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OPENACCESS Pakistan Journal of Nutrition
ISSN 1680-5194
DOI: 10.3923/pjn.2020.153.159
Research Article
Phytochemical Screening and Pharmacological Activities of the
Ethanolic Stem Extract of Cleome gynandra
1,2Farjana Yasmin, 2Nor Adlin Yusoff and 1Amir Hossain
1Department of Pharmacy, ASA University Bangladesh, 1207 Dhaka, Bangladesh
2Cluster of Integrative Medicine, Advanced Medical and Dental Institute, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 13200 Bertam, Penang, Malaysia
Objective: This study aimed to identify the phytochemical compounds of the ethanolic stem extract of
Cleome gynandra
(CGEE) and
to determine the antioxidant, membrane stability and analgesic activities of CGEE
Materials and Methods: Phytochemical analysis was
conducted qualitatively. Content of total phenolic compounds and tannins was determined using Folin Ciocalteau reagent. Antioxidant
activity was evaluated using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assay, membrane stabilizing activity was tested using hypotonic solution
and heat-induced hemolysis and analgesic activities were evaluated using the acetic acid-induced writhing test in mice. Results: CGEE
is rich in tannins, flavonoids, steroids, glycosides, acidic compounds and proteins. The total phenolic and tannin contents were
237.92 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/100 g and 21.07 mg GAE/100 g of dried plant extract, respectively. CGEE also displayed promising
DPPH free radical scavenging activity, with an IC50 value of 9.62 :g mLG1. In the hypotonic solution-induced hemolysis test, the extract
showed 43.67, 42.85 and 38.66% inhibition at 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mg mLG1, respectively, whereas the standard resulted in 30.57% inhibition.
In the heat-induced hemolysis test, 1 mg mLG1 of extract resulted in 84.43% inhibition of hemolysis. Furthermore, in the analgesic activity
test, CGEE doses of 250 and 500 mg kgG1 body weight resulted in good inhibition of the writhing reflex (40.87 and 53.92%, respectively),
while the standard drug (diclofenac sodium) at 25 mg kgG1 body weight resulted in inhibition of 64.35%. Conclusion: Results of this study
suggest that the stem extract of
Cleome gynandra
possesses antioxidant, membrane stabilizing and analgesic activities.
Key words:
Cleome gynandra
, antioxidants, stem extract, membrane stabilizing, oxidative stress
Received: September 30, 2019 Accepted: January 21, 2020 Published: March 15, 2020
Citation: Farjana Yasmin, Nor Adlin Yusoff and Amir Hossain, 2020. Phytochemical screening and pharmacological activities of the ethanolic stem extract
Cleome gynandra
. Pak. J. Nutr., 19: 153-159.
Corresponding Author: Farjana Yasmin, Department of Pharmacy, ASA University Bangladesh, 1207 Dhaka, Bangladesh
Cluster of Integrative Medicine, Advanced Medical and Dental Institute, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 13200 Bertam, Penang, Malaysia
Copyright: © 2020 Farjana Yasmin
et al
. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the creative commons attribution License, which
permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Competing Interest: The authors have declared that no competing interest exists.
Data Availability: All relevant data are within the paper and its supporting information files.
Pak. J. Nutr., 19 (4): 153-159, 2020
Oxidative stress is a factor that leads to the onset of
numerous chronic diseases, such as hypertension, diabetes,
cancer and neurodegenerative disorders1,2. In healthy
individuals, the production of free radicals is balanced by the
antioxidative defense system. Imbalance occurs when
equilibrium favors free radical generation due to the
depletion of antioxidant levels, thus causing oxidative
stress3. The inflammatory reaction is part of the bodys
protective response to foreign organisms, including viruses,
dust particles and pathogens4. Studies have shown that
inflammatory reactions are positively related to the presence
of free radicals and establishment of the oxidative stress
condition. During the inflammatory reaction, free radicals and
reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as non-radical hydrogen
peroxide, nitrite oxide, superoxide and hydroxyl are
overproduced. The excess free radicals and ROS can cause
injury to the tissue by damaging macromolecules and
inducing lipid peroxidation of membranes5, thereby leading
to the onset and progression of various inflammatory
associated diseases. Tissues, consequently, require
antioxidants to neutralize and decompose these free radicals
and ROS. Antioxidants protect cells from damage caused by
these free radicals by inhibiting or delaying cellular damage,
mainly through free radical scavenging properties6. Membrane
stabilization is the process of maintaining the integrity of
biological membranes, such as those of erythrocytes and
lysosomal membranes, against osmotic and heat-induced
lysis7. Stabilization of lysosomal membranes is important for
limiting the inflammatory response by inhibiting the release
of lysosomal constituents of activated neutrophils, such as
bactericidal enzymes and proteases, which cause further
tissue inflammation and damage upon extracellular release8.
Therefore, plants with antioxidant and membrane stabilizing
properties should offer more significant protection against
inflammatory induced diseases than plants without these
Currently, numerous scientific studies are focused on
discovering natural drugs from medicinal plants due to the
promising therapeutic effects of phytochemicals and their less
severe side effects.
Cleome gynandra
is a genus of flowering
plant in the family Cleomaceae. The genus includes about 170
species of herbaceous annual or perennial plants and shrubs9.
Nutritional analyses have found that
C. gynandra
is high in
micronutrients, including $-carotene, folic acid, ascorbic
acid, vitamin E, oxalic acid, iron and calcium. For centuries,
C. gynandra
has been incorporated in Ayurvedic medicine to
treat various illnesses, such as gulma (tumor, irregularity or
diverticulosis), krmiroga (worm infection), asthila (prostate
enlargement), kandu (pruritus) and karnaroga (ear
infections)10. R ecen t scie ntif ic stu dies have a lso re port ed
the pharmacological activities of different parts of this
plant and they include antioxidant11,12, antidiabetic13,
anticarcinogenic and anti-inflammatory14 properties. These
activities are attributable to the high concentrations of
bioactive compounds present, namely flavonoids, tannins,
glucosinolates and iridoids15.
Despite extensive literature on the pharmacological
activities of
C. gynandra
, to date there is no information
available about the possible pharmacological effect of the
stem extract of
C. gynandra
. Previous studies of this
plant focused mainly on the leaves. Therefore, the goal of
this study was to assess the antioxidant, analgesic and
membrane stabilizing activities of the ethanolic stem extract
C. gynandra
Results of this study will provide an
evidence-based validation on the folkloric use of this plant.
Chemicals: Sodium carbonate and Folin-Ciocalteu (FC)
reagents were obtained from Merck (Darmstadt, Germany).
1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), potassium dichromate,
gallic acid (GA), ascorbic acid (AA), aluminium chloride,
sulphuric acid, nitric acid, sodium hydroxide,
ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), diclofenac sodium,
sodium nitrous, Tween-80 and ferrous chloride were
purchased from the Sigma Chemical Co., St. Louis, MO, USA.
Plant materials:
Cleome gynandra
was collected from
Bandarban, Bangladesh in July 2018. The plants were washed
and dried under direct sunlight for one week. The plant was
identified by the taxonomist at the Bangladesh National
Herbarium, Mirpur-1, Dhaka-1216 (voucher specimen no:
Preparation of the extract: Two hundred grams of dried stem
were ground into a fine powder using a grinder machine. The
powder was then extracted with 1500 mL of ethanol.
Thereafter, the mixture was filtered using cotton followed by
Whatman (No. 1) filter paper. The obtained filtrate was
evaporated to dryness in open air to yield the crude ethanolic
extract, which was denoted as CGEE. It was kept at 4EC until
used for further analysis.
Qualitative phytochemical screening: Th e f ol l ow in g r e ag en ts
were used to quantitatively screen for the presence of
th e ph yto che mic al s: R edu cin g su gar was i den tif ied us ing
Pak. J. Nutr., 19 (4): 153-159, 2020
Fehlings solution and Benedicts reagent; alkaloids with
Mayers and Dragendroffs reagent; saponins with distilled
water; glycosides with sodium hydroxide solution; steroids
with sulphuric acid; tannins with ferric chloride and potassium
dichromate; and gum content with Molish reagent16.
Measurement of total phenolic content: The FC technique
was used to estimate the phenolic content in CGEE17
For this
test, an aliquot of CGEE or a positive control was mixed
with 2 mL of FC reagent (1:10, v/v) and 2 mL of sodium
carbonate (75 g LG1). The tubes were shaken for 15 sec and
incubated for 20 min at room temperature for colour
development. Absorbance was recorded at 750 nm using an
UV spectrophotometer. The total phenolic contents were
expressed as mg of gallic acid equivalents (GAE) per 100 g of
the dried extract.
Measurement of total tannin content: Total tannin content
was also measured using FC reagent18. To estimate the total
tannin content, 0.1 mL of CGEE or a positive control was mixed
with 7.5 mL of distilled water and 0.5 mL of FC reagent. The
mixture was thoroughly mixed and kept for 5 min. Next, 1 mL
of 35% sodium carbonate was added, followed by dilution
with 10 mL of distilled water. The mixture was incubated at
room temperature for 30 min. Absorbance was recorded at
725 nm using the UV spectrophotometer. The total tannin
contents were expressed as mg of GAE per 100 g of the dried
DPPH Scavenging assay: The antioxidant activity of the
extract was estimated using the DPPH free radical scavenging
assay19. DPPH solution at the concentration of 0.04% (w/v) was
prepared in ethanol. A volume of 1 mL of CGEE at different
concentrations was mixed with 3 mL of DPPH solution. The
mixture was shaken thoroughly and placed aside in the dark
for the 30 min reaction period at room temperature. After
incubation, the absorbance of the mixture was recorded at
517 nm using the UV spectrophotometer. The following
equation was used to calculate the DPPH free radical
scavenging percentage20:
DPPH free radical scavenging activity (%) = ×100
where, A0 is the absorbance of the control (DPPH solution
without sample) and A1 is the absorbance of the plant
extract/positive control. Ascorbic acid was used as the positive
control. The percentage of scavenging activity was then
plotted against log concentration and a graph for the half-
maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) was created.
Membrane stabilization assays
Hypotonic solution-induced hemolysis: The membrane
stability activity of the extract was evaluated using hypotonic
solution-induced hemolysis. The test sample consisted of a
stock erythrocyte suspension (0.50 mL), 4.5 mL of hypotonic
solution (50 mM NaCl) in 10 mM sodium phosphate buffer
saline (pH 7.4) and either CGEE (2.0 mg mLG1) or acetyl salicylic
acid (0.1 mg mLG1). The mixtures were incubated for 10 min at
room temperature. After incubation, the mixtures were
centrifuged for 10 min at 3000 g and the supernatant was
collected. The absorbance of the supernatant was measured
at 540 nm using the UV spectrophotometer. The percentage
inhibition of either hemolysis or membrane stabilization was
calculated using the following equation18:
(OD OD )
Inhibition of hemolysis (%) = 100
where, OD1 is the optical density of the hypotonic buffered
saline solution alone (control) and OD2 is the optical density of
the test sample in hypotonic solution.
Heat-induced hemolysis: For this analysis, 5 mL of isotonic
buffer containing 1.0 mg mLG1 of different concentrations of
C GE E w e re a dd e d t o tw o se t s o f ce n tr i fu g e t u be s 21. The vehicle
control group was prepared with the same amount of extract.
Erythrocyte suspension (30 mL) was added to each tube and
inverted gently. One set of tubes was incubated at 54EC for
20 min in a water bath and the other set of tubes was placed
into an ice bath at 0-5EC. The mixtures then were centrifuged
at 1300 g for 3 min. The supernatant was collected and
the absorbance was recorded at 540 nm using the UV
spectrophotometer. The percentage of inhibition or
acceleration of hemolysis was calculated using the following
Inhibition of hemolysis (%) = 100
where, OD1 is the optical density of the unheated test sample,
OD2 is the optical density of the heated test sample and OD3
is the optical density of the heated control sample.
Analgesic activity assay
Acetic acid-induced writhing technique: Twenty Swiss
albino mice (18-22 g) were used in this study. Animals were
divided into four groups of five and fasted for 2 h before
commencement of the test. The control group (Group I)
wa s tr eate d wi th 1 % Twe en- 80 sol ution dis solv ed i n wate r
Pak. J. Nutr., 19 (4): 153-159, 2020
cavenging activity (%)
123456 78910
Log concentration (µg mL )
Standard Extract
(10 mL kgG1). The positive control group (Group II) was treated
with diclofenac sodium at a dose of 25 mg kgG1 body weight.
Group IIIs and IV were treated with CGEE at doses of 250 and
500 mg kgG1 body weight, respectively. Thirty minutes after
the treatment, 0.7% acetic acid was injected intraperitoneally.
Five minutes after the injection of acetic acid, the number
of abdominal constrictions (writhing) within the 15 min
observation period was recorded22.
Statistical analysis: Mean±standard error of the mean (SEM)
was used to present the data. All parameters were evaluated
for their significance level by correlation and regression
analysis and t-tests (p<0.05) also were used. Microsoft Excel
2016 was used for both statistical analysis and graphical
Phytochemical screening of CGEE: Phytochemical screening
of CGEE indicated the presence of reducing sugar, combined
reducing sugar, tannins, flavonoids, glycosides, proteins and
steroids (Table 1).
Total phenol and tannin content of CGEE: The total amounts
of phenol and tannin in CGEE were calculated from the linear
regression equation of gallic acid standard calibration curves
(y = 0.113x -0.201, R2 = 0.8626 and y = 0.014x-0.010, R2 = 0.947,
respectively) and expressed in GAE. Total phenol and total
tannin contents in CGEE were 237.92±0.0129 mg GAE/100 g
and 21.07±0.0004 mg GAE/100 g of CGEE.
DPPH free radical scavenging activity of CGEE: Antioxidant
activity of CGEE was evaluated using the DPPH free radical
scavenging method. The IC50 values of CGEE and ascorbic acid
were 9.62 and 5.51 µg mLG1, respectively (Fig. 1).
Membrane stabilization activity of CGEE: Data in Table 2
show that CGEE inhibited lysis induced by the hypotonic
solution, as indicated by the high percentage inhibition of
hemolysis (3.66, 42.85 and 43.67%) recorded for doses of 2, 1
and 0.5 mg mLG1, respectively. In the heat-induced hemolysis
test, inhibition of hemolysis was 84.43% at the concentration
of 1 mg mLG1 CGEE.
Analgesic effect of CGEE
Writhing test: Table 3 shows the effect of different
concentrations of CGEE on the acetic acid-induced writhing
reflex in mice. CGEE (250 and 500 mg kgG1) and the positi ve
Fig. 1: DPPH scavenging activity of CGEE and ascorbic acid
Table 1: Qualitative phytochemical screening of ethanolic stem extract of
C. gynandra
Phytochemical groups CGEE
Reducing sugar +
Combined reducing sugar +
Tannins +
Flavonoids +
Saponins -
Gums -
Steroids +
Alkaloids +
Glycoside +
Proteins +
Acidic compounds -
+: Presence, -: Absence
Table 2: Effect of different concentrations of CGEE on hypotonicity induced
haemolysis of erythrocyte membrane
Treatments Concentration of hemolysis (%)
Hypotonic medium (control) 50.0 mM 0.00
Standard acetyl (salicylic acid) 0.1 mg mLG130.57
CGEE 2.0 mg mLG138.66
1.0 mg mLG142.85
0.5 mg mLG143.67
control, diclofenac sodium (25 mg kgG1 body weight),
significantly (p<0.01) inhibited abdominal writhing in
mice compared to the control group. The writhing inhibition
of CGEE occurred in a dose-dependent manner, as the
percentage of inhibition increased when the concentration of
CGEE increased.
In this study, phytochemical compounds of CGEE
were evaluated using qualitative and quantitative assays.
Pharmacological activities of CGEE, namely antioxidant,
analgesic and membrane stability properties, were also
studied. The results indicated that CGEE contains a reducing
sugar, combined reducing sugar, tannins, flavonoids, alkaloids,
glycosides, proteins and steroids but it lacks saponins, acidic
Pak. J. Nutr., 19 (4): 153-159, 2020
Table 3: Effect of different concentrations of CGEE on acetic acid-induced writhing reflex in mice
Animal groups Mean of writhing Writhing±SEM (%) Writhing inhibition (%) t-test (p-value)
Negative control (1% Tween-80) 4.60 100.00±2.12 0.00
Diclofenac-Na (25 mg kgG1) 1.64 35.65±1.39 64.35 5.8320**
CGEE (250 mg kgG1) 2.72 59.13±1.39 40.87 4.4100**
CGEE (500 mg kgG1) 2.12 46.08±0.93 53.92 5.3600**
C. gynandra
ethanolic stem extract; **p<0.01, SEM: Standard error of mean
compounds and gums (Table 1). CGEE contained a good
amount of total phenolic and total tannin contents that were
comparable to the standards (Fig. 1).
Plants produce various secondary metabolites as their
natural defense23. Among these secondary metabolites, few
are toxic to animals and most of them possess various
therapeutic properties. For example, glycosides and flavonoids
have strong antidiabetic and antioxidant activities24. Different
studies have proposed that various sorts of polyphenol
compounds, such as phenolic acids, flavonoids and tannins,
have numerous biological effects, including antioxidant
activity25,26. In agreement with these statements, our results
showed that CGEE possessed antioxidant properties and acted
by scavenging DPPH free radicals. Elmastas
et al
.27 and
et al
.28, reported that phenolic compounds contain
hydroxyl groups that may contribute to antioxidant activity
and play a critical role in scavenging free radicals. Other
studies have reported the positive correlation between the
amount of phenolic contents and antioxidant activity of a
plant29,30. Moreover, tannins are generally defined as naturally
occurring polyphenol compounds of high molecular weight
that can form a complex with proteins. Tannins are an
important source of protein in animals but the amounts of
tannins present vary and are very changeable and their effects
on animals range from valuable to toxic to lethal31.
Health risks can be prevented by consuming foods
containing antioxidants and analgesics32 which can have
positive effects on cell structures such as the cell membrane.
The robustness of a cell depends on the wholeness of its
membranes. One way to test the effect of a compound on
membrane stability is to expose red blood cells to a hypotonic
or heated medium. Membrane stabilizers should protect the
membrane against injury and elicit anti-inflammatory effects33.
Compounds with me mb ra n e- st a bilizing properties are well
known for their ability to interfere with the initial phase of
the inflammatory reaction that prevents the release of
phospholipase, which stimulates the formation of
inflammatory mediators34. Our results indicated that CGEE
contains phenols and phenolic compounds inhibit
prostaglandin cyclooxygenase as well as inflammatory
mediators35. Results of our experiments showed that CGEE at
a concentration of 1 mg mLG1 better prevented hypotonic
solution-induced and heat-induced lysis of the human
erythrocyte membrane compared to the standard acetyl
salicylic acid (0.1 mg mLG1). This finding suggests that CGEE
may possess good membrane stabilizing activity.
The anti-nociceptive acetic acid-induced writhing reflex
model was used to identify the analgesic activity of CGEE
Intraperitoneal injection of acetic acid creates a pain
sensation36 and the writhing reflex in animals by activating the
chemo-sensitive nociceptors37 . Acetic acid-induced twisting
represents the pain sensation by triggering the localized
inflammatory response. CGEE treatment resulted in significant
inhibition of writhing compared to the standard drug
diclofenac sodium (Table 3). The polar compounds present in
the plant extract may explain the observed analgesic activity.
The 500 mg kgG1 dose had the highest inhibition rate, the
inhibitory effect of the positive control was greater and the
inhibitory effects were statistically significant (control vs. CGEE
250 mg kgG1, p<0.01 and control vs. CGEE 500 mg kgG1,
p<0.05). These results demonstrate that CGEE at the given
doses significantly reduced the acetic acid-induced writhing
reflex in mice.
In summary, we have demonstrated that CGEE has
antioxidant, membrane stabilizing and analgesic properties.
The results of this study provide a scientific basis for the
utilization of this plant in folk medicine for the treatment of
oxidative disorders. We can also use it to prevent cell lysis.
This study, however, had some limitations. For example, all
tests were conducted using an
in vitro
model. Further
confirmation through
in vivo
models is needed to validate
the findings. Additionally, in-depth study is required to
elucidate the underlying mechanisms responsible for the
antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and membrane stabilizing
properties of CGEE.
This study reports that CGEE has potential antioxidant
activity, free-radical scavenging activity, an analgesic effect
and a membrane stabilizing effect. However, these preliminary
results do not explain the actual mechanisms for the
various pharmacological actions, thus more in-depth studies
(including isolation and identification of active compounds
Pak. J. Nutr., 19 (4): 153-159, 2020
and in-depth pharmacological mechanistic assays) are
required to elucidate the exact mechanisms of action of the
extract and its active compound(s).
The authors are thankful to the Department of Pharmacy,
ASA University, Bangladesh for providing laboratory facilities,
chemicals and reagents and contributory support. We also
give our heartfelt thanks to the International Centre for
Diarrheal Disease and Research, Bangladesh for providing trial
mice and bacterial strains. Our special thanks go to the
Bangladesh National Herbarium for identification of the plant.
No other institution/foundation provided us with any sort of
research grant/support.
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... This covers many aspects of their activity against, mainly, reactive oxygen species (ROS), whereas other aspects are less-known or totally ignored [1,12,20]. Despite their remarkable potential for commercial exploitation, species in the Cleome genus have attracted interest, and they are currently used as folk medicine for treating stomachaches, cancer, and liver disorders [7,21]. In this study, the values of TPC and TFC obtained for a Cd methanolic extract were close and/or higher than those documented in the literature. ...
... rutin equivalent equivalent/g extract). In another study [21], the TPC was 2.38 mg GA equivalent/g of dried plant extract. It is well-known that the Cleome species are an excellent source of phenolic compounds; however, the variations of the TPC and TFC values among the studied samples could be related to many factors, such as the nature of the agro-ecological zones (soil and fertilizers), plant parameters (plant parts and growth phases), extraction method, and assay procedures [23,24]. ...
... These findings are in line with those obtained by El-Askary et al. (2019) [4], who detected 20 different phenolic compounds in a water extract of Cd, in which phenolic acids (caffeoyl and feruloylquinic acid derivatives) were the major components. Previous studies have reported the presence of numerous active secondary metabolites in Cleome species, including phenolic compounds, terpenes, glucosinolates, tannins, and steroids, with different biological activities [3,8,21]. The results of the in vitro antimicrobial activity obtained in our study confirmed the remarkable antimicrobial activity of the Cd methanolic extract against the Staphylococcus aureus NCTC 10788, Salmonella senftenberg ATCC 8400, Escherichia coli BA 12296B, and Candida albicans ATCC MYA-2876 pathogen species. ...
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This study aimed to investigate the antioxidant, antimicrobial, and immunomodulatory activities of a Cleome droserifolia (Forssk.) Del. (Cd) shoot methanolic extracts considering the biological activity of its phytogenic compounds. For this purpose, the Cd phenolic compounds were detected, and an in vitro evaluation of the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the Cd extract was performed. For a biological evaluation, 30 v-line rabbits were randomly distributed into three groups with treatments including: a basal diet without Cd shoots powder supplement (C group) or supplemented with 1.25- (Cdl group) or 2.5 (Cdh group)-mg Cd/kg dry matter (DM). The Cd extract showed a linear scavenging activity for 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2′-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), with the maximal activity observed at a concentration of 1 mg/mL. A total of 16 phenolic compounds were identified by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) in the Cd methanolic extract, among which benzoic acid, rutin, ellagic acid, naringenin, and o-coumaric acid were the major compounds. The methanolic extract of Cd showed inhibitory actions against microbial pathogen species. The in vivo study showed that the two concentrations of Cd significantly improved the redox status of the blood plasma and lysozyme activity. Treatment with Cdh significantly decreased the levels of interleukin-β1 in the blood plasma compared with the control. Moreover, the two concentrations of Cd significantly increased the counts of intestinal and cecal yeast and Lactobacillus species and decreased the Salmonella and Coliform species compared with the control. The aerial parts of the Cd shrub had strong antioxidant, antimicrobial, and immunomodulatory activities, which can improve the overall health status and seem to be related to its impressive range of biologically active phenolic compounds.
... Oleh karena itu dibutuhkan zat antioksidan yang dapat menstabilkan radikal bebas. Hal ini disebabkan zat antioksidan mempunyai peranan penting dalam melindungi kerusakan sel dengan cara menghambat terjadinya melalui penghambatan atau penundaan inisiasi reaksi oksidasi berantai sehingga dapat melindungi kerusakan sel dan membantu perbaikan sel tubuh yang rusak [5] [13]. Hal ini menjadi dasar untuk dilakukannya penentuan kadar fenolik dan flavonoid ekstrak dan fraksi daun ghoenu (A. ...
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Ghoenu (Abelmoschus manihot L) merupakan tanaman tropis dari family Malvaceae yang dimasyakat selain digunakan sebagai sayuran juga digunakan sebagai bahan pengobatan tradisional. Secara empiris, rebusan daun ghoenu (A. manihot L) digunakan sebagai penurun kolesterol, analgetik, obat sakit ginjal, maag. Ghoenu mengandung metabolit sekunder antara lain flavonoid, asam amino, nukleosida, polisakarida, asam organik, steroid, minyak volatil. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mentukan kadar fenolik dan flavonoid ekstrak dan fraksi daun Ghoenu (Abelmoschus manihot L) serta uji antioksidan secara in vitro menggunakan DPPH (1-1-diphenyl-2-picrahidrazyl). Daun ghoenu diekstraksi dengan menggunakan metode maserasi. Pengukuran kandungan fenolik total ditentukan dengan menggunakan metode Folin-Ciocalteau, kadar flavonoid ditentukan dengan menggunakan metode kolorimeter kompleks aluminium klorida, serta aktivitas antiradikal ditentukan dengan menggunakan metode DPPH. Fraksi etil asetat menunjukkan kadar fenolik dan flavonoid yang lebih tinggi dibandingkan ekstrak metanol, fraksi n-heksana dan fraksi air dengan kadar berturut-turut sebesar 28,476 g EAG/100 g sampel, 26,098 g EAG/100 g sampel, 15,905 g EAG/100 g sampel, 7,397 g EAG/100 g sampel untuk fenolik dan 49,812 g EK/100 g sampel, 44,198 g EK/100 g sampel, 41,898 g EK/100 g sampel dan 24,042 g EK/100 g sampel. Fraksi etil asetat menunjukkan aktivitas antioksidan yang sangat kuat dengan nilai IC50 sebesar 7,42 µg/mL.
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Cleome gynandra is one among the plants used as a remedy for various human and animal diseases. It is commonly called nalvelai in Tamil and belongs to the family cleomaceae. Aim of the present study is used to assess quality of the powdered plant materials. The prime objective of this study is to assess characteristic features of powder preparation, pharmacognostic value like ash value, extractive value, chromophore by fluorescent assay and also to study phytochemical markers. Powder microscopy, organoleptic character assessment, physiochemical, fluorescent features, microbial load and preliminary phytochemical features like pharmacognosy of this plant were studied by making use of standard textual procedures. Plant powder is yellowish green in colour with a bitter taste. Plant powder showed 0% foreign matter, 4.9%w/w total ash with higher water extractive (23.7%w/w). Variable chromophores were detected with different acid and alkali treatment. Treatment of nitric acid showed violet brown coloration under long UV radiation. Microbial load was within the limits of pharmacopeial standards of raw drugs and no pathogenic organisms were detected. All the pharmacognostic results were within the limits of ayurvedic pharmacopeia of India. Whole plant powder showed the presence of terpenoids, flavonoids, polyphenols and saponins, which could be a phytochemical marker. GC-MS report revealed the presence of 20 Compounds in crude powder preparation. Histochemical study also confirmed the presence of tannin, saponin, flavonoids, steroids, Terpenoids and polyphenols, which could also confirm the water-soluble compounds in the C. gynandra whole plant powder. These observations would be of immense value in the botanical identification and standardization of drugs in a crude form.
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Moringa oleifera is a plant that is empirically widely used as a medicine to treat hyperglycemia, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, anticancer, antioxidant, gastric ulcer, skin disease, fever, fatigue, hysteria, thrush, bladder, and bronchitis. Moringa oleifera contains secondary metabolites such as flavonoids, tannins, terpenoids, alkaloids, and phenolics. This study aimed to investigate the antioxidant activity and levels of phenolic and flavonoids in the extracts and fractions of moringa pulp and seeds. The pulp and seeds of Moringa were extracted using the maceration method and fractionated using the liquid-liquid extraction method. Antioxidant activity was measured using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method. Phenolic content was measured using the Folin-Ciocalteau method. Meanwhile, the flavonoid content was determined using the AlCl3 colorimetric method with UV-Vis spectrophotometry. The ethyl acetate fraction of moringa pulp and seeds had the strongest antioxidant activity with IC50 values of 5.97 µg/mL and 5.08 µg/mL, respectively. Ethyl acetate fraction also has high phenolic and flavonoid content in the pulp and seeds of moringa with a phenolic content of 43.956 mg GAE/g sample for pulp and 9.429 mg GAE/g sample for moringa seeds. The flavonoid content of 94.257 mg QE/g sample for pulp and 93.719 mg QE/g sample, with the highest correlation between phenolic compounds and flavonoids on antioxidant activity, was obtained in moringa pulp with the highest correlation (R2 = 0.6514) for phenolic and R 2 = 0.7531) for flavonoids. In conclusion, the ethyl acetate fraction of moringa pulp and seeds can be further developed as an antioxidant and functional food.
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Purpose: This study evaluated the in vitro antioxidant potential of two varieties of Codiaeum variegatum leaves (spiral (CP) and royal like (BP)) extracts. Methods: The different antioxidant assays, including DPPH free radical scavenging, nitric oxide scavenging, hydrogen peroxide, reducing power, total antioxidant activity, protection of lipid peroxidation and RBC membrane stabilization activity, were studied. Moreover, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with diode-array detection was used to identify and quantify the phenolic compounds in the royal like (BP) leaves extract. Results: Codiaeum variegatum extracts showed effective DPPH free radical scavenging, hydrogen peroxide radical scavenging and nitric oxide scavenging activity. However, reducing power of ferric ion was not significant compared to the standard antioxidant activity. In addition, Codiaeum variegatum extracts exhibited protection against lipid peroxidation. The total antioxidant activity was increased dose dependently when compared with standard drug ascorbic acid. (-)-Epicatechin, p-coumaric acid, rutin hydrate and ellagic acid were identified in the extract. Among the phenolic compounds, ellagic acid was abundantly present in the extract. Conclusion: Our investigation suggests that Codiaeum variegatum leaves contain high amount of phenolic compounds which may responsible for its biological activities in folkloric medicine.
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Boehmeria macrophylla is a perennial herb used as folk medicine in Bangladesh for the healing of pathologic conditions like fever, trauma, dermatitis, boils etc. After phytochemical screening of ethanolic extract of B. macrophylla (Urticaceae) leaf (BMET), in vitro antioxidant activity was investigated by free radical (DPPH) scavenging assay. Total tannin, phenolic and flavonoid contents were also estimated. Analgesic, cytotoxic and antibacterial activities were evaluated by ‘acetic acid induced writhing inhibition in mice’, ‘brine shrimp lethality bioassay’ and ‘disk diffusion assay’, respectively. Phytochemical screening indicated the presence of alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, saponins, steroids and terpenoids. The extract showed scavenging activity with IC50 value of 39.76 μg/mL whereas IC50 was 6.86 μg/mL for ascorbic acid. The extract also showed the total phenolic, flavonoid and tannin content as 439.48, 356.84 and 395.42 mg QE/100 g of dried plant extract. BMET showed 32.91 % and 54.2 % writhing inhibition in mice at doses 250 and 500 mg/kg, respectively. BMET showed LC50 against brine shrimp nauplii at 33.16 μg/mL. The extract also showed antibacterial activity against Vibrio cholerae, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Streptococcus ferus. The results suggest that BMET has antioxidant, analgesic, cytotoxic and antibacterial activities.
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The current study was directed on methanolic extract of Neolamarckia cadamba fruits, belonging to the family Rubiaceae, to reveal the possible phytochemicals existence and also to evaluate the membrane stabilizing, anthelmintic, antioxidant properties. To estimate the membrane stabilizing activity, both heat and hypotonic solution induced haemolysis techniques were used. The anthelmintic test was conducted on earthworm Pheritima phosthuma using five different concentrations (10, 20, 40, 60, 80 mg/ml) of the extract and albendazole as standard drug (concentration 10 mg/ml). To investigate antioxidant property, two potential tests namely total phenolic content determination and the 2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay were conducted. Phytochemical screening was carried out using different chemical group tests. The extract revealed good membrane stabilizing activity inhibiting both hypotonic solution and heat induced haemolysis in comparison to inhibition by standard acetyl salicylic acid. The methanolic extract showed potent anthelmintic activity at the highest concentration as it required less time for paralysis and death compared to the standard drug albendazole. The fruit extract showed potential antioxidant property. The analysis of phytochemicals reveals the presence of carbohydrate, phenol, phytosterol, protein and amino acid, terpene and glycoside. The results of the study showed that the plant extract has potential membrane stabilizing, antihelmintic, antioxidant activities along with the presence of significant phytochemicals.
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Objective To investigate the antibacterial activity, using cold and hot extraction procedures with five solvents, petroleum ether, acetone, ethanol, methanol and water to validate medicinal uses of Butea monosperma Lam (B. monosperma) in controlling infections; and to qualitatively estimate phytochemical constituents of leaf-extracts of the plant.Methods The antibacterial activity of leaf-extracts was evaluated by the agar-well diffusion method against clinically isolated 12 Gram-positive and -negative multidrug resistant (MDR) pathogenic bacteria in vitro. Values of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of leaf-extracts against each bacterium were obtained in a 96-well micro-titre plate, by broth dilution micro-titre plate technique.ResultsThe presence of tannins, flavonoids, starch, glycosides and carbohydrates in different leaf extracts was established. Pathogenic bacteria used were, Acinetobacter sp., Chromobacterium violaceum, Citrobacter freundii, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Shigella sp., Enterococcus sp., Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), methicillin resistant S. aureus and vancomycin resistant S. aureus, along with standard bacterial strains. These MDR bacteria had been recorded to have significant inhibitions by leaf extracts, obtained by cold and hot extraction procedures with five solvents. In addition, the hot aqueous extract against Enterococcus sp. had the highest inhibition zone-size (21 mm). Ciprofloxacin 30 μg/disc was the positive/reference control and the diluting solvent, 10% dimethyl sulphoxide was the negative control. Recorded MIC values of different extracts ranged between 0.23 and 13.30 mg/mL, and MBC values were 0.52 to 30.00 mg/mL, for these bacteria.Conclusions Leaf-extracts with hot water and ethanol had shown significant antibacterial activity against all bacteria. B. monosperma leaf-extract could be used in treating infectious diseases, caused by the range of tested bacteria, as complementary and alternate medicine.
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This study is planned to determine the antioxidant activity and total phenols content of the essential oil and different solvent extracts of the endemic plant Merremia borneensis. The antioxidant activities of the extracts were examined by three different methods, DPPH, β-carotene and reducing power assays. In all methods, aqueous ethanol extract exhibited a higher activity potential than that of other extracts (hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and butanol) and the essential oil. As assumed, the amount of total phenolics was very high in this extract. Chloroform extract has been found to be rich in flavonoids. A positive result was observed between the antioxidant activity potential and total flavonoid levels of the extracts.
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Actaea spicata Linn. (Ranunculaceae) has been traditionally used for the treatment of various ailments such as rheumatism, inflammation, nerve diseases, lumbago, scrofula and chorea, but no systematic phytochemical and pharmacological work has ever been carried out on this potential plant. Preliminary phytochemical screening showed presence of phenols and flavonoids in A. spicata. Thus, the present investigation was undertaken to estimate total phenols and flavonoids in methanol extract of A. spicata roots, and its ethyl acetate fraction. In vitro antioxidant activity was also evaluated in the methanol extract and ethyl acetate fraction using DPPH method. Ethyl acetate fraction was found to contain twice the content of flavonoids and phenols in comparison to methanolic extract, whereas phenolic content in methanol extract was approximately similar to ethyl acetate fraction. A significant antioxidant activity, i.e., mean percentage inhibition of DPPH radical was observed in methanol extract and ethyl acetate fraction at the concentration of 10 μg/ml and 5 μg/ml respectively. Finally, it was suggested that polyphenols are responsible for antioxidant activity of A. spicata.
Hedranthera barteri, HB (Apocynaceae) is a shrub in the closed-forest in some parts of West Africa and used among the natives for inflammatory pain relief. This study was carried out to assess the anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of its leaf extracts to confirm folkloric claims. Phytochemical screening and acute toxicity were carried out on the leaf of the plant. Aqueous (AEHB), methanol (MEHB) and chloroform (CEHB)extracts of the leaf were assessed for anti-nociceptive and antiinflammatory properties. The probable mechanism of action of the extracts in analgesia was assessed using naloxone. Student’s t-test was used to test for statistical significance.Phytochemistry of the extracts revealed the presence of alkaloids, cardenolides, saponins and flavonoids. The rats tolerated thermal pain significantly more (P<0.05) with the extracts than the control. The inhibitory rates of the extracts on acetic acid-induced writhing, formalin-induced paw licking (late and early phase) and carrageenan-induced paw oedema when compared with the control were significant. Graded doses of MEHB tolerated thermal pain more significantly (P<0.05), compared with the control. Likewise, the inhibition produced by the graded doses of MEHB on acetic acid-induced writhing,formalin-induced paw licking (early and late phases) and carrageenaninduced paw oedema were significant compared with the control (P<0.05). Pre-treatment with naloxone partially prevented the analgesia induced by MEHB in thermally and chemically induced pains. Hedranthera barteri reduced nociception and inflammation in dose-dependent manner. Interactions with naloxone depicted its partial mediation through opioid receptors. (Afr. J. Biomed. Res. 9:109 - 118, May 2006)
Cleome gynandra L. (Capparidaceae) is one of the vegetables commonly known as 'Hurhur' and 'Karaila' in India, 'Pe Hua Tsai' in China and "Cat's whiskers" in English. Present study was aimed to characterize previously isolated Cat's whiskers flavonoid as 5-hydroxy-3, 7, 4' -trimethoxyflavone (5HTMF) and to evaluate its effect on carrageenan-induced acute inflammation in rats and hydrogen peroxide induced DNA damage in mouse macrophages. The ex vivo effect of 5HTMF upon generation of free radicals in the mononuclear lymphocytes of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) was also evaluated. 5HTMF not only reduce the swelling of hind paw in rats from 1 to 3 h of carrageenan injection but also decreased serum nitric oxide (NO) production. Toxic hydrogen peroxide induced oxidative DNA damage that was significantly decreased by 5HTMF. Though oxidative stress is a potential biomarker for determining disease activity in patients with RA, surprisingly 5HTMF inhibited the superoxide, hydroxyl and NO radicals in the isolated peripheral blood mononuclear lymphocytes of patients with RA. From the above study, it may be concluded 5HTMF attenuated acute inflammation by inhibiting NO and by protecting the oxidative DNA damage due to hydrogen peroxide scavenging property. It was also equally effective in scavenging the free radicals in lymphocytes of patients with RA. Collectively, our results indicate that 5HTMF as well as leafy vegetable of Cat's whiskers may be a promising nontoxic food alternative in attenuating the oxidative stress, meriting further studies on other human inflammatory cells.
Indigenous leafy vegetables possess high horticultural potential based on their long utilisation history by local communities across Africa. Phytochemical and antioxidant properties of 50% aqueous methanol and water extracts of three indigenous as well as two commercial leafy vegetables commonly consumed in southern Africa were evaluated. The total extractable phenolic content was highest for Amarathus dubius (5.16 ± 0.12 mg GAE/g DW) followed by Cleome gynandra (3.94 ± 0.09 mg GAE/g DW). Total flavonoid concentration was highest for A. dubius (3.89 ± 0.28 mg CE/g DW) followed by C. gynandra (2.19 ± 0.11 mg CE/g DW) and Cucurbita maxima (1.55 ± 0.04 mg CE/g DW). No proanthocyanidins were detected in C. maxima and Brassica napus cv Covo whereas low concentrations were recorded in other vegetables. Total saponins were variable across the evaluated extracts, with the highest concentrations recorded for B. napus cv Covo (83.2 ± 16.58 mg DE/g DW). Total iridoid content was highest for C. gynandra (9.14 ± 0.20 mg HE/g DW). More potent DPPH radical scavenging activities were exhibited by 50% aqueous methanol extracts compared to water extracts. A similar trend was observed in the ferric-reducing antioxidant power assay. The antioxidant activity based on the rate of β-carotene bleaching was higher for water extracts compared to 50% aqueous methanol extracts. The indigenous vegetables evaluated in this study had higher levels of phytochemicals and also exhibited more potent antioxidant activity compared to the commercial varieties. These findings not only suggest the importance of the indigenous vegetables in a healthy diet, but also provide a motivation for exploring their horticultural potential.
The volatile oil of the wood of Cedrus deodara (50 and 100 mg/kg, p.o.) produced a significant inhibition of compound 48/80 and nystatin-induced rat paw edema. It also inhibited heat- as well as hypotonic solution-induced haemolysis of erythrocytes in vitro. The anti-inflammatory activity of the oil could be due to its membrane stabilizing action.