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The impact of COVID-19 on consumers: Preparing for digital sales

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Abstract

COVID-19 has affected everyone's daily lives. At least 316 million people in 42 states have been asked to stay at home to slow down the pandemic. In this aspect, businesses have been susceptible to make substantial transformations. Workplace operations of many businesses went virtual. The effect of the digital transformation on productivity and corporate culture has been studied extensively. Meanwhile, how COVID-19 has influenced consumers, and the consumption culture has received relatively limited attention. Managers often take a wait-and-see approach on the impact of COVID-19 on sales. It is often uncertain whether and how many customers will return after the pandemic passes. Consumers live through the pandemic, and some changes might be long-lasting even after the situation eases. We examine the pandemic as an accelerator of the structural change in consumption and the digital transformation in the marketplace. Managers might adapt to the digital transformation in the market to recover or even grow further the sales after COVID-19.

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... Örneğin; otomobil endüstrisi salgın tarafından farklı bir şekilde etkilenen sektörlerdendir. Bu süreçte Carvana, CarMax ve Copart da dahil olmak üzere çevrimiçi araba satış hizmetlerinin stok değerleri artmış; özellikle Carvana'nın hisseleri pandemini ilan edildiği tarihten bu yana iki katına çıkmıştır (Kim, 2020). Carvana'nın stratejisi ise arabaları garaj yolunda boşaltacakları, direksiyon simidini ve anahtarları dezenfekte edecekleri ve ardından evrak işlerini yolcu koltuğuna bırakacakları "temassız" araç teslimat sistemidir (Gorzelany, 2020). ...
... Böylelikle pandemi sadece işgücünü değil tüketicileri de dijital dönüşüme sevk etmiştir. E-ticarette satışlar, fiziksel mağazadaki satışlara göre beş kat daha hızlı artmış olsa da 2019'da perakende satışların yaklaşık %90'ı fiziksel mağazalarda gerçekleşmiştir (Kim, 2020). Çevrimiçi satışların artması beklense de işletmelerin, sanal iş operasyonlarının yanı sıra dijital satışı daha etkili hale getirmek için kaynaklara yatırım yapması gerekebilir. ...
... Markalar bu hızlı gelişen tüketici kültürüne uyum sağlayabilir ve dijital satış mekanizmasını yenileyebilir. Markaların tüketicilerin dijital adaptasyonuna nasıl tepki verebilecekleri ve dijital çağda satış için bazı geçişler yapabilecekleri konusunda hala daha varsayımlar ve öneriler sunulmaktadır (Kim, 2020). Bu sebeple bir sonraki bölümde yeni normal ve pandemi sonrasında bu stratejilerin sürekliliğinden bahsedilecektir. ...
Article
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Z İlk defa Çin'in Wuhan kentinde ortaya çıkan COVID-19 pandemisi hızlı bir şekilde bütün dünyaya yayılmış ve Dünya Sağlık Örgütü tarafından pandemi ilanı yapılmıştır. Bu dönemde zorunlu karantinalar, evden çalışma, çoğu işletmenin fiziksel olarak kapanması birçok hususta dönüşüm ve değişim yarattığı gibi tüketici davranışlarında da etkisini göstermiştir. Tüketici davranışlarının farklı ürün ya da alışveriş tarzlarına yönelmesi markaların da değişen tüketici yapısına uygun pazarlama stratejilerinin geliştirmesinde itici güç olmuştur. Bu dönemde en bariz değişiklik çoğu alışverişin çevrimiçi ortama taşınmasıdır. Daha önce çevrimiçi ortamla tanışmamış markalar artık stratejilerini bu ortama uygun hale getirmiştir. Ayrıca daha önce çevrim içi alışveriş deneyimlememiş müşterilerin de zorunluluktan bu kanalı tercih etmesi markaları bu müşteri tipinin sürekliliğini sağlayacak stratejilere yöneltmiştir. Bu stratejilerin özünün incelendiği bu çalışmada yeni normal ve pandemi sonrası olarak nitelendirilen süreçte değişen marka stratejilerinin sürekliliği hakkında tespitler de bulunulmuştur. A B S T R A C T The COVID-19 pandemic, which first appeared in Wuhan, China, spread rapidly all over the world and a pandemic was declared by the World Health Organization. During this period, compulsory quarantines, working from home, and the physical closure of most businesses created transformation and change in many aspects, and also had an impact on consumer behaviour. The orientation of consumer behaviour to different product or shopping styles has been a driving force for brands to develop marketing strategies suitable for the changing consumer structure. The most obvious change during this period is that most purchases have moved online. Brands that have not met the online environment before having adapted their strategies to this environment. In addition, the fact that customers who have not experienced online shopping before preferring this channel out of necessity, leading brands to strategies as certain the continuity of this kind of customer. In this study, in which the essence of these strategies is examined, determinations have been made about the continuity of changing brand strategies in the process described as new normal and post-pandemic.
... Online shopping provides more convenience in terms of time and location of the store; however some consumers prefer their purchases from physical stores because in online shopping product information is limited and often limited to a few pictures or descriptions by them sellers. To face this challenge, Carvana consumers can view the car and interior virtually with patented 360 photo technology (Kim, 2020), while Amazon offers virtual clothes fitting experience by utilizing augmented reality (AR) technology. In general, virtual reality (VR) and AR techs are expected to open new opportunities for personalized shopping experiences online (Kim, 2020). ...
... To face this challenge, Carvana consumers can view the car and interior virtually with patented 360 photo technology (Kim, 2020), while Amazon offers virtual clothes fitting experience by utilizing augmented reality (AR) technology. In general, virtual reality (VR) and AR techs are expected to open new opportunities for personalized shopping experiences online (Kim, 2020). ...
... In large scale pandemics, effects are felt in wider areas and in the wider economy for two reasons, either because infection is widespread or because it has affected trade and the market as a whole Pandemics, although considered unlikely before COVID-19 broke out, are taken into account to be one of the major threats to business (Kim, 2020). With the pandemic, people suffered not only health problems but also significant job loss and loneliness (Sharma, 2020). ...
Conference Paper
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The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of Covid-19 on consumer behavior in their online markets and how digital marketing influences their markets and decisions. In this sense, it highlights the problems and changes derived from the pandemic, both in consumer behavior and in society at large. In addition, the study addresses the contribution of technology to daily transactions and communication. For this scope, an empirical research was conducted through a structured questionnaire contacted to 328 consumers. One of the main findings was that the key features of a site in order to attract more potential customers are the photos that represent exactly the product. Furthermore, VR/3D environment in searching and purchasing process can become helpful for consumers. This research aims to provides some useful insights regarding updated consumers preferences in the era of Covid-19, that could indirectly help businesses to sufficiently redesign their digital marketing plans towards meeting consumers' expectations.
... The use of both mature ICT (Belvedere et al., 2013;Kowalkowski et al., 2013) and the newest Industry 4.0 data-processing technologies (Frank et al., 2019) offers firms opportunities to develop new services. For example, in the case of ICT, the increased use of web-based technologies (e.g., website, social media, and e-commerce) during the pandemic has positively affected the firm-customer interactions and collaborations and the firms' service innovation (Zhang & Zhu, 2021), increasing favorably the firms' sales through the offering of value-added services to overcome the limitations of the traditional brick-and-mortar retail channels (Kim, 2020). Moreover, CRM solutions may favor after-sales services (Kotler et al., 2017) and may help firms develop individual-level marketing efforts (Rust & Verhoef, 2005). ...
... Specifically, we assessed the increased use of two main groups of technologies. The first group of technologies consisted of the more mature digital technologies (ICT), such as websites, social media, e-commerce, and CRM, which firms use to interact with customers and/or manage their relationships with them (Kumar & Pandey, 2018;Kim, 2020). The second group of technologies consisted of Industry 4.0 data-processing technologies as follows: big data, cloud, IoT, and AI (Bettiol et al., 2021a;Culot et al., 2020). ...
... This latter aspect could be the real strategic element of ICT because of the key value of the customer-centric approach that emerged from the pandemic. The COVID-19 pandemic has forced people to spend more time on the Internet and increase their use of digital channels to interact with companies (Baig et al., 2020); therefore, companies should be ready to exploit the rise of digital channels (Kim, 2020) and the benefits of the company's increased interactions with its customers, such as in the form of collaborative relationships with them, in terms of innovation (Patrucco et al., 2021). In addition, recent advances in ICT and database marketing could facilitate customer-centric processes, allowing effective management of increased interactions with customers and information collected (Kumar & Ayedee, 2018;Rust et al., 2010). ...
Article
The fast-changing scenario related to the COVID-19 pandemic calls for firms to rapidly redefine and innovate their strategies to sustain their businesses, with research emphasizing the key roles of digital technologies and servitization. We aim to enrich the theoretical debate on this matter by assessing how small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) achieve product innovation under time constraints by leveraging two specific technology groups (information and communication technologies [ICT] and Industry 4.0 data-processing technologies) and servitization. The research is based on a mixed-method approach consisting of an original survey completed by 257 Italian SMEs (grounded on a previous qualitative study about such SMEs' behaviors during the first Italian lockdown), followed by in-depth interviews with the owners and/or managers of the eight SMEs that participated in the survey. The results show a positive relationship between the increased use of digital technologies (ICT and Industry 4.0 data-processing technologies) during the pandemic with servitization and, in turn, with product innovation. Specifically, the increased use of ICT during the pandemic had a direct positive effect on product innovation, while Industry 4.0 data-processing technologies affected product innovation only through the full mediation of servitization. The qualitative study allowed us to highlight how the different kinds of digital technologies supported SMEs’ innovation (servitization and product innovation) during the pandemic. The theoretical and practical contributions of this study are discussed.
... The disruptions have further led to the collapse and bankruptcy of several businesses during the pandemic-struck period (Papadopoulos et al., 2020;Winarsih et al. 2020). However, to mitigate the devastating impacts of COVID-19, most businesses shifted their operations online and digitized as much as they can in the aim to grant teleworking accessibility for their workforce (Kim, 2020). Digital transformation generally aims to increase revenues, improve and streamline operations, and enhance customer intimacy. ...
... Companies such as Amazon are way far in digitalizing their operations since they can ship to any part of the globe without a problem. According to Kim(2020), the COVID-19 crisis has forced such companies to fully digitize their operations to enable them to profit since government policies required them to observe social distancing and other requirements. Winarsih et al.(2020) argue that integration was only possible if the company had the resources to develop a platform for its employees to work on their projects at home. ...
Conference Paper
The outbreak of COVID-19 caused an unprecedented crisis on a global scale. To overcome this situation companies had to accelerate their digital transformation with the adoption of teleworking tools and agile methods. They have started to prepare their recovery for the post-COVID-19 and how to sustain this transformation. The challenge arising is to answer (1) how to reconcile performance and sustainable development and (2) whether we can achieve sustainable digital transformations. This thesis uses qualitative and quantitative methods: The qualitative will bring sharp insights from 13 experts and relate facts and experiences. The quantitative analysis from 120 respondent comes to support or deny statements from experts’ interviews with figures and numbers. The study concludes that COVID-19 impacted all businesses regardless of size and that the impact was proportional to the level of digitalization. It has also accelerated digital transformation which contributed to make businesses more sustainable.
... In such a crisis, family businesses have faced new challenges, depending on the social backgrounds and cognitive capability of the decision makers/owners of the firms (Mazzelli et al., 2020). In this scenario, family businesses need to adopt suitable business models to address the changed consumption patterns and behaviors (Kraus et al., 2020;Kim, 2020;Zwanka and Buff, 2020). Given their ubiquity in the business environment, family firms play significant roles in the economy, as wealth creators, employers and innovators. ...
... Due to the abrupt global crisis caused by the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic, family firms have experienced new challenges, and they have had to rely on their decision makers' cognitive thinking (Mazzelli et al., 2020). The crisis that emerged has drastically changed the patterns of consumer buying behavior (Kim, 2020;Zwanka and Buff, 2020). The new apocalyptic environment necessitated family businesses to change and adjust their business models by adopting, developing and implementing new technology (Kumar et al., 2020;Rust, 2020;Vla ci c et al., 2021). ...
Article
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This study assesses the capability of artificial intelligence integrated customer relationship management (AI-CRM) technology for sustaining family businesses in times of crisis, such as the COVID-19 pandemic. The study also investigates the moderating role of strategic intent in sustaining family businesses in times of crisis. We used dynamic capability view (DCV) theory and related literature on family business and technology adoption to develop a conceptual model. This model has been validated using the structural equation modeling technique considering 332 usable responses from people of India involved in family businesses and technology adoption. The study also uses multigroup analysis (MGA) to examine the moderating role of strategic intent. The study finds that adoption of AI-CRM technology significantly and positively impacts dynamic capabilities of the family businesses, such as sensing, seizing, and transforming capabilities, which in turn positively and significantly influences their sustainability during crises. The study also highlights the significant moderating impact of strategic intent for sustaining family business firms in uncertain times. This study is unique in that it investigates the influence of AI-CRM technology and the moderating role of strategic intent on family business sustainability in times of crisis.
... Sektör raporları ve tüketici anketleri, pandeminin krizden önce gözlemlenen bir e-ticaret eğilimini hızlandırdığını göstermektedir (Kim, 2020). Pandemi korkusu, tüketicilerin e-ticaret platformlarının ekonomik ve çevresel faydalarına ilişkin algılarını önemli ölçüde etkilemiştir (Tran, 2021). ...
... Pandemi korkusu, tüketicilerin e-ticaret platformlarının ekonomik ve çevresel faydalarına ilişkin algılarını önemli ölçüde etkilemiştir (Tran, 2021). Bazı araştırmacılar, pazarın dijitalleşmesinin ve pandemi sırasında öğrenilen alışkanlıkların, bireylerin pandemi sona erdikten sonra da değiştirilmiş davranışlarını sürdürdüğü için tüketimde yapısal değişiklikler getirebileceğini tahmin etmektedirler (Kim, 2020). ...
... Cluster 1, which is aimed at red nodes, has the highest co-occurrence in marketing and digital marketing with a co-occurrence value of 11. Referring to Kim's (2020) research Scopus data which has been cited 23 times, it finds a decrease in spending on purchases of electronic goods by up to 60%. Consumers prefer to buy foodstuffs and household appliances. ...
... The next keyword that has the most value is the word COVID-19 in cluster 5. The keywords in cluster 4 and cluster 5 refer to research (Kirk & Rifkin 2020;Kim 2020). The word association in cluster 4 means the article discusses Coronavirus disease 2019, which is an epidemic and requires people to carry out social distancing in various parts of the world. ...
... Grashuis et al. (2020) found that consumer expenditures on groceries during the pandemic increased, and consumers were less willing to shop inside a store when COVID-19 was spreading at an increasing rate. Kim (2020) suggested that the success of online grocery delivery apps shows that consumers are willing to purchase groceries online if post-purchase customer service is ensured (Kim, 2020). Baarsma and Groenewegen (2021) studied the effect of the pandemic on demand for online grocery shopping in the Netherlands. ...
... Grashuis et al. (2020) found that consumer expenditures on groceries during the pandemic increased, and consumers were less willing to shop inside a store when COVID-19 was spreading at an increasing rate. Kim (2020) suggested that the success of online grocery delivery apps shows that consumers are willing to purchase groceries online if post-purchase customer service is ensured (Kim, 2020). Baarsma and Groenewegen (2021) studied the effect of the pandemic on demand for online grocery shopping in the Netherlands. ...
Article
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The COVID‐19 pandemic altered daily activities. Many consumers reverted to on‐line grocery shopping and home delivery. We analyze factors associated with the decision to grocery shop on‐line and whether this will persist post‐COVID using data collected via a representative on‐line Qualtrics panel in the State of New Jersey (N = 1419). Around half of respondents either decreased in‐person shopping, increased online shopping, or pursued a combination of both. We used factor analysis to decompose attitudes towards the pandemic, finding that attitudinal responses broke down into “fearful”, “believers”, and “deniers”. Binomial regressions were used to analyze patterns of frequency of grocery shopping during the pandemic and changes in behavior during the pandemic. Results suggest that age, gender, ethnicity, educational attainment, having children at home, and attitudes towards COVID‐19 are likely to influence frequency of online and in‐person grocery shopping. Specifically, being 50 years or older is negatively associated with online grocery shopping. Those who deny COVID‐19 were less likely to decrease in person grocery shopping. People who had children at home, who had advanced degrees, or who were of Hispanic origin were more likely to increase online shopping and decrease in person shopping during the pandemic. While our results suggest that in person grocery shopping will return to pre‐pandemic levels, we found that respondents report some increased persistence in online grocery shopping, post‐COVID.
... In the study by Kim (2020), it is seen that consumers tend to act according to the urgency effect during the pandemic period. It has been stated that the habits of the consumers may change with the pandemic, and these changes may continue for a long time even after the pandemic has ended. ...
... It has been stated that the habits of the consumers may change with the pandemic, and these changes may continue for a long time even after the pandemic has ended. Kim (2020) also stated in his study that the pandemic has an accelerating effect on digital transformation (online education, working at home, etc.) (Kim, 2020). Baker et al., (2020) used financial data to examine the impact of the pandemic on the shopping habits of American households. ...
... The simultaneous existence of these features makes the COVID-19 shock distinct from the shocks mentioned in previous studies focusing on e-commerce's contribution to brick-and-mortar businesses' resilience. The sudden onset of the massive outbreak, as a result of the high infectivity of the coronavirus, implies that there was no predesigned plan for consumers and EC platforms to adjust to the pandemic [39]. This situation differs from that of predictable shocks, such as traffic jams or weather events (e.g., [33]). ...
Article
Full-text available
We proposed a research model that examined the differences between the contributions of large, third-party e-commerce platforms and self-operated e-commerce platforms to businesses’ resilience to the COVID-19 shock. The difference-in-differences approach was employed to analyze a substantial sample of Chinese retailers. The study found that (1) under the baseline condition, the large, third-party e-commerce platforms built significant resilience for the brick-and-mortar businesses, (2) resource constraints induced by factor immobility weakened the contribution of large, third-party e-commerce platforms to the businesses’ resilience in regions of severe shock, and (3) the physical retailers’ self-operated EC platforms built resilience in regions of severe shock.
... One of the significant changes in consumer behavior is that many consumers have previously hesitated since the pandemic began to turn to or intensify online shopping because of health or safety/self-protection concerns (Standish & Bossi, 2020). According to Kim (2020), the Covid-19 pandemic has prompted 'late adopters' to switch to online shopping for the first time. Some consumers do online shopping mainly because of tight lockdown periods. ...
Article
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Purpose: The Covid-19 pandemic has triggered several herd purchase behaviors, and online shopping has been considered a health-related preventative behavior. This study aims to the relative impact of health threat beliefs concerning Covid-19 (perceived susceptibility and perceived severity) and herd mentality on consumers' online shopping post-adoption disconfirmation and continuance intention of online shopping. Research design, data and methodology: An internet survey was conducted with Vietnamese consumers, and upon screening, usable data of 292 responses were analyzed using PLS-SEM. Results showed that while herd mentality positively affects disconfirmation, health threat beliefs including perceived susceptibility and perceived severity of Covid-19 do not. Results: Results also provided further support for the notion that disconfirmation is a crucial determinant of post-adoption continuance intention. Moreover, herd mentality also has a significantly negative influence on online shopping post-adoption continuance intention. Conclusions: The research provides evidence supporting the role of herd mentality and post-adoption disconfirmation in driving consumers' intention to continue online shopping. However, the research shows that neither the perceived susceptibility of Covid-19 nor the perceived severity of Covid-19 has significant impact on post-adoption disconfirmation, adding mixed evidence to the application of health belief theory in technology (such as online shopping) adoption.
... In the past couple of years, the world has been somehow on hold due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Due to this, remote tech usage reached a climax in all areas, including, education [1], health care [2], working [3], and shopping [4,5]. For each, a discussion was required in order to choose the most appropriate choice, especially when it came to online shopping. ...
Article
Full-text available
During the recent COVID-19 pandemic, people were forced to stay at home to protect their own and others’ lives. As a result, remote technology is being considered more in all aspects of life. One important example of this is online reviews, where the number of reviews increased promptly in the last two years according to Statista and Rize reports. People started to depend more on these reviews as a result of the mandatory physical distance employed in all countries. With no one speaking to about products and services feedback. Reading and posting online reviews becomes an important part of discussion and decision-making, especially for individuals and organizations. However, the growth of online reviews usage also provoked an increase in spam reviews. Spam reviews can be identified as fraud, malicious and fake reviews written for the purpose of profit or publicity. A number of spam detection methods have been proposed to solve this problem. As part of this study, we outline the concepts and detection methods of spam reviews, along with their implications in the environment of online reviews. The study addresses all the spam reviews detection studies for the years 2020 and 2021. In other words, we analyze and examine all works presented during the COVID-19 situation. Then, highlight the differences between the works before and after the pandemic in terms of reviews behavior and research findings. Furthermore, nine different detection approaches have been classified in order to investigate their specific advantages, limitations, and ways to improve their performance. Additionally, a literature analysis, discussion, and future directions were also presented.
... After the outbreak of COVID-19, the role of the digital economy on economic recovery has further attracted the attention of scholars. It has been documented that COVID-19 prompted a rapid shift of consumer demand online, creating opportunities for emerging digital industries (16,17). These online services can reduce the movement of people, reduce the risk of epidemic transmission, and also contribute to stable economic growth. ...
Article
Full-text available
The digital economy is considered as an effective measure to mitigate the negative economic impact of the Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic. However, few studies evaluated the role of digital economy on the economic growth of countries along the “Belt and Road” and the impact of COVID-19 on their digital industries. This study constructed a comprehensive evaluation index system and applied a panel data regression model to empirically analyze the impact of digital economy on the economic growth of countries along the “Belt and Road” before COVID-19. Then, a Global Trade Analysis Project (GTAP) model was used to examine the impact of COVID-19 on their digital industries and trade pattern. Our results show that although there is an obvious regional imbalance in the digital economy development in countries along the “Belt and Road”, the digital economy has a significantly positive effect on their economic growth. The main impact mechanism is through promoting industrial structure upgrading, the total employment and restructuring of employment. Furthermore, COVID-19 has generally boosted the demand for the digital industries, and the impact from the demand side is much larger than that from the supply side. Specifically, the digital industries in Armenia, Israel, Latvia and Estonia have shown great growth potential during the epidemic. On the contrast, COVID-19 has brought adverse impacts to the digital industries in Ukraine, Egypt, Turkey, and the Philippines. The development strategies are proposed to bridge the “digital divide” of countries along the “Belt and Road,” and to strengthen the driving effect of the digital economy on industrial upgrading, employment and trade in the post-COVID-19 era.
... Moreover, the pandemic also contributes to industrial practices by position-ing/framing the specific operational risk in supply chain in companies' activities to be controlled and monitored on a regular basis. The impact of the virus on industry revealed a new importance or understanding of new digital business model innovation through digital transformation that should be adopted from managerial to employee level in the time after COVID [59,65,66]. From the other side, the study provides new challenges to reshape existing automotive supply chains becoming more sustainability in their business operations. ...
Article
Full-text available
The COVID-19 pandemic has exposed the vulnerability of global manufacturing companies to their supply chains and operating activities as one of the significant disruption events of the past two decades. It has demonstrated that major companies underestimate the need for sustainable and resilient operations. The pandemic has resulted in significant disruptions especially in the automotive industry. The goal of the study is to determine impact of the COVID-19 on supply chain operations in a Turkish automotive manufacturer and to develop a framework for improving operational activities to survive in the VUCA (volatility, uncertainty, complexity, and ambiguity) environment. The study identifies how the case study company has been affected by the COVID-19 outbreak and what challenges the company faced during the pandemic. A diagnostic survey and semi-structured interviews were used as data sources with qualitative and quantitative analysis. The results showed that the pandemic led to significant disruptions through various factors explained by shortage of raw materials/spare parts, availability of transportation, availability of labors, demand fluctuations, increase in sick leaves, new health and safety regulations. Findings also show the necessity to re-design resilience supply chain management by providing recovery plans (forecasting, supplier selection, simulation, monitoring) which consider different measures in different stages. In addition, the best practices were recommended for the case study by considering internal, external, and technological challenges during the COVID-19 pandemic. Some of the given targeted guidelines and improvement for the automotive company might be applicable in the industrial practices for other organizations. The article concludes with future research directions and managerial implications for successful applications.
... One main question in the literature is whether it has merely reinforced pre-existing trends or whether it has also created new consumer demand and service provisions with long-term consequences for urban logistics. One important way research has developed is through the analysis of the impacts of the pandemic on consumption, particularly on online shopping (Kim, 2020). Rates of use of business-to-consumer (B2C) e-commerce have accelerated in a widespread manner, in rural, suburban, and urban communities as well as among different demographics. ...
Article
The global COVID-19 pandemic has led to the implementation of health measures of varying degrees and scales. The lockdowns that took place in 2020, especially, have had a major impact on cities, transforming urban lifestyles, economic activities and mobility. Logistics became a priority activity. Faced with changed levels and types of consumption, freight and logistics operators in cities had to adapt, while logistics real estate developers had to face challenges related to building sites closed and regulatory and licensing processes delayed. Our main research in this paper is to characterize the way the urban freight and logistics system coped with the new situation. We focused on French cities, with Paris and the Paris metropolitan area as the main case. We implemented three surveys during and after the first lockdown in France (March–May 2020), with the views of identifying challenges while characterizing stakeholders’ response to the challenges. The three surveys took different and complementary forms, covering various categories of stakeholders: freight carriers (from small to large); third party logistics providers; on-demand delivery platforms; policy-makers; and logistics real-estate developers. We found out that operators adapted quickly and overall successfully, one major difference being between delivery operators and property developers. The first group experienced higher levels of financial and economic challenges; the second group experienced difficult relationships with administrations and regulations, while enjoying a rather high level of activity. The ability of local governments to deal with urban logistics challenges during the lockdowns was diverse and took several unexpected forms.
... The pandemic has forced businesses and workplaces to adopt virtual reality, and many businesses have successfully transited the change (Haq and Awan, 2020). Selling in the current situation has been greatly affected, which is now converting into digital selling; online grocery shopping and delivery are growing rapidly (Kim, 2020). New trends in digital marketing are identified that are leading ways to change business communication with consumers particularly in the alarming situation of COVID-19 (Vitorino et al., 2020). ...
Article
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Purpose This study relies on an integrated model to study the role of instant mobile messaging apps in the pandemic. The COVID-19 pandemic is reshaping different forms of businesses; one of them is digital marketing. Many aspects of digital marketing augmented in response to the consequences of the virus. A comparative study between Pakistan and Iraq is conducted to investigate the resistors of innovation with the mediation of intention toward actual system usage. It examines the behavioral intentions and actual behavior of individuals in response to the resistance toward innovation. Design/methodology/approach A total of 800 responses were collected through a convenient sampling method from individuals residing in Pakistan and Iraq in the first wave of COVID-19. The data was analyzed through covariance-based structural equation modeling; SPSS and Smart PLS 3.0 were used as efficient data analysis tools in the study. Findings The results inferred that individuals are faced with resistance to innovation when they adopt innovative technology. It was inferred that technology adoption is not poised through image both in Pakistan and Iraq. Intention toward actual behavior was determined to be a potential mediator, which enhances the stature of the integrated model. Originality/value The significance of this study considering practical and theoretical implications is incorporated for marketer’s policymakers and consumers, along with recommendations for future research.
... Moreover, it is suggested that the marketplace digitalization and people's online shopping habits gained during COVID-19 will remain the same and eventually might trigger structural changes to business operation and consumption patterns (Guthrie and Fosso-Wamba, 2021). This is likely as people keep their adapted purchasing behaviors once the pandemic ends (Kim, 2020;Sheth, 2020), such as those witnessed in China in 2002-2003(Clark, 2016 during the SARS pandemic. ...
... Yet it has attracted relatively little exposure to how the pandemic impacts people and the markets. Covid-19 pandemic has acted as an accelerator of the essential change in consumption and the digital transformation in the marketplace (Kim, 2020). The customer base and their assess purchases of items in tough times minimize the risk areas, redefine and push value and trust to buy products digitally (Seligman, 2020). ...
Article
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Marketing has always been about connecting with audience in the right place and at the right time. In recent years, digital marketing has transformed a lot but in past one year it transmuted extremely due to the global pandemic Covid-19. At present, digital platforms help to meet more consumers at a lower cost with a far more special attention. Digital marketing is any form of marketing that exists online. Like in every market, consumers are the drivers of the digital market competitiveness, growth and economic integration. Therefore, this research was undertaken to find out the extent of utilization of digital market by consumers and extent of satisfaction. The present research was descriptive in nature. A Questionnaire was prepared to collect data from 334 consumers who were selected randomly.The findings revealed that 53 per cent of consumers liked digital markets to purchase products and services. Results showed that the consumers using digital market for educational coaching (35.32%), books (56.28%) and cosmetics (51.40%) before lockdown. After lockdown the consumers were found using digital platforms for purchasing groceries (74.25 %), books (73.05%), online payments (71.26%) and educational coaching (70.66 %). It was observed that there was increased use of digital platforms by consumers for various products and services after lockdown period.The respondents were highly satisfied with the digital platforms because it has ease in ordering system. The element which influenced the consumer to purchase products and services from digital market was its fast and convenient delivery system (67.1%). This study will be helpful to develop and promote new sustainable strategies and acquaint consumers about such promotions activities.
... In addition, there is a significant shift in both individual and collective social behavior due to the intensive proliferation and development of social networks and the emergence of many services and applications through their platforms. Due to the continued impact of the spread of COVID-19 and the introduction of a number of restrictions that have a particular impact on the daily life and behavior of every person in the world, the digital transformation process will only gain momentum and continue to grow and develop in the future (Kim, 2020). The provision of new large-scale platforms through social media provides new opportunities and ways for the exchange and integration of information about the dynamics of diseases, the creation of new knowledge to combat the spread of disease, etc. (La et al., 2020). ...
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This research is devoted to the study of ways to solve problems that arise in extreme conditions in the implementation of crowdfunding or crowdsourcing projects. The COVID-19 pandemic is considered as a vivid example of such problems. The article considers the elimination of distrust and concerns of the participants of crowdsourcing projects and the formation of sustainable trust against the background of uncertainty and stress among donors. Various factors affect the sustainability of donor decisions to varying degrees; the unifying trend that increases donor involvement is the reducing of monotony. Further improvement of donor relations and sustainable project performance focuses on the use of a specialized donor classification system. The necessity of creating a portrait of a typical donor was revealed, the use of which will allow eliminating conflicts as a result of differences in culture. Achieving sustainability of projects requires identifying funding thresholds, methods for receiving payments in excess of this threshold, consistent communication with donors during the campaign, regular disbursements of funds, and stable publication of donation reports. To implement these actions, an analysis of activity in social networks and other social interactions is required.
... Salgın, işyeri faaliyetlerini sanallaştırmaya mecbur bırakmış olup birçok işletme bu geçiş sürecini kısa sürede gerçekleştirmeye çalışmıştır. Bununla birlikte, salgın sürecinde sanal satış platformlarının performansları üzerine yapılan araştırma sayısı oldukça sınırlı kalmıştır (Kim, 2020;Grashuis, Skevas, Segovia, 2020;Richards ve Rickard, 2020). Bu çalışmada Covid-19 salgınında insanların ürün satın alırken tercih ettikleri sanal alışveriş platformlarının salgın dönemindeki performansları ölçülmüştür. ...
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With the discovery of the internet, there have been significant changes in people's lifestyles and habits. Businesses have tended to make their sales with the internet, and people have started to meet their needs more on the internet. With Covid-19, which emerged in 2019, the internet has begun to have an even more important place in consumers' lives. Consumers have tended to meet their needs through online shopping platforms due to the fear of illness. In this context, in the study, the performance of online shopping platforms during the outbreak period is analyzed with the AHP and MAIRCA integrated model, in line with the five main criteria and their twenty-three sub-criteria. In this context, the importance weights of the criteria are highlighted with the AHP method. The MAIRCA method, on the other hand, is utilized to rank online shopping sites. The AHP results reveal that “affordable price”, “quarantine period”, and “fear of being infected” are the most crucial determinants of the performance of online shopping platforms, respectively. Further, Trendyol is highlighted as the most successful shopping site. The study can be a guide for online shopping platforms in assessing their own performances during the pandemic period. İnternetin keşfedilmesiyle birlikte insanların yaşam tarzlarında ve alışkanlıklarında önemli ölçüde değişimler meydana gelmiştir. İnternetle birlikte işletmeler satışlarını internet üzerinden yapma eğilimine girmiş ve insanlar giderek daha fazla ihtiyacını internet üzerinden karşılamaya başlamışlardır. 2019 yılında ortaya çıkan Covid-19 ile internet tüketicilerin hayatında daha da önemli bir yere sahip olmaya başlamıştır. Tüketiciler hastalık korkusuyla ihtiyaçlarını sanal alışveriş platformları üzerinden gidermeye yönelmişlerdir. Bu çerçevede bu çalışmada beş ana kriter ve bunlara ilişkin yirmi üç alt kriter doğrultusunda sanal alışveriş platformlarının salgın dönemindeki performansları AHP ve MAIRCA bütünleşik modeliyle analiz edilmiştir. Bu bağlamda AHP yöntemiyle kriterlerin önem ağırlıkları tespit edilmiştir. MAIRCA yöntemi ise sanal alışveriş sitelerinin sıralanması amacıyla kullanılmıştır AHP sonuçları sırasıyla “uygun fiyat”, “karantina süreci” ve “enfekte olma korkusu” kriterlerinin sanal alışveriş platformlarının performanslarının en önemli belirleyicileri olduğunu göstermiştir. Ayrıca Trendyol, en başarılı alışveriş sitesi olarak belirlenmiştir. Bu çalışma sanal alışveriş platformları için salgın dönemindeki kendi performans değerlendirmelerinde kullanabilecekleri bir kılavuz niteliğinde olabilir.
... Scholars indicated that the long-lasting pandemic and social distancing measures act as a catalyst promoting the formation of new habits, such as online shopping, technology usage, home delivery (Guthrie et al., 2021), and these new habits are predicted to be maintained even after the pandemic is over (Kim, 2020;Sheth, 2020). To that end, customers' unconscious habitual response has been demonstrated a crucial predictor of technology continuance intention during the pandemic in various contexts, including digital payment (Santosa et al., 2021), food delivery apps (Zanetta et al., 2021;Zhao & Bacao, 2020), e-wallet (Muchardie et al., 2021), and e-learning (Jin et al., 2021). ...
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The containment measures for the COVID-19 pandemic, including social distancing, lockdown or quarantining, have led to a paradigm shift in people's life. In the wake of the pandemic, many people have begun adopting technology as a way to maintain their daily activities and limit face-to-face human interactions. While the pandemic has facilitated the widespread use of technology, little attention has been paid to how consumers' intention to continue using technology is affected by their rational evaluation and habitual response, simultaneously. To address this knowledge gap, this study employs the expectation-confirmation model as a theoretical lens to propose the research model and explain the antecedents of technology continuance intention from both perspectives of conscious versus unconscious responses. The conscious response is reflected in perceived value and satisfaction, whereas the unconscious response is characterized as habit. The proposed research model and hypotheses are supported by the data collected from 308 online food delivery service users. Our results show that habit is driven by perceived value and satisfaction, and then mediates the effects of them on continuance intention. Moreover, habit exerts the strongest effect on continuance intention and weakens the importance of perceived value as well as satisfaction to continuance intention. This study is expected to set the theoretical foundation for more future research that focus on the exploration of the conscious versus unconscious nature of consumers' technology continuance. The study concludes with practical implications and suggestions for catering businesses and relevant stakeholders.
... The recent pandemic has accelerated the structural changes toward online stores. While at least 60% of people plan to cut their consumer electronics expenditures, the reports show a 16% surge in web traffic to online tech retailers [1]. The digital transformation puts an extra burden on digital sale platforms to apply efficient recommender systems to cope with big data challenges due to the growing number of users, their diverse consumption culture, and a wide range of offered products. ...
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The structural change toward the digital transformation of online sales elevates the importance of parallel processing techniques in recommender systems, particularly in the pandemic and post-pandemic era. Matrix factorization (MF) is a popular and scalable approach in collaborative filtering (CF) to predict user preferences in recommender systems. Researchers apply Stochastic Gradient Descent (SGD) as one of the most famous optimization techniques for MF. Paralleling SGD methods help address big data challenges due to the wide range of products and the sparsity in user ratings. However, these methods' convergence rate and accuracy are affected by the dependency between the user and item latent factors, specifically in large-scale problems. Besides, the performance is sensitive to the applied learning rates. This paper proposes a new parallel method to remove dependencies and boost speed-up by using fractional calculus to improve accuracy and convergence rate. We also apply adaptive learning rates to enhance the performance of our proposed method. The proposed method is based on Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) platform. We evaluate the performance of our proposed method using real-world data and compare the results with the close baselines. The results show that our method can obtain high accuracy and convergence rate in addition to high parallelism.
... Consumer-behaviour is a factor that involves the track record of whole journey of purchasing any product that how an item was reached, selected, purchased and what other items were viewed etc. [9]. Various factors are there that may affect this behaviour as shown in the fig 1 below. ...
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The trend of online-shopping has gradually increased and this trend is growing with a fast pace in the present scenario. As the trend of online-shopping is growing day by day, the prediction of consumer purchasing behavior and choices is becoming as a topic of curiosity for the researchers and business-organizations. It is very challenging to predict buying behaviour of clients in advance. The discovery of consumer purchase patterns in advance can be proven useful for increasing the growth of businesses and generation of revenue. This proposed research work is an effort to develop a framework that presents some useful insights and predicts consumers' shopping behaviour by applying effective machine learning techniques.The present research work studies and analyses the various aspects and dimensions of online shopping which may impact the experience of purchasing by examining the considered data-set. Further, the thorough study of different machine-learning classification algorithms was performed to be applied for developing a new and better model for analyzing the online purchase data. Some chosen algorithms were applied on the selected data-set and performance evaluation was done using the performance metrics. The algorithm that performed well in terms of accuracy and other factors were chosen for developing the new model.
... The pandemic was an accelerator of the structural change in consumption and the digital transformation in the marketplace. Managers might adapt to the digital transformation in the market to recover or even grow further the sales after COVID-19 (Kim, 2020). ...
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Learning objectives: • Understand the concepts of Talent and Talent Management. • Identify the phases associated with the Talent Management process. • Identify the Talent Management models and their relationship with the competitive strategy used by the company. • To know how the different Talent Management models can be used in knowledge intensive companies (KIF) with disruptive digital business models, and how depending on the moment of their life cycle this type of companies will use one model or another. • To know the skills and knowledge that KIF with disruptive digital business models should consider in their Talent Management processes.
... Sementara itu, penelitian terkait digitalisasi ekonomi dan pengaruhnya terhadap konsumsi juga pernah dilakukan oleh Kim (2020). Fokus kajiannya yaitu digitalisasi perekonomian selama Covid-19 dan dampaknya terhadap konsumsi di Amerika Serikat. ...
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The Covid-19 pandemic has harmed the economy in East Java. Households with the largest share of RGDP also experienced sluggish demand, which impacted the economic decline in East Java of more than eight trillion rupiahs. Economic recovery efforts through household consumption recovery are one of the strategic options to accelerate general economic recovery. Therefore, this study was conducted on RGDP data for household expenditure groups in all districts/cities in East Java during the 2016-2020 period using a panel regression analysis approach. The variables used include household consumption GRDP growth, inflation, regional poverty profile, percentage of internet users for online shopping, and the realization of social spending per capita of the poor. The findings of this study indicate that household consumption in East Java is classified as inelastic to price changes. It is due to the dominance of food consumption and controlled inflation. Meanwhile, the regional poverty profile has a negative impact on the recovery of household consumption. It shows that districts/cities with a high percentage of poor people tend to be more difficult to recover. Furthermore, the digitalization of the economy through e-commerce has not yet had a significant effect on the recovery of household consumption. It is due to the low use of the internet for online shopping among the population. The realization of social assistance per capita has a positive effect in encouraging the recovery of household consumption, although the contribution given is relatively small. It is caused by the low social assistance received compared to the loss of income experienced by the community. As a follow-up, there are four policies that the government can take to encourage the recovery of household consumption, including the sustainability of food price stabilization policies, increased penetration and digital education for MSMEs and the public, a combination of massive and comprehensive poverty alleviation policies, and synchronization of fiscal policy between government level.
... However, the infections will not stop overnight, being expected that some protective measures, such as the use of facemasks or the practice of social distancing, will remain part of everyday life in the foreseeable future, despite the gradual alleviation of restrictions. Moreover, the pandemic has strongly accelerated the digital transformation of the society, stimulating technology innovations that will persist in the post-pandemic future (Brem et al., 2021;Kim, 2020). In other words, a "new normal" is expected to replace at least some of the old habits, given the increased opportunities for remote working, learning, shopping and leisure activities, which will certainly affect the transport sector. ...
Article
The COVID-19 pandemic has changed the way how the people live, work and move, and naturally the transport sector became one of the most affected by this global crisis. Beyond the sudden fall of mobility at the beginning of the pandemic, it is important to understand how people are regaining trust in travelling, even if it is still unpredictable if and when the transport sector will recover to the pre-pandemic levels. This study focuses on the analysis of commuting trips and the changes of travel mode preferences over the first eight months of the pandemic in Germany. A survey with an orthogonal design based on sets of cards containing different transport mode alternatives and attributes was conducted in three waves (April, June, and October 2020). The individual characteristics and the preferences of around 4800 commuters were collected through the survey and modelled using a conditional logit approach. The results show that commuters have regained some trust on public transport since the April–May 2020 lockdown, but this has occurred at a slow pace. The reduction of public transport ticket fares can be the most effective strategy to recover some of the users lost to other modes.
... The digital technologies used in online commerce have made it possible to overcome the barriers imposed by the COVID-19 pandemic [69] which have accelerated digital transformations in this area [70]. Thus, firms that have intensified the digitization process adapt more easily in the context of the pandemic, whereas digitally immature firms may be vulnerable [71,72]. ...
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This study analyzes the use of e-commerce by European Union enterprises. Based on an analysis of the evolution of the percentage of enterprises that perform e-commerce and the share of total turnover obtained from e-commerce, for the period of 2003–2020, a forecast for 2025 was made. These aspects were analyzed for 2015–2020 from the perspective of the Digital Economy and Society Index (DESI), highlighting the importance of e-commerce in the economic growth of each country by analyzing the share of gross domestic product (GDP) obtained from e-commerce in GDP. For studying the evolution of the indicators, a comparative analysis of the situation of individual and aggregate EU countries was performed, highlighting the evolution trends and determining the annual average growth rate indicator, used later for the short-term forecast. For the 2025 forecast, six regression models were used for the empirical estimation of the data. The results of the analysis show that the share of companies performing e-commerce and the turnover in e-sales vary significantly depending on the size of enterprises, and the results of the forecast estimate that by 2025 there will be a significant increase in e-commerce in most European countries.
... Previous studies have found that the pandemic has profoundly reshaped food systems, and changed the way people purchase and consume their food [15][16][17][18][19]. In particular, online shopping became the first choice of many consumers during home confinement [20,21], and the demand for online food groceries increased significantly during the pandemic period [22][23][24]. In addition, consumers' preference for different foods also changed significantly during and after the pandemic. ...
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The COVID-19 pandemic disrupted the food supply chain and thus threatened the food security of many people, while the impact of the pandemic on food consumption of people living in rural areas is still unknown. This study filled in the research gaps by employing a three-wave food consumption survey from 2019 to 2021 conducted in rural China. We adopted a random effect model and Poisson regression to quantify the short-run and long-run impacts of COVID-19 on rural households’ food consumption and dietary quality. We found that rural households increased the consumption of vegetables, aquaculture products and legumes in the short-run, and these changes in consumption behavior even lasted 1 year after lockdown was lifted. However, the positive impact was much smaller in households not engaged in agricultural production. In addition, our results showed that COVID-19 decreased dietary diversity but increased dietary quality for households still engaged in food-related agriculture production. Our study indicated that COVID-19 did not threaten the food security status of rural families in China. On the contrary, rural families, particularly those still engaged in agricultural production, increased the consumption of several foods to strengthen their resistance against the virus.
... The pandemic was an accelerator of the structural change in consumption and the digital transformation in the marketplace. Managers might adapt to the digital transformation in the market to recover or even grow further the sales after COVID-19 (Kim, 2020). ...
... Some of the MT's signs have been particularly obvious and straightforward. For instance, embracing digital sales (Kim, 2020) online support for both external (Klein and Todesco, 2021) (aka consumers) and internal (Cankuratran and Beverland, 2020) (aka suppliers, internal operations, etc.) customers. As the service marketplaces have already passed the point of ''no return'' to the so-called pre-Covid normal, MT has brought service providers to the scene where every service delivery operation requires a strong digital presence. ...
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COVID-19 reached the Australian shores by the end of January 2020 with the disruptive lockdowns commencing in March and continuing on and off till October, 2021. The initial lockdowns have proved to be particularly disruptive to the service industries’ operations as they resulted in dramatic and forced migration of the traditionally brick-and-mortar or hybrid (brick-and-click) operations into the digital space. Being un unplanned move, it has caught many organisations unprepared and without a carefully crafted step-by-step digital transformation plan. In many of the instances, the transition had to be orchestrated literally overnight’. The main objective of this paper is to identify and to examine current state of the digital transformation of the service delivery processes by the means of investigating both literature and the Open Source Data available on the service industries and sectors both locally (in Australia) and internationally. The study is part of the preliminary investigation of the digital transformation ‘’boosters’’ and ‘’blockers’’ with the aim of establishing the Digital Transformation (DT) Framework as well as industry-wide practices for implementation and management of digital transformation programs.
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The COVID‐19 pandemic has had profound effects on grocery retailers, forcing them to make many operational changes in response to public health concerns and the shift in customers' shopping behavior. Grocery retailers need to understand the impact of pandemic conditions on their operations, but the literature has not modeled and analyzed this issue. We bridge this gap through economic models that consider the documented changes in the customers' shopping behavior during the COVID‐19 pandemic, including less‐frequent in‐store shopping and bulk‐shopping tendency. We capture the impact of occupancy limitation guidelines on grocery retailers' service capacity, customers' shopping behavior, and, consequently, on the retailers' store traffic and profit. We find that though store occupancy limitations reduce the in‐store foot traffic (which helps with curbing the disease spread), interestingly, they do not necessarily result in a profit decline. Under occupancy limitations and when the retailer offers the delivery or curbside pickup service, our analyses highlight the externality impact of online customers on the shopping behavior of in‐store customers. When the retailer adds the delivery service, such externalities may increase the store traffic (higher infection risk inside the grocery store) and reduce the retailer's profit. When the retailer adds the curbside pickup instead, it has more control over the impact of externalities, which helps in lowering the store traffic and increasing the profit. Our results offer valuable insights into how retailers should regard occupancy limitations and health safety measures. Our results also highlight conditions under which various operating modes may help retailers reduce infection risk and achieve higher profit. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
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O presente artigo tem por objetivo realizar breve incursão nos problemas que os consumidores tiveram de enfrentar durante a pandemia do novo coronavírus. Para tanto, foram analisadas algumas normas (leis, decretos e medidas provisórias) produzidas no período, bem como uma decisão judicial do Supremo Tribunal Federal, sob a perspectiva de interdisciplinaridade do Direito do Consumidor com o Direito Econômico. Além disso, foi utilizada a pesquisa bibliográfica e aplicados os métodos comparativo e sistemático no decorrer do estudo. Como resultado deste trabalho, verificou-se a vulnerabilidade aumentada do consumidor e os desafios para a defesa de seus direitos durante o período de pandemia, especialmente diante da necessidade de proteção dos contratos de consumo e observância do princípio da boa-fé, objetivamente considerada. Por fim, restou clara a necessidade de novos marcos regulatórios, tanto no que diz respeito ao tratamento do superendividamento do consumidor, como também pela necessidade de que a proteção internacional do consumidor seja uma política global no século XXI.
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Our world is evolving at an incredibly enormous speed and what was impossible three years ago is now a reality. The concept of leadership and leaders has also undergone profound transformations. Moreover, the recent COVID-19 pandemic caused a digital surge in the ways economic life, business, or education are perceived or conducted. The pandemic proved that small and large businesses, industries, and the whole economies can be suddenly upended by massive technological shifts. Hence, there is a need for a theoretical research update in leadership in business and economics that would bring new insights into this topic and define its place within the context of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Our paper presents the novel insights for the leaders and the leadership concept in business and economics from various approaches and angles of view in the light of the COVID-19 pandemic with a focus on sustainable leadership and organizational resilience. It aims at outlying the theoretical background of leadership in business and economics after the pandemic and bringing up interesting and recent leadership case studies from all around of the world. Moreover, this paper aims as sharing the valuable insights into what it means to be a sustainable leader in business and economics, why leaders are needed, and how to become one. The main criteria of this research and its instrumentation include both the theoretical discussion based on the literature review and analysis and the empirical analysis that supports these theoretical provisions. The paper features an empirical model that assesses how business and economic leaders are searching for new ways of work and personal development during and after the COVID-19 pandemic using the own data from the 400 respondents collected in the Czech Republic and Russia. We found that the pandemic enhanced the emotional creativity of business and economic leaders and made them to invest and engage more into using new digital technologies and fundamentally altering the old ways of managing and governing their respective companies and institutions. Our results might provide valuable food for thought both for academics working on various angles of leadership, as well as for entrepreneurs and businesspeople who want to receive recent updates on the topic of leadership to use them in their daily work.
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The global pandemic, caused by the spread of COVID-19, has altered the way people go shopping. In light of this, Social Media channels are an important means of sharing information about goods and services, and different kinds of brands. Since these channels are of considerable market significance, the authors of this paper decided to describe the results of a survey on how to use Social Media to improve customer relationship management processes in 31 companies. The focus was on digital marketing for micro and small businesses. In addition, an in-depth analysis was conducted of four companies, to determine the challenges and strategies in social customer relationship management adopted by micro and small businesses. The results show that this is still a new policy for micro and small companies, but has a great potential to boost sales, enhance customer loyalty and increase brand awareness. The lessons learned can assist policymakers in taking more suitable measures for strengthening this market sector.
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Purpose Small businesses and start-ups have started to reopen post coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) lockdowns but are facing numerous challenges mainly due to changed customer preferences and the need to fine-tune the business models. This research aims to identify the important aspects that start-ups need to focus on, as they weather the COVID-19 pandemic storm. Design/methodology/approach Research uses constructivist grounded theory methodology to analyse data collected through in-depth semi-structured interviews with entrepreneurs and senior employees at start-ups. A conceptual model based on nine categories impacting a start-up’s performance is investigated. Interview memos are thematically analysed to identify repeated ideas, concepts or elements that become apparent. Findings Study reveals that employees’ and customers’ safety, prudent cost management and online presence/doorstep services are key for start-ups to succeed today's changed business landscape due to COVID-19. Practical implications Findings act as a practical guide for start-ups in setting mechanisms, optimizing operations and fine-tuning strategy to address COVID-19 challenges. Start-ups are advised to evaluate the implications of the three findings on their respective businesses to successfully tackle the challenges posed by COVID-19. Originality/value This research, being cognizant of a start-up’s unique characteristics and nuances, takes a fresh approach to identify key aspects that start-ups need to focus on and fine-tune in the wake of COVID-19. The paper enriches scientific research of understanding impact of COVID-19 on organizations by specifically surfacing how start-ups can learn and adapt by knowing how other start-ups are surviving today.
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The fashion and textile sectors have proved to be the socio-economic booster for developing countries in the last two decades. This article looks into the challenges faced by the Indian fashion and textiles sector in and post-pandemic. The current COVID-19 crisis has presented the sector with a unique set of challenges that are indeed the future strategies. Primary and secondary research methods were used to explore the impact of the pandemic on the sector in India. A systematic literature review (S.L.R.) is carried out to collect secondary data from scientific journals and development corporations. For primary research, top managers and owners from ten large-size fashion and textile companies were qualitatively interviewed to validate the secondary data. The value chain analysis (V.C.A.) model was used to perform a stage-wise analysis to provides an assessment of the current scenario and recommend solutions accordingly. Existing literature discusses the impact on the Indian economy in general and there is no significant research on the fashion and textile sector. In accordance with the empirical evidence, the author has developed a digital value chain model that is novel to the sector. It shall help both the domestic and export sector to come back to business and prepare for a similar crisis in the future.
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The advent of COVID-19 led to a surge in online shopping. As a result of the health crisis, companies reduced their priorities on environmental issues. However, consumers’ concern for sustainability is on the rise. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of the COVD-19 pandemic on e-commerce consumers’ pro-environmental behavior. Accordingly, we conduct an online survey exploring consumers’ online shopping frequency and engagement in environmentally friendly practices before, during and after the COVD-19 pandemic. Applying the Wilcoxon test to compare these three stages, we are able to investigate the shift in e-commerce consumer pro-environmental behavior triggered by COVID-19. The results indicate that the shopping frequency has increased substantially since the start of the pandemic, but will drop down after the end of the pandemic. Moreover, the COVID-19 pandemic was detrimental to consumers’ pro-environmental behavior: during the pandemic consumers showed a tendency towards less environmentally friendly behavior but they have strong intentions to adopt more eco-friendly practices after the pandemic ends.
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The research paper analyses the level of stress and functional state of the drivers in urban traffic congestion. Therefore, the primary objective of this research is to describe patterns to assess fatigue of the driver during urban traffic congestion. The Electrocardiography (ECG) data is used to assess fatigue of the driver. The model comprising of influence of traffic congestion on the functional state of the average driver, allows us to predict changes to the driver’s state depending on the age, the duration of the traffic congestion and initial state prior to congestion. The value of the initial functional state affects the driver’s functional state during his/her stay in a traffic congestion in different ways. The rising of tension during staying in traffic jam is 10–12% after 7–10 min. The research uses system analysis for data analysis; electrophysiological methods in determining the functional state of the driver and mathematical statistics methods were used during the development of model for analysis of the functional state of the driver.
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The purpose of this research is to evaluate the continuance usage intention on online healthcare community (OHC) platform for patients and examine the "doctor-OHC-patient" relationship. The proposed model attempted to integrate social interaction ties, shared value, trust with the indirect effects on the relationship between the determinants and continuous usage intention of the OHC platform. The empirical results showed that perceived critical mass, social identity, and para-social interaction would strengthen continuance intention via the social interaction ties. In addition, this study found that the shared values and trust increase users' willingness to continue usage of OHC. This study provides OHC platform managers with an in-depth understanding of the "doctor-OHC-patient" online social interaction. The results of this study may also help hospitals, health policy makers, and related healthcare practitioners to improve the way they use the web for advocacy and guidance, and provide insight into the intent of promoting the ongoing use of OHC platforms.
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Personalization is prevalent in modern social media marketing strategies. However, the users of social media services may perceive that personalized content is intrusive. These two components may influence consumers’ purchase intention in social media personalization campaigns. Thus, this positivism empirical research proposes a theoretical framework named PI² using the personalization-intrusiveness-intention, as well as a success measurement based upon privacy calculus theory for effective social media personalization campaigns. Further, we investigated digital mnemonics’ potential influences with emotion as social information theory and different degrees of product involvement together with the model. Based upon the analysis of a total of 800 social media users, the results indicated that personalization positively affected but intrusiveness negatively affected the purchase intention. Furthermore, personalization significantly affected purchase intention through intrusiveness and the interaction of personalization with digital mnemonics negatively influenced consumers’ purchase intention on high involvement ads. In the post-hoc analysis, the moderating effect of users’ demographic variables was found to have some influence on the PI² framework. The findings of this research provide theoretical and managerial implications for researchers and field practitioners in social media personalization.
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History reveals a series of nasty occurrences which affected mankind severely resulting in a reformed shape of the complete eco-system where humans have to start again from scratch to showcase their resilience towards the disorder, the same is true in the case of recent pa ndemic Covid-19 also. This Chaos affected all the facets of human life whether it is society, industry, ecology, belief system, or the way we live on the planet earth. So, seeing the Fashion industry struggling hard during the recent pandemic should not be a matter of surprise as it is also part of the same ecosystem, after all. To delve deeper into this tale, a series of research papers, journal articles, research projects, media reports, and forecasts by a reputed agency is reviewed and presented in this paper which will be beneficial in unlocking the true potential and adaptive measures for the future. A qualitative approach to review the past reputed articles in context to Covid-19 impact on fashion industry is followed here.
Purpose Augmented reality (AR) technology currently plays a central role in the retail sector, rapidly changing consumers’ behaviours and retailers’ strategies. The purpose of this paper is to identify the behavioural changes that have occurred due to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in the retail sector, and how AR technology can be used as a valid and useful response to these new consumer habits. Design/methodology/approach Exploratory research was conducted to determine how AR has helped people shop differently than they did before the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic by evaluating two retail-sector AR applications (apps). In-depth interviews were conducted and assessed using thematic analysis. Findings This paper identifies a new paradigm involving COVID-19 and AR by identifying several factors that are related to the rapid spread of COVID-19 and have modified consumers’ shopping habits. Additionally, it shows how interactive technologies, such as AR, are useful tools that can be employed to overcome retailing crises driven by external environmental factors, such as COVID-19, and enhance shopping experiences. Originality/value This research reveals the role of AR technologies in transformed economic and social contexts. By investigating the COVID-19 pandemic and its associated consequences, i.e. isolation, quarantines and lockdowns; the fear of contracting the virus and the new needs of people to shop while social distancing, this study enriches AR research with a fourth characteristic, augmented social distance.
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The COVID‐19 outbreak has significantly altered the conditions of the workforce in operation on an unprecedented scale with companies being pressured to operate digitally and remotely under volatile and unpredictable circumstances. This qualitative study aims to ascertain the (i) key determinants derived from workforce management post‐COVID and (ii) the organizational potentialities and barriers among Malaysian multinational corporations (MNCs) for a holistic understanding of the local workforce post‐pandemic. Four themes (business disruption and operational changes, technology, work from home or WFH, and organizational support) were highlighted using thematic analysis. The current research has offered pivotal insights into and recommendations on operations management opportunities and future study avenues.
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Purpose The paper aims to decipher, through intertwined external and internal perspectives, how female and male owners of family businesses (FB) that have been affected by the pandemic develop new capabilities to respond to the market's crisis-related needs. Specifically, this study seeks to decipher the role of external support, mediated by the owner's psychological capital (i.e. internal perspective) and moderated by gender, on the development of capabilities related to the market's changing needs, drawing on the dynamic capabilities conceptualization. Design/methodology/approach A sample of responses from 261 Canadian FB owners was generated during the pandemic, and online questionnaires were distributed. Findings Regression analyses and Hayes' PROCESS tool revealed that while external support directly invigorates capability development, external support is also mediated by psychological capital and moderated by gender, so that female owners were found less likely to use external support for capability development than men. These findings are explained by women's traditional responsibility in FB of protecting the family from external circumstances. Nevertheless, both women and men orchestrated external support, due to the higher psychological capital of FB, to develop capabilities that respond to pandemic-related market needs. Originality/value This study explores and demonstrates the unique navigation of FB owners during crises, and the role of the owner's gender in pursuing capability development. The study's value is in interconnecting external and internal perspectives while probing FB during crises. Implications for the ecosystem's conduct toward FB are discussed.
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A quantitative study involving Mainland China (the PRC), Taiwan, India, the UAE, and the US, five areas with 852 responses of IT/IS personnel data towards building a more suitable Circumplex Career Anchor Model for IT/IS personnel, and to test a research model of a reorganized (quadrant) anchors. The bureaucratic, protean, careerist, and the social four quadrant anchors, have a significantly positive effect on career satisfaction of the IT/IS personnel. The bureaucratic, protean, and social three quadrant anchors have a significantly positive effect on job satisfaction of the IT/IS personnel, but not on the careerist quadrant anchor. Thus, the result of this study not only provided a reorganized (quadrant) anchors framework for suitable IT/IS personnel, but also combined job satisfaction, career satisfaction, and turnover intention to extend the Circumplex career anchor model to be a more complete research model.
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The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the relevance of goods delivery in urban areas. However, this activity often generates negative environmental impact and several technologies have been proposed in recent years to reduce it, thus forming a complex innovation landscape characterized by different levels of maturity and effects on the City Logistics (CL) system. This complexity causes a deep uncertainty over the future of CL. This paper aims to tackle this uncertainty by forecasting the future of a set of CL technologies. A Delphi survey has been submitted to experts of this field to achieve a stable consensus over 33 projections related to 7 CL technologies for the year 2030. Results show that real-time data collection will help the coordination process between stakeholders, engendering an increased awareness over the value of using logistics data as well as its potential drawbacks. Moreover, experts share a positive attitude towards the expansion of Parcel Lockers, which should be monitored by public authorities to avoid a negative impact on land use. Finally, technologies such as drones and crowd-logistics have drawn the lowest level of consensus due to their lower level of maturity, which arouse the necessity to further explore several issues such as legal and technical barriers.
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Purpose: Covid-19 has impacted the entire world and consumers are also one among them. This pandemic has created panic among the consumers also. This paper has tried to analyse the way the consumers have shifted to more mindful shopping owing to covid. There has also been change in the way consumers used to shop with more and more consumers shopping online. Design/Methodology/Approach: The paper was based on analysing google search trend for March 2020-March 2021. The existing literature was analysed to understand the changing consumer behaviour. Findings: Covid-19 has impacted the way the consumers behave. The consumers have shifted to online platforms for shopping. The online platforms, especially the e-grocery stores have seen a huge increase in the sales. The consumers also fear loss of jobs and to secure their future, they are involved in mindful shopping. Originality/Value: This paper is original and would help the marketers in understanding the changing behaviour of consumers which would help them to make strategies and plan for the future accordingly.
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Word of Mouth (WOM) is powerful, and online reviews are often the most accessible WOM information source in electronic commerce. Maintaining favorable online reputation has been the top priority for businesses, and investments in improving online review valence have been increasing. Extensive studies explored how online reviews might influence sales, however, the results have been inconsistent. This study explores whether and how consumers might incorporate online reviews into decision making based on signaling theory and examines when online review valence influences sales and when it might not. In a signaling perspective, online reviews might serve as a product quality signal, and subsequently, consumers might incorporate less the online review information into decision making if other product information cues such as expert ratings or brands help to verify the product quality. The findings from 633,029 consumer decisions on a hotel-booking website indicate that product quality information cues moderate the effect of online reviews on purchase likelihood. Also, product quality information cues were highly endogenous in estimating the effect of online reviews on sales. Online reviews are not likely to be a significant influencer on sales if the seller signal product quality with convincing information cues.
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This research examines automatic behavioral effects of priming brands that are anthropomorphized. It posits that anthropomorphized brands trigger people’s goals for a successful social interaction, resulting in behavior that is assimilative or contrastive to the brand’s image. Three studies show that consumers are more likely to assimilate behavior associated with anthropomorphized partner brands that they like, consistent with the goal of drawing in the liked coproducer, and servant brands that they dislike, consistent with the goal of pushing the disliked would-be helper away by signaling self-sufficiency. Results also show a contrastive behavior when primed with disliked partner brands and liked servant brands. These effects are observed in contexts unrelated to the brand prime. For example, priming Kellogg’s, a liked partner brand associated with healthfulness, led to greater willingness to take the stairs than the elevator in a purportedly unrelated study. No effects were observed of priming brands that were not anthropomorphized.
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Consumers shop online for both goal-oriented and experiential reasons. However, goal-oriented motives are more common among online shoppers than are experiential motives. This article identifies and discusses attributes that facilitate goal-oriented online shopping, including accessibility/convenience, selection, information availability, and lack of unwanted sociality from retail sales help or shopping partners such as spouses. Importantly, consumers report that shopping online results in a substantially increased sense of freedom and control as compared to offline shopping. While consumers are more likely to describe offline rather than online shopping in experiential terms, evidence of experiential motivations for online shopping is emerging. Also, while closing transactions at web sites is one important e-commerce goal, companies should not lose site of the continuing importance and power of their web site as an information and communications vehicle.
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Can online review ratings be lower for more popular products? Ironically, it might be inevitable. We utilize diffusion theory and predict that the influx of skeptic users into online reviews might be prevalent as products gain in popularity. We examined 6776 apps with more than one hundred installs and review counts on Google Playstore about the trends in their user ratings by the number of installs. We visualize how the diffusion cycle might affect this phenomenon and examine anomaly in the trend of review ratings by the number of installs to detect the significant influx of skeptic users. Interestingly, most of the apps in the early diffusion stage received significantly high ratings, and clustering results indicated a significant skeptics loop in the review ratings past the early diffusion stage. We suggest that businesses can keep skeptics satisfied by connecting experiences and creating newness.
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In everyday life, people are often faced with choices between tasks of varying levels of urgency and importance. How do people choose? Normatively speaking, people may choose to perform urgent tasks with short completion windows, instead of important tasks with larger outcomes, because important tasks are more difficult and further away from goal completion, urgent tasks involve more immediate and certain payoffs, or people want to finish the urgent tasks first and then work on important tasks later. The current research identifies a mere urgency effect, a tendency to pursue urgency over importance even when these normative reasons are controlled for. Specifically, results from five experiments demonstrate that people are more likely to perform unimportant tasks (i.e., tasks with objectively lower payoffs) over important tasks (i.e., tasks with objectively better payoffs), when the unimportant tasks are characterized merely by spurious urgency (e.g., an illusion of expiration). The mere urgency effect documented in this research violates the basic normative principle of dominance—choosing objectively worse options over objectively better options. People behave as if pursuing an urgent task has its own appeal, independent of its objective consequence.
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This study experimentally investigates the effects of vendor-specific guarantees and customer reviews (1) on the formation of initial consumers’ trust—separating institutional and competence trust—and (2) on first-time consumers’ intentions to buy. In addition, we examine how differing levels of online shopping experience moderate the relationship between trust and consumers’ intentions to buy. The empirical results of the study reveal the relative effectiveness of the two vendor mechanisms, with vendor-specific guarantees having a more positive effect on institutional trust and customer reviews on competence trust. While our results also show that initial trust is a central concept in explaining consumers’ intentions to buy, we find that this relationship is more pronounced for competence trust in case when consumers are more experienced with online shopping. Meanwhile, institutional trust seems a necessary prerequisite for both experienced and inexperienced online shoppers to actually buy from an unfamiliar vendor. Our study provides important managerial implications that are of interest to online vendors, especially for newly established or unknown web-based businesses.
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Existing research on the effects of interactivity tends to treat it as a global characteristic of the interface. However, not all content on an interface is endowed with interactive features. Therefore, it is important to explore how interactivity affects the cognitive processing of those particular content that is presented with interactive features and the surrounding content without these features. With this objective, a between-subjects experiment was conducted to understand how levels of interactivity affect information processing among users of an e-commerce website. The major findings of the study are: 1) Higher interactivity enhances recognition as well as recall memory of interactive content, but diminishes recognition and recall memory of non-interactive content; 2) Individuals spend the least amount of time on the interface with high interactivity, while most of this time is spent on interactive part rather than non-interactive part of the interface; 3) A moderate level of interactivity attracts most user attention to product information. The findings about interactivity’s effect have implications for cue-summation theory and limited capacity theory. The experiment’s results also hold practical implications for e-tailers.
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Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of online shopping experience and habit in relation to adjusted expectations for enhancing online repurchase intention. Design/methodology/approach – The authors employed partial least square (PLS) as a technique used to analyze the measurement and structural models. Data for this research were collected from 240 Taiwanese online shoppers who had experienced online shopping at least four times. Findings – The result of this study indicates that online shopping habit acts as a moderator of both customer satisfaction and adjusted expectations, whereas online shopping experience can be considered a key driver for customer satisfaction. Furthermore, the research findings confirm that customer satisfaction is a vital driver of adjusted expectations and online repurchase intention. Adjusted expectations do mediate the impact of online repurchase intention. Research limitations/implications – This paper highlights the effect of online shopping experience and online shopping habit on enhancing repurchase intention. The result implies that the acquisition of usage experience and spontaneous purchases not only leads to higher customer satisfaction and customer expectations, but also strengthens online repurchase intention. The use of self-report scales suggests the possibility of a common method bias. Future studies may further test the robustness of this study in the interplay of experience and habit to shed more light on their relative importance in explaining online repurchase intention. Originality/value – This study extends expectancy-disconfirmation paradigm, especially in the context of online shopping, by emphasizing cognitive, affective, and behavioral change on the attitude-intention behavior of online shoppers.
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Diffusion processes of new products and services have become increasingly complex and multifaceted in recent years. Consumers today are exposed to a wide range of influences that include word-of-mouth communications, network externalities, and social signals. Diffusion modeling, the research field in marketing that seeks to understand the spread of innovations throughout their life cycle, has adapted to describe and model these influences.We discuss efforts to model these influences between and across markets and brands. In the context of a single market, we focus on social networks, network externalities, takeoffs and saddles, and technology generations. In the context of cross-markets and brands, we discuss cross-country influences, differences in growth across countries, and effects of competition on growth.On the basis of our review, we suggest that the diffusion framework, if it is to remain a state-of-the-art paradigm for market evolution, must broaden in scope from focusing on interpersonal communications to encompass the following definition: Innovation diffusion is the process of the market penetration of new products and services that is driven by social influences, which include all interdependencies among consumers that affect various market players with or without their explicit knowledge.Although diffusion modeling has been researched extensively for the past 40 years, we believe that this field of study has much more to offer in terms of describing and incorporating current market trends, which include the opening up of markets in emerging economies, web-based services, online social networks, and complex product–service structures.
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Several Omaha businesses were surveyed on pandemic influenza preparedness and general disaster preparedness. Most businesses had started pandemic influenza planning, but few had exercised the plan or used it to educate employees. Responses provided insight into the status of business planning. The survey uncovered a need for providing assistance to businesses in pandemic preparedness as well as training in infection control in the workplace, which should be a niche for infection control professionals.
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This paper develops a typology based upon motivations for shopping online. An analysis of these motives, including online convenience, physical store orientation (e.g., immediate possession and social contact), information use in planning and shopping, and variety seeking in the online shopping context, suggests the existence of four shopping types. These four types are labeled convenience shoppers, variety seekers, balanced buyers, and store-oriented shoppers. The convenience shopper is more motivated by convenience. The variety seeker is substantially more motivated by variety seeking across retail alternatives and product types and brands than any other shopping type. Balanced buyers are moderately motivated by convenience and variety seeking. The store-oriented shoppers are more motivated by physical store orientation (e.g., the desire for immediate possession of goods and social interaction). Shopping types are profiled in terms of background variables and the propensity to shop online. The results are contrasted with a matched sample of off-line shoppers. Implications of this typology for theory and practice are discussed.
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