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The Effectiveness of Mandala Colouring Therapy in Increasing Year 3 Pupils’ Focus during the Initial Lesson

Creative Education, 2020, 11, 581-595
ISSN Online: 2151-4771
ISSN Print: 2151-4755
10.4236/ce.2020.114043 Apr. 26, 2020 581 Creative Education
The Effectiveness of Mandala Colouring
Therapy in Increasing Year 3 Pupils’ Focus
during the Initial Lesson
Ravi Shankar1,2, Ruslin Amir2
1SK (Felda) Jengka 23, Temerloh, Malaysia
2Faculty of Education, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), Bandar Baru Bangi, Malaysia
Focus is a very important element in the world of education to increase the
effectiveness of other learning skills such as reading, writing and calculating.
The lack of focus issue existed as the pupils were uninterested and unmoti-
vated to learn. This has caused disruptive behaviours in the classroom which
affected both teachers and pupils. An intervention was essential in curbing
this problem. Hence, this study was embarked to identify the effecti
veness of
the Mandala Colouring Therapy in increasing Year 3 pupils’ focus during the
initial lesson of the day. A mixed method study was conducted at
5 national
schools in Temerloh, Pahang. The participants were
100 Year 3 low average
pupils and 20 teachers who taught initial lesson periods. The data were col-
lected through interviews and questionnaires. The quantitative data were
analysed using frequency counts on SPSS, while the qualitative data were
analysed using Burnard’s method. The overall findings revealed that pupils’
interest and focus has been increased with Mandala Colouring Therapy. Be-
sides, teachers have also admitted that this method has enabled the low aver-
age pupils to answer questions
correctly, complete the tasks and change their
behaviours. The implication of the study is that the education stakeholders
need to be made aware of these impacts in order to implement this effective
method in classrooms to have a fruitful teaching and learning session.
Mandala Colouring Therapy, Focus, Year 3 Pupils, Low Average, Disruptive
1. Introduction
“Learning… is a reflective activity which enables the learner to draw upon pre-
How to cite this paper:
Shankar, R., & Amir,
. (2020). The Effectiveness of Mandala Col-
Therapy in Increasing Year 3 Pupils’
Focus during the Initial Lesson
, 11,
March 1, 2020
April 23, 2020
April 26, 2020
Copyright © 20
20 by author(s) and
Research Publishing Inc.
This work is licensed under the Creative
Commons Attribution International
License (CC BY
Open Access
R. Shankar, R. Amir
10.4236/ce.2020.114043 582 Creative Education
vious experience to understand and evaluate the present, so as to shape future
action and formulate new knowledge” (Watkins et al., 2002). Learning process is
an integral part of an individual’s life. Basic concept of learning is to produce a
holistic individual in terms of being competent, developing potential, and has
high moral standards. These are embodied in the goals and focus of each educa-
tional system around the world.
For instance, the importance of learning and its primary goals are stipulated
in the National Education Philosophy. In Malaysia, every child is required to
have primary schooling compulsorily. The curriculum developed for primary
education has also stressed the importance of learning. One of the underlying
pedagogical principles of KSSR curriculum is that learning should be fun,
meaningful and purposeful. This is to enable the pupils to construct new
knowledge via learning and also to build a strong foundation for children’s
learning development.
In order to succeed in the learning session, a child needs to stay focused dur-
ing the teaching and learning process. To ensure that, by the end of the lesson,
the pupils could achieve the learning objective for a particular lesson. However,
there are few issues encountered in the classroom that prevents smooth learning
session. They are namely, disruptive behaviour, lack of motivation and most
importantly, lack of attention.
Abdullah (2015) stated that students’ attention lapses during the initial min-
utes of “settling-in”, again at 10 - 18 minutes into the lesson. Lundervold et al.
(2017) in his research stated that two of the teachers reported inattention items
significantly predicted a low rather than a medium academic achievement score.
Baranek (1996) stated that poor student achievement is often attributed to a lack
of motivation. Lack of motivation and lack of interest has caused lack of focus
issue which led to low academic achievement score and disruptive behaviour.
Abdullah et al. (2016) stated that “Many individuals with learning problems are
described not only as learning disabled, but also as hyperactive, distractable,
impulsive, behaviour disordered, and so forth. Jacobsen (2013) in his research
stated that disruptive behaviour is witnessed by elementary school teachers on a
daily basis in their classroom. These disruptive behaviours will later on affect the
learning achievement of the pupils. All these are mainly caused by lack of focus
issue in the classroom. Hence, this issue was aimed to be resolved through the
conduct of this research study.
2. Literature Review
A closer look into the recent literature showed that researchers have focussed on
the evaluation of literacy instruction program for a variety of purposes.
Souriyavongsa et al. (2013) stated most of the students having difficulties in
learning because they were not well-motivated, encouraged and gained learning
strategy. Research has shown that individuals use different ways when it comes
to learning a second language. The success in learning depends upon many fac-
tors such as learning style, motivation (Deci & Ryan 1985), and attitude towards
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10.4236/ce.2020.114043 583 Creative Education
the subject (Walqui, 2000). Achievement in a target language as proposed by
Mohamad Jafre (2012) relies not only on intellectual capacity, but also in the
learners’ attitudes towards language learning. Positive attitude will significantly
contribute to the success of learning (Samsiah et al., 2009). Conversely, negative
attitudes may lead to class anxiety (Ratnawati & Ismail 2003), low cognitive
achievement, and low motivation (Victoria & Lockhart 1995).
Oxford Learning (2018) has stated that it is common for students at all grade
levels to have trouble staying focused. Weimer (2014) stated that most students
reported short lapses (a minute or less) significantly more times than the me-
dium- or longer-length lapses. Whether it’s struggling to pay attention in class or
having a tough time completing homework assignments, focus issues can have a
big impact on student’s performance. This has affected the teaching and learning
process. Bradbury (2016) has stated that, several educational organizations have
decreased their teaching and learning process to 15 min in length based upon
the “common knowledge” and “consensus” that there is a decrement in pupils’
attention 10 - 15 minutes after the teaching and learning processes has taken
place. Hence, keeping pupils focused in a classroom is no longer an alienated is-
sue in a school.
Besides that, primary learners are found to be having problem in answering
questions posed by the teacher. When it comes to low average pupils, Corrigan
(2015) stated that one or two students attempted an answer, while the others sat
quietly in their seats, avoiding eye contact with the researcher. The room filled
with awkward silence: 5 seconds, 10 seconds, 20 seconds. This is one of the most
important issues that must be addressed in order to provide a meaningful
teaching and learning session. When a student could not answer questions given
by the teacher, the learning objectives for the day will not be achieved. Since
learning objectives communicate the knowledge and skills that instructors in-
tend for students to acquire in a course, thus, it will affect both the students and
teachers (Mekonnen, 2018).
In this research, the researcher has used Mandala Colouring Therapy as an
intervention to curb the lack of focus issue. The use of Mandala Colouring
Therapy is believed to have positive impacts. Toozhy (2016) has stated that
Mandalas, especially their mid points, are utilized for meditation for a better at-
tention and focus. Semple et al. (2017) has stated that mandala colouring helps
to still the mind and focus attention. Potash et al. (2016) stated that the objective
of his qqualitative research study was to discover how creating mandalas (art
made in reference to a circle) might provide medical students with an opportu-
nity for reflection on their current psychological state.
There have also been many studies showed that a mandala is an effective tool
for therapeutic purposes (Kim et al., 2017). Research conducted by Mancuso et
al. (2019) showed that structured coloring of Mandala pattern might induce a
meditative state that benefits individuals are suffering from anxiety. The same
thing was also stated Babouchkina & Robbins (2015) who conducted experi-
mental research which the results demonstrated that the circular shape of the
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10.4236/ce.2020.114043 584 Creative Education
mandala serves as an “active ingredient” in mood enhancement.
Colouring positively impacts the pupils. Rodski (2012) has used colouring
therapy for relaxation and meditation. He has taken this concept from art ther-
apy. Flett et al. (2017) who concluded that daily coloring can improve some neg-
ative psychological outcomes and that it may provide an effective, inexpensive,
and highly accessible self-help tool for nonclinical samples. Eaton & Tieber’s re-
search (2017) showed positive effects of coloring. It is found greater to be a
therapy in anxiety reduction.
Hence, the researcher has used Mandala Colouring Therapy to resolve lack of
focus issue which had a positive impact on the pupils.
3. Methodology
For this study, a mixed method research design was chosen. Mixed method
research design is the type of research in which a researcher combines elements
of qualitative and quantitative approaches for the broad purposes of breadth and
depth of understanding and corroboration. This approach to research was used
as the integration provides a better understanding of the research problem than
either of each alone.
Purposive sampling was used in this study. 100 Year 3 pupils and 20 teachers
were selected. The pupils were selected based on three criteria. The criteria were
students of low average category in a Year 3 classroom, projected disruptive be-
haviour and the students who did not achieve learning objectives. The teachers
who were teaching initial lessons for the Year 3 pupils, encountered disruptive
behaviour and those who could not achieve the teaching objectives were selected
as the participants. This study was conducted with five national schools in Te-
merloh District.
This study embraced mixed method approach and thus employed methods
that are in line with the study. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were
used in this research. The research instruments were teacher individual inter-
view and questionnaire for pupils. For the quantitative approach, 5-point Likert
scale was used. The number of pupils selected an option for a statement, deter-
mined if they strongly disagreed, disagreed, not sure of the response, agreed, and
strongly agreed to the statement. All the data were collected, processed and ana-
lyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPSS). The data were
statistically analyzed using frequency counts and percentage distribution. The
percentage distribution was computed to determine if Mandala Colouring
Therapy has increased Year 3 pupils’ focus during initial lessons.
For the qualitative method, individual interview was used to gather data from
the teacher. As the teacher has a direct involvement with the issue studied, it was
essential to analyse their view point. The questions were divided into two sec-
tions. Section A of the questions required the teacher to reflect on issues that the
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10.4236/ce.2020.114043 585 Creative Education
teachers have encountered while teaching. Meanwhile questions from section B
focus on the changes that can be seen in pupils after the implementation of the
Mandala Colouring Therapy. The data from interviews were analyzed using
Burnard et al. (2008). Burnards proposed 14 stages in analysing qualitative data
which is based on a synthesis between grounded and content analysis approach.
This method was used to categorize and code the transcribed interview data.
4. Results and Discussion
The findings of this study indicated that the Mandala Colouring Therapy has in-
creased Year 3 pupils’ focus during initial lessons. Through the individual inter-
view, it was identified that Mandala Colouring Therapy has helped the low av-
erage pupils in 1) Answering questions, 2) Task completion and 3) Behavioural
changes which were also equally important and contributing effects in this case.
This questionnaire entitled “Focus” and “Interest” was administered to all 100
participants based on two subsections. The answers are divided into two parts
which answers the two subsections; 1) Focus and 2) Interest.
For the first statement, 70% have strongly agreed that they can complete all
the tasks given. 20% have chosen agree. This is supported by Dzulkifli & Musta-
far (2012). They have stated that colours can play a role in motivating pupils to
learn and profit from their educational experiences. It could be evident when the
pupils were able to complete all the tasks given. This was only possible with the
implementation of Mandala Colouring Therapy. This is supported by Semple et
al. (2017). It has been proved that mandala colouring helps to still the mind and
focus attention. The data from the interview was used to triangulate this data.
One of the participants agreed that the pupils were able to complete the task
without having to be guided. Similarly, another participant admitted that the
pupils are able to finish up the task in given time. Thus, this proves the effec-
tiveness of Mandala Colouring Therapy in increasing Year 3 pupils’ focus during
initial lesson of the day.
For the second statement, 10% have strongly agreed that they can complete
the tasks within the time given. 80% have agreed. This is supported by Davis
(2015). She stated that colouring can help a child develop his or her overall con-
centration levels. It is not easy to motivate them to perform school tasks (Assaid,
2003). When a child learns on how to concentrate in their teaching & learning
environment, this it helps the child to perform tasks in time given. Hence, this
proves the effectiveness of Mandala Colouring Therapy in increasing Year 3 pu-
pils’ focus during initial lesson of the day as the pupils could complete the tasks
within the time given.
For the third statement. 35% have strongly agreed that they can answer the
questions correctly. 50% have agreed. Botros (2009) indicated that lack of focus
has symptoms that appear on pupils through different situations; forget much of
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the content. So, an intervention is important is curbing this problem. Using
Mandala Colouring Therapy in this research has positively impacted the pupils.
Colouring can also visually guide you to locate, compare, understand and recall
information faster. Hence, the pupils were able to recall the lesson taught by the
teacher and answer the questions well. The data from the interview has revealed
that the pupils can answer confidently. They were also seen answering correctly.
This supports the questionnaire data when 50% of the participants have agreed
to be able to answer correctly. Thus, this proves the effectiveness of Mandala
Colouring Therapy in increasing Year 3 pupils’ focus during initial lesson of the
For the fourth statement, 75% have strongly agreed that they can complete
tasks based on teacher’s instruction. 15% have agreed. In order to meet the
learning objectives, the pupils should be able to complete the tasks given. This
could only be possibly done if the pupils have focused on the teacher’s instruc-
tion. As Maria (2012) stated that it can be concluded that the application of vis-
ual assist to draw students’ attention, raise and ease understanding of the second
language and to gain their motivation. Toozhy (2016) also has stated that Man-
dalas, especially their mid points, are utilized for meditation for a better atten-
tion and focus. Through this research, the implementation of visuals in the form
of Mandala Coloring Therapy has definitely aided the pupils in focusing on the
teacher’s instruction as they were able to complete the tasks based on the in-
For the fifth statement, 70% have strongly agreed that they can complete tasks
without teacher’s facilitation. 10% have agreed to the statement as well. One of
the underlying principles of KSSR is learning is pupils-centred (Ministry of
Education, 2013). The active role pupils play in a teaching and learning session is
beneficial as it produces pupils with high competence. The implementation of
Mandala Colouring Therapy in this research has played a vital role in enabling
the pupils to stay focussed in the classroom which directly leads them to com-
plete the tasks given without having to wait for facilitation from the teacher.
Therefore, this is considered as one potential strategy to mitigate the negative
effects of boredom in classroom (Belton & Priyadharshini, 2007).
For the first statement, it is seen that 20 pupils with the rate of 20% have
strongly agreed and 60 pupils with the rate of 60% agreed that they actively par-
ticipate during the lesson. Active participation is very important during the
teaching and learning session. It is also highlighted in the National Education
Blueprint (NEB) in achieving one of the six key attributes, which is Knowledge
(Ministry of Education, 2013). This is also supported by Susan (2018). She has
stated that providing opportunities for them to colour helps with that and the
noise level is generally pretty quiet even though they are talking with their
For the second statement, 27% have strongly agreed and 59% agreed to the
statement. An active question and answering session are important as it indi-
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10.4236/ce.2020.114043 587 Creative Education
rectly supports the implementation of pupils-centered learning, which is a key
principle of our education policy (Ministry of Education, 2013). Answering
questions given by the teacher also determines whether the pupils have been fo-
cusing on the lesson. For the third statement, we could see that 55% have
strongly agreed to the statement. 30 pupils with the rate of 30% have agreed to
the statement. If pupils are interested in a lesson, they will look forward to at-
tend the class. Previously, the pupils were seen bored. However, with the help of
Mandala Colouring Therapy, pupils now look forward to the lesson as they are
interested in learning session. This has also increased their extrinsic motivation
to learn, which leads to extra focus on the subject key taught. Mulvahil (2018)
stated that extrinsic motivation is extremely beneficial, particularly in situations
where pupils need to complete a task that they find unpleasant.
For the fourth statement, 60% have strongly agreed to the statement and 25%
have agreed to the statement. Enjoying a lesson is an important impact of an ef-
fective teaching and learning session. This could be possibly done if the pupils
stay focused in the classroom and avoided boredom. Pekrun et al. (2011) found
that boredom was negatively related to motivation to learn, processing of infor-
mation, and memory. Thus, a stimulus that triggers the brain is important to be
integrated, which is colour. According to Wellesley College (2013), colour is one
of the important stimuli to our brain. Pupils can learn better when they have in-
troduced to colour. This stimulus triggers thinking process which requires them
to focus in the classroom and enables the pupils to learn better.
For the fifth statement, we could see that 15% have strongly agreed to the
statement and 70 pupils with the rate of 70% have agreed to the statement. Ma-
jority of the pupils agreed that they were not only able to finish their tasks, but,
at thue same time, they can also guide their friends to finish off their tasks as
well. It is affirmed that; the pupils will only learn or help their friends in that
specific subject if they have interest on it. Kishore (2003) said “visual aids stimu-
lated thinking and cognize”. This implies that the visuals aid the pupils in in-
creasing their interest. This is supported by Harackiewicz (2016). They have
stated that interest is often thought of as a process that contributes to learning
and achievement. That is, being interested in a topic is a mental resource that
enhances learning, which then leads to better performance and achievement.
In short, it can be said that the Mandala Colouring Therapy is effective in
helping the participants to be interested and stay focused during the initial les-
son of the day. Webb (2017) stated that if you were looking for evidence of
learning in any classroom, you would likely start by looking for general observa-
tions of gains in knowledge, understanding, skills and attitudes. In the class-
room, it can be seen through how the pupils finish up the tasks, how they behave
and on how long do they take to complete the tasks given by the teacher. Com-
pared to the previous lesson, now, the pupils are paying attention and focussing
during the initial lesson. The pupils were seen motivated and interested during
the initial lesson. Hence, it was proven that the Mandala Colouring Therapy is
effective in increasing Year 3 pupils’ focus during the initial lesson of the day.
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What is the teacher’s perception on Mandala Colouring Therapy in in-
creasing Year 3 pupils’ focus during the initial lesson of the day?
This interview was administered to all 20 participants. All of the participants
have been teaching initial lessons for the Year 3 pupils, encountered disruptive
behaviour and could not achieve the teaching objectives. The answers for the
open-ended questions were divided into Section A, Section B and three parts
which answers the three themes: 1) Answering Questions, 2) Task Completion,
and 3) Behavioural changes.
For Section A, most of the participants were expressing that the pupils had is-
sues during the initial lesson of the day. Geschler (2012) stated that the concept
of attention span is of utmost importance in the classroom, where a failure to
focus can have disastrous results. Therefore, the pupils have to stay focused and
pay attention during the lesson so that they can catch up with the classroom
progress and not being left out. However, the participants have agreed that they
encountered few issues when it comes to the lesson during the initial lesson of
the day. The issues were playing around, talking and disturbing their friends,
sleeping and not listening to the teachers’ instruction. As a whole, these can be
classified as the disruptive behaviours. The disruptive behaviour expressed by
the teachers can affect the pupils’ focus and have a great negative impact on
learning achievement in their classroom activities and exams. This disruptive
behaviour has definitely been a great challenge for the teachers as they have to
come up with an intervention that could be effective in making the pupils stay
focussed in the classroom. This is supported by Douglas (2016), were it has been
stated that disruptive behaviour by pupils is a problem that should be challenged
and managed effectively from the beginning of a pupils’ study.
The participants were expressing the reasons for the issues to happen in the
classroom. The participants have agreed to few main reasons for the issues to
happen during the initial lesson of the day. The teachers have pointed out few
reasons for the issues to present in the classroom. One of the issues is lack of in-
terest in the lesson. When there’s no interest, it automatically causes disruptive
behaviour and lack of focus. Geschler (2012) stated that the ability of a pupil to
focus during class is partially a result of the pupils’s interest. Besides, lack of mo-
tivation also caused this issue. Saaed & Zyngier (2012) have stated that motiva-
tion is seen as a pre-requisite of and a necessary element for pupils’ engagement
in learning. So, motivation is also an important factor in the learning session as
it enables the pupils to actively engage in the lesson. Pupils’ involvement in
learning should not be let unnoticed because then it will affect pupils from
achieving sound academic outcomes. These were the reasons why the pupils
were lack of focus in the classroom activities.
For the first question of Section B, most of the participants answered yes.
They could see positive changes among the pupils during the initial lesson of the
day after implementing the Mandala Colouring Therapy. Some of them stated
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that the pupils can remember better the topics taught during the initial lesson
and it results in positive academic achievements. The Mandala Colouring Ther-
apy did help the pupils to act positively during the lesson. According to Spence
et al. (2006), if colour can increase arousal, and arousal can increase memory,
then it is possible to assume that we could find that colour can increase memory.
Hence, if the pupils could get better during colouring, then they can focus ad
remember the input that they received during the lesson, which subsequently
results in the positive academic achievement and in teaching and learning ses-
sion objective achievement.
The first theme derived from the participant’s response was answering ques-
tions. This theme refers to the willingness of the pupils to answer questions con-
fidently. Pupils should be able to answer questions correctly in order to convince
the teachers that they have paid full attention during the classroom. Hakala
(2015) stated that deep processing, resulting from engaged pupils, leads to better
learning. Hence, when the pupils could answer questions, given by the teacher
correctly, it can be evident that the pupils were paying attention to the lesson.
Answering questions asked by the teacher is indeed a positive change that can
be easily noticed by the teacher. It shows that the pupils were paying attention
during the lesson. McClure (2010) stated that pupils perceive their role in learn-
ing is to listen for shared knowledge by their instructor and then memorize and
present those answers to assess their understandings. From the excerpts above, it
can be seen that the pupils did listen to the teacher to answer questions that will
be asked in the class. This was only possible with the implementation of Manda-
la Colouring Therapy which increased pupils’ focus during the initial lesson of
the day.
The second theme derived from the participants’ interview response was task
completion. Task completion refers on how the pupils could complete the tasks
given by the teacher correctly without having to be assisted by the teacher. The
pupils also were able to complete the task in specific time given. Most of the
tasks given by the teacher were answered correctly by the pupils. It is important
to get good answers rather than just getting tasks done in the specific time given.
Being able to complete the task given by the teacher is one of the positive indica-
tions showed by the pupils that they understand the lesson taught by the teacher.
Gunn (2017) stated that when a pupil can explain their learning and the why of
it, that’s a total win. Hence, if the pupils were able to complete the task and ex-
plain their answer, it can be concluded that the pupils clearly understood the
lesson as they were focusing on the lesson. Hence, this proves the effectiveness of
Mandala Colouring Therapy in increasing Year 3 pupils’ focus during the initial
lesson of the day.
The third theme derived from the participants’ interview response was behav-
ioural changes. Change of behaviour can easily be noticed if a pupil pays atten-
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tion and motivated to learn during a lesson. Teachers should play a vital role in
noticing negative behaviour in the classroom that indicates whether the pupils
engaged or not in a classroom. Udin (2013) stated that educator should select
effective teaching and learning approach to instil sustainability on pupils’
knowledge and behavioural changes in practicing sustainable lifestyles. Positive
behavioural changes that have been noticed by the teacher show that pupils are
paying attention and motivated during the lesson. Positive behaviour in a class-
room promotes better learning. Weber et al. (2016) suggested school-related
positive affect as a mediator between certain affect-favoring character strengths
(zest, perseverance, love of learning, social intelligence), positive school func-
tioning, and school achievement. Hence, if the pupils promote good behaviour,
it can result in good academic achievement. If the pupils are paying attention
and motivated to learn, it will help the pupils to understand the lesson better as
well as improves their academic achievement.
Besides focus and interest, answering questions, task completion and behav-
ioural changes were also the other contributing impacts of the effectiveness of
Mandala Colouring Therapy in increasing the Year 3 pupils’ focus during initial
lesson of the day. Thus, this section identified the contributing positive impacts
which answer the research question and that it is important to be considered by
the Ministry of Education in curbing this problem.
5. Implication
Malaysian Education system aimed to produce pupils who are developed holis-
tically and acquire all skills to be globally competent. This is in line with the Na-
tional Education Philosophy and the New Education Blueprint (2013-2025). In
order to be globally competitive, one has to master the academics and the other
skills. The achievement in academics is relied on the teaching and learning
process. However, the success rate of a teaching and learning process largely de-
pends on the focus level of the pupils. In order to have a better academic
achievement, the learners need to stay focused and actively participate during
the lesson in the classroom.
The Ministry of Education has taken up numerous measures in ensuring the
smooth progress of teaching and learning process. However, there were many
issues raised in the primary classroom involving disruptive behavior, lack of fo-
cus, interest and motivation during the lesson. These happened extremely dur-
ing initial lessons. Hence, this research was embarked to identify the possible
method to overcome the issues faced by the learners which affect the daily
teaching and learning session. The findings of the research will greatly benefit
the learners as the learners now will be able to utilize much impactful method,
Mandala Colouring Therapy to help them stay interested and focused during the
In addition, this research has also identified learner factors that contributed to
the lack of focus issue. They were namely, lack of interest, motivation and dis-
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ruptive behaviour. These are considered to be a challenge during teaching and
learning session. This is important in making the pupils to understand their role
in achieving the learning objective. Even though, the participants of this study
are still lower standard pupils, yet, they still need to be explained on the impor-
tance of playing an active role in achieving the learning objectives and how this
in turn will be helpful for them in the future. Through this research, the pupils
will be greatly benefitted as they will be able to avoid any issues, with the help of
Mandala Clouring Therapy that prevents them from having a smooth learning
New Education Blueprint (2013) expects the teachers to produce pupils who
are proficient and globally competitive. It has also been implementing new plans
and programs, with teachers being the implementers, hoping that the percentage
of minimum score achievers will be increased. To a noteworthy extent, teachers’
role in realizing the Ministry’s goals is huge.
Hence, this research was a great benefit for the teachers in terms of classroom
management. Classroom management has always been a hot topic to be dis-
cussed among the teachers. Each and every one will be facing different struggles
in terms of classroom management. The teachers now do not have to waste their
time to make the class under control before beginning the initial lesson of the
day. The teachers can have better classroom management with the aid of Man-
dala Colouring Therapy. The teacher could calmly deliver the lesson without any
interruption that could affect the teaching and learning process. This also can
help in achieving the teaching and learning session’s objective.
Besides, this research has also made positive changes in the learners in terms
of behavior. It is well known that the “Bimbingan dan Kaunseling” unit in
school will be planning programs every year to shape pupils’ character. This
would cost a whopping amount. However, through this research, an effective
method is proven to positively change the behavior of the pupils and it is
cost-effective. Similarly, the core subjects’ panels will be planning programs to
improve the learning achievement of the pupils. Since this research has im-
proved the behavior and the learning achievement of the learners, this will be a
great benefit for the teachers, as they can implement a cost-effective method to
witness a fruitful impact.
One of the most important education stakeholders is the Ministry of Educa-
tion. The ministry has always been coming up with plans and programs to be
implemented in the local classrooms in bringing up the positive outcome. How-
ever, whenever a plan fails, the teachers are to be blamed. Hence, this research
acts as an eye opener for the Ministry of Education that there are other factors to
be considered when a plan fails. This is because, this research has identified
learner factors which contribute to the failure of a teaching and learning session,
which was mainly caused by lack of focus, motivation, interest and disruptive
Secondly, by implementing this therapy, the pupils will be more focused and
motivated to learn which results in achieving the intended goals of the Ministry.
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Indirectly, it helps the pupils to achieve the six key attributes which has been laid
out in the Malaysia Education Blueprint, especially Knowledge. This has also
paved way for Ministry of Education in realizing the National Educational Phi-
losophy’s goal which is to produce holistic, competent and sensible citizens.
Through this research, the Ministry of Education will also be aware of the
importance of Mandala Colouring Therapy and will be convinced to support the
integration of arts in school. Producing a holistic individual is not always about
excellent academic achievement, but balanced physical and mental health. As
Mandala Colouring Therapy, a form of art, is proven to be reducing stress, dis-
ruptive behaviours and increase positive outcomes, it is necessary for the Minis-
try of Education to emphasize the importance of integrating art education.
6. Recommendation
The following are some suggestions that researchers might want to consider for
future research. First, this study can be explored further by focusing on the core
subjects of national schools. Core subjects are being tested in Ujian Pencapaian
Sekolah Rendah (UPSR) at national level and its achievement is important for
the learners for their secondary schooling. Hence, for future research, this re-
search can be focused on the effectiveness of Mandala Colouring Therapy for
Bahasa Malaysia, Bahasa Inggeris, Mathematics and Science subjects and in en-
hancing pupils’ achievement. It could have a great impact on the pupils’
achievement in PPSR as it can be so effective for Year 3 pupils.
Secondly, for further research, multiple researches can be carried out to com-
pare the outcomes of the findings. For example, this Mandala Colouring Ther-
apy can be implemented in vernacular schools as this research only focused in
national schools. Vernacular schools in Malaysia are Chinese schools and Tamil
schools. Apart from that, this could also be carried out in homogenous schools.
Since this research was only focused for Year 3 pupils of national schools, the
results could not be generalized. Hence, by conducting this research in vernacu-
lar schools as well, the validity of effectiveness can be tested in greater details and
in larger scale.
Following that, this research could also be conducted during the last lesson of
the day to compare the outcomes. It is a known fact that, classroom usually will
be out of control during the initial and last lesson period of the day. This re-
search can be further explored by implementing it during the end of the day
subjects. In this way, the effectiveness of Mandala Colouring Therapy can be
tested in a more detailed manner.
Finally, this study could also be expanded on areas of suggestions for im-
provisation. This research has only focused in increasing the focus using Man-
dala Colouring Therapy where it has explored the contributing learner factors
regarding the issue. However, it has not explored the teacher factors which cause
the issues in the classroom. This will enable the teachers to reflect of their in-
structional practices and improve them.
R. Shankar, R. Amir
10.4236/ce.2020.114043 593 Creative Education
7. Conclusion
This research was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of the Mandala
Colouring Therapy in increasing Year 3 pupils’ focus during the initial lesson of
the day. The findings of the study indicated that Mandala Colouring Therapy
has increased Year 3 pupils’ focus and interest. The teachers too shared the other
positive impacts they identified while implementing.
Mandala Colouring Therapy benefits were the low average pupils that can
answer questions, complete tasks and have positive and a non-disruptive behav-
iour. Mandala Colouring Therapy had also benefitted the teachers in terms of
classroom management, where no disruptive behaviour was evident and in
terms of achieving teaching and learning objectives through task completion and
answering questions during lesson. These could be clearly seen based on the data
collected through questionnaire and interview protocol.
In this revolutionized world, the success of an individual largely depends on
the academic achievement, behaviour and skills. This could only be achieved
through full attention during the lesson. Therefore, it is important to integrate
this Mandala Colouring Therapy as it has assured a fruitful impact and benefit-
ted education stakeholders by enabling pupils to be focussed on the lesson.
Conflicts of Interest
The authors declare no conflicts of interest regarding the publication of this pa-
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