since its appearance, COVID-19 has affected more than 200 countries, with more than 90 million cases and almost 2 million deaths. So far, there is no quality evidence regarding the specific pharmacological therapy for COVID-19; most treatments usually involve off-label use of existing drugs and have unproven efficacy. The global effort converges on the development of a vaccine; however, the greatest challenge is to achieve collective immunization in the face of increasing vaccination hesitancy.METHODS: This study investigated the impact of vaccine hesitancy movements on the goal of COVID-19 immunization in Brazil. An integrative bibliographic review was performed with an electronic search on PubMed and SciELO that yielded 13.535 articles. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied which included 29 interventional and descriptive studies.RESULTS: The results of the 29 studies revealed that the most frequent reasons for hesitation is skepticism about the true interests of the industry and politicians, the lack of trust in research, and inaccurate information on social media.CONCLUSION: The main factors that lead the population not to believe in vaccines were the real interests of industry and politicians, lack of confidence in research, and the amount of false information that circulates massively on social media and because of that it is possible that Brazil will face some challenges in achieving collective immunity due to the anti-vaccine movement.
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Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a novel zoonotic coronavirus that emerged from Wuhan, China. Development of SARS-CoV-2 specific vaccine is considered as the only solution that could control this pandemic. However, the success of COVID-19 vaccination programme will be dependent on the development of effective and safer vaccines and also on the public acceptance which in turn reliant on the beliefs and perception towards the vaccine. Therefore, this study was aimed to analyse the beliefs and barriers associated with COVID-19 vaccination among the general population in India. Methods: The study conducted using an online self-administered questionnaire that was distributed among the general population of India during the month of October 2020. The online questionnaire addressed several variables including the socio-demographic parameters, beliefs toward COVID-19 vaccine/vaccination, COVID-19 vaccine acceptance, potential barriers that may prevent from being vaccinated, and factors that can improve COVID-19 vaccine acceptance. Results: Among the 351 participants, 55% believed that the COVID-19 vaccination will be safe while only 46.2% believed that it will be effective. Majority of the participants (86.3%) were planning to get COVID-19 vaccination, whereas 13.7% admitted hesitancy. However, only 65.8% of the participants responded that they will receive vaccination as soon as possible whenever the vaccine is available. The study also identified that the concerns regarding the vaccine side effects acted as the key barrier for vaccine acceptance. Conclusion: The major findings of this study can be utilized in planning vaccination campaigns. Furthermore, the level of vaccine acceptance can be increased within the population if additional studies can confirm the safety and effectiveness of available vaccine candidates.
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The COVID‐19 pandemic is causing substantial morbidity and mortality, straining health care systems, shutting down economies, and closing school districts. While it is a priority to mitigate its immediate impact, we want to call attention to the pandemic’s longer‐term effect on children’s health: COVID‐19, via these school closures, may exacerbate the epidemic of childhood obesity and increase disparities in obesity risk. In many areas of the U.S., the COVID‐19 pandemic has closed schools and some of these school systems are not expected to re‐open this school year. The experiences in Hong Kong, Taiwan and Singapore suggest that social distancing orders, if lifted after short periods, will have to be periodically re‐instated to control COVID‐19 flare ups. In short, we anticipate that the COVID‐19 pandemic will likely double out‐of‐school time this year for many children in the U.S. and will exacerbate the risk factors for weight gain associated with summer recess.
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Corona virus disease (COVID‐19) has created pandemic in the world as declared by WHO on March 12, 2020. It is a viral disease caused by SARS‐CoV 2 virus and has affected large populations in over 120 countries. There is no specific treatment available and management is empirical. Until such time that an effective vaccine is available for COVID‐19 viral infection, one can repurpose known therapeutic drug molecules such as angiotensin receptor 2 blocker, a commonly used antihypertensive drug, to control COVID‐19 virus from gaining entry into the host cell by blocking the angiotensin receptor. Clinical trials should also be undertaken to use statins, which are lipid‐lowering drugs but have anti‐inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties to prevent acute lung injury in COVID‐19 infection.
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The novel coronavirus infection (COVID-19 or Coronavirus disease 2019) that emerged from Wuhan, Hubei province of China has now spread to several countries across the world. Efforts have been made to develop vaccines against human coronavirus (CoV) infections in the past decades, however till date no licensed antiviral treatment or vaccine exists for MERS and SARS CoVs. Most of the efforts for developing CoVs vaccines and drugs target the spike glycoprotein or S protein, the major inducer of neutralizing antibodies. Although a few have shown proven efficacy in the in vitro studies, not many have undergone randomized animal or human trials, hence may have limited use to counter COVID-19. This article highlights the recent ongoing advances in designing vaccines and therapeutics to counter COVID-19, while also focusing such experiences and advances as made with earlier SARS and MERS-CoVs; which altogether could pave ways in the right direction to halt this emerging virus.
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In 2019, a new coronavirus (2019-nCoV) infecting Humans has emerged in Wuhan, China. Its genome has been sequenced and the genomic information promptly released. Despite a high similarity with the genome sequence of SARS-CoV and SARS-like CoVs, we identified a peculiar furin-like cleavage site in the Spike protein of the 2019-nCoV, lacking in the other SARS-like CoVs. In this article, we discuss the possible functional consequences of this cleavage site in the viral cycle, pathogenicity and its potential implication in the development of antivirals.
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Novel Coronavirus (nCoV) outbreak in the city of Wuhan, China during December 2019, has now spread to various countries across the globe triggering a heightened containment effort. This human pathogen is a member of betacoronavirus genus carrying 30 kilobase of single positive-sense RNA genome. Understanding the evolution, zoonotic transmission, and source of this novel virus would help accelerating containment and prevention efforts. The present study reported detailed analysis of 2019-nCoV genome evolution and potential candidate peptides for vaccine development. This nCoV genotype might have been evolved from a bat-CoV by accumulating non-synonymous mutations, indels, and recombination events. Structural proteins Spike (S), and Membrane (M) had extensive mutational changes, whereas Envelope (E) and Nucleocapsid (N) proteins were very conserved suggesting differential selection pressures exerted on 2019-nCoV during evolution. Interestingly, 2019-nCoV Spike protein contains a 39 nucleotide (5-prime aAT GGT GTT GAA GGT TTT AAT TGT TAC TTT CCT TTA CAA Tca 3-prime) sequence insertion, which shares homology to fish genomic sequence of Myripristis murdjan, an abundant fish type in Indo-Pacific Ocean. Furthermore, we identified eight high binding affinity (HBA) CD4 T-cell epitopes in the S, E, M and N proteins, which can be commonly recognized by HLA-DR alleles of Asia and Asia-Pacific Region population. These immunodominant epitopes can be incorporated in universal subunit CoV vaccine. Diverse HLA types and variations in the epitope binding affinity may contribute to the wide range of immunopathological outcomes of circulating virus in humans. Our findings emphasize the requirement for continuous surveillance of CoV strains in live animal markets to better understand the viral adaptation to human host and to develop practical solutions to prevent the emergence of novel pathogenic CoV strains.
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We must urgently develop measures to tackle the new coronavirus — but safety always comes first, says Shibo Jiang. We must urgently develop measures to tackle the new coronavirus — but safety always comes first, says Shibo Jiang. “It is important not to cut corners.”
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In the past decades, several new diseases have emerged in new geographical areas, with pathogens including Ebola, Zika, Nipah, and coronaviruses (CoV). Recently, a new type of viral infection has emerged in Wuhan City, China, and initial genomic sequencing data of this virus does not match with previously sequenced CoVs, suggesting a novel CoV strain (2019-nCoV), which has now been termed as severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Although CoV disease 2019 (COVID-19) is suspected to originate from an animal host (zoonotic origin) followed by human-to-human transmission, the possibility of other routes such as food-borne transmission should not be ruled out. Compared to diseases caused by previously known human CoVs, COVID-19 shows a less severe pathogenesis but higher transmission competence, as is evident from the continuously increasing number of confirmed cases. Compared to other emerging viruses such as Ebola virus, avian H7N9, SARS-CoV, or MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2 has shown relatively low pathogenicity and moderate transmissibility Codon usage studies suggest that this novel virus may have been transferred from an animal source such as bats. Early diagnosis by real-time PCR and next-generation sequencing has facilitated the identification of the pathogen at an early stage. Since no antiviral drug or vaccine exists to treat or prevent SARS-CoV-2, potential therapeutic strategies that are currently being evaluated predominantly stem from previous experience with treating SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and other emerging viral diseases. In this review, we address epidemiological, diagnostic, clinical, and therapeutic aspects, including perspectives of vaccines and preventive measures that have already been globally recommended.
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What′s sauce for the goose? Little is known about the coronavirus causing the current outbreak; however, it shares strong sequence homology with its better‐studied cousin SARS‐CoV. Based on previous studies of targeting SARS‐CoV, we suggest four potential candidates that could be used to drug the viral spike protein, RNA‐dependent RNA polymerase, and coronavirus main proteinase. Abstract With the current trajectory of the 2019‐nCoV outbreak unknown, public health and medicinal measures will both be needed to contain spreading of the virus and to optimize patient outcomes. Although little is known about the virus, an examination of the genome sequence shows strong homology with its better‐studied cousin, SARS‐CoV. The spike protein used for host cell infection shows key nonsynonymous mutations that might hamper the efficacy of previously developed therapeutics but remains a viable target for the development of biologics and macrocyclic peptides. Other key drug targets, including RNA‐dependent RNA polymerase and coronavirus main proteinase (3CLpro), share a strikingly high (>95 %) homology to SARS‐CoV. Herein, we suggest four potential drug candidates (an ACE2‐based peptide, remdesivir, 3CLpro‐1 and a novel vinylsulfone protease inhibitor) that could be used to treat patients suffering with the 2019‐nCoV. We also summarize previous efforts into drugging these targets and hope to help in the development of broad‐spectrum anti‐coronaviral agents for future epidemics.
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The recent emergence of Wuhan coronavirus (2019-nCoV) puts the world on alert. 2019-nCoV is reminiscent of the SARS-CoV outbreak in 2002 to 2003. Our decade-long structural studies on the receptor recognition by SARS-CoV have identified key interactions between SARS-CoV spike protein and its host receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), which regulate both the cross-species and human-to-human transmissions of SARS-CoV. One of the goals of SARS-CoV research was to build an atomic-level iterative framework of virus-receptor interactions to facilitate epidemic surveillance, predict species-specific receptor usage, and identify potential animal hosts and animal models of viruses. Based on the sequence of 2019-nCoV spike protein, we apply this predictive framework to provide novel insights into the receptor usage and likely host range of 2019-nCoV. This study provides a robust test of this reiterative framework, providing the basic, translational, and public health research communities with predictive insights that may help study and battle this novel 2019-nCoV.
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Background: Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) is a severe respiratory illness with an overall mortality of 35%. There is no licensed or proven treatment. Passive immunotherapy approaches are being developed to prevent and treat several human medical conditions where alternative therapeutic options are absent. We report the safety of a fully human polyclonal IgG antibody (SAB-301) produced from the hyperimmune plasma of transchromosomic cattle immunised with a MERS coronavirus vaccine. Methods: We did a phase 1 double-blind, placebo-controlled, single-dose escalation trial at the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center. We recruited healthy participants aged 18-60 years who had normal laboratory parameters at enrolment, a body-mass index of 19-32 kg/m2, and a creatinine clearance of 70 mL/min or more, and who did not have any chronic medical problems that required daily oral medications, a positive rheumatoid factor (≥15 IU/mL), IgA deficiency (<7 mg/dL), or history of allergy to intravenous immunoglobulin or human blood products. Participants were randomly assigned by a computer-generated table, made by a masked pharmacist, to one of six cohorts (containing between three and ten participants each). Cohorts 1 and 2 had three participants, randomly assigned 2:1 to receive active drug SAB-301 versus normal saline placebo; cohorts 3 and 4 had six participants randomised 2:1; and cohorts 5 and 6 had ten participants, randomised 4:1. Participants received 1 mg/kg, 2·5 mg/kg, 5 mg/kg, 10 mg/kg, 20 mg/kg, or 50 mg/kg of SAB-301, or equivalent volume placebo (saline control), on day 0, and were followed up by clinical, laboratory, and pharmacokinetic assessments on days 1, 3, 7, 21, 42, and 90. The primary outcome was safety, and immunogenicity was a secondary outcome. We analysed the intention-to-treat population. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02788188. Findings: Between June 2, 2016, and Jan 4, 2017, we screened 43 participants, of whom 38 were eligible and randomly assigned to receive SAB-301 (n=28) or placebo (n=10). 97 adverse events were reported: 64 adverse events occurred in 23 (82%) of 28 participants receiving SAB-301 (mean 2·3 adverse events per participant). 33 adverse events occurred in all ten participants receiving placebo (mean 3·3 adverse events per participant). The most common adverse events were headache (n=6 [21%] in participants who received SAB-301 and n=2 [20%] in those receiving placebo), albuminuria (n=5 [18%] vs n=2 [20%]), myalgia (n=3 [11%] vs n=1 [10%]), increased creatine kinase (n=3 [11%] vs 1 [10%]), and common cold (n=3 [11%] vs n=2 [20%]). There was one serious adverse event (hospital admission for suicide attempt) in one participant who received 50 mg/kg of SAB-301. The area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) in the 50 mg/kg dose (27 498 μg × days per mL) is comparable to the AUC that was associated with efficacy in a preclinical model. Interpretation: Single infusions of SAB-301 up to 50 mg/kg appear to be safe and well tolerated in healthy participants. Human immunoglobulin derived from transchromosomic cattle could offer a new platform technology to produce fully human polyclonal IgG antibodies for other medical conditions. Funding: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, and Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority.