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Nutritional aspects of Tinospora cordifolia (Giloe)

Medicinal Plants
Vol. 12 (1), March 2020, 158-160
*Corresponding author e-mail:
A product of Diva Enterprises Pvt. Ltd.
doi : 10.5958/0975-6892.2020.00021.0
Short Communication
Nutritional aspects of Tinospora cordifolia (Giloe)
Vineeta Pandey*, Jeetendra Kumar Vaishya, Padmapriya Balakrishnan and Tanuja Manoj Nesari
National Medicinal Plants Board, Ministry of AYUSH, Indian Red Cross Society, Annexe Building, 1st Floor & 2nd Floor, 1 Red
Cross Road, New Delhi-110001, India
Received: November 13, 2019; Accepted: March 18, 2020
Medicinal plants are considered as green gold owing to their indispensable contribution to the plant based medicines, health
care, pharmaceuticals, food supplements, cosmetics etc. Tinospora cordifolia commonly known as giloe is used in the
traditional ayurvedic medicine and Indian System of Medicine (ISM) since times immemorial. In this manuscript, the nutritional
composition of T. cordifolia along with its antioxidant activities has been highlighted. The starch obtained from the stem of
the plant known as “Guduchi-satva” is highly nutritive and digestive and used in many diseases. Tinospora can be a valuable
dietary and health supplement that can help in nutrition, holistic health, and prevention of numerous diseases.
Keywords: Tinospora cordifolia, giloe, dietary supplement, medicinal plant
Treating illness and improving health through nutritive
dietary plants supplements have been one of the oldest
interests of mankind tradition. From time immemorial, the
human beings has critically banked upon medicinal plants
as a critical nutrient supplement for improving health,
avoiding and treating diseases through use of traditional
medicinal practices. In modern times, medicinal plants are
gaining immense importance and interest as a dietary and
health supplements due to their established nutritive and
medicinal properties and low/zero toxicity as compared to
synthetic / semi-synthetic supplements and modern drugs
(Gupta et al., 2018). There is a growing global demand for
plant-based nutraceuticals, medicines, health supplements,
food supplements, cosmetics, etc. All over the world, there
exists a huge commercial interest in exploring nutraceuticals
from plant materials to replace synthetic food supplements
and drugs in order to overcome the adverse effects of the
later, and also for cost-effective production. T.
cordifolia (Thunb.) Miers, commonly known as Giloe,
Guduchi or Amrita, is an important medicinal plant of the
Indian System of Medicine (ISM). The plant is a climbing
herb that belongs to family Menispermaceae and widely
grows in tropical countries like India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka,
Myanmar, Bangladesh, etc. T. cordifolia is an extensively
used shrub in folk and ISM (Ayurveda, Unani, Siddha, and
Sowa-Rigpa). In Ayurvedic system of medicine, Giloe is
referred to as one of the versatile rejuvenating herb used as a
tonic (Kumawat et al., 2019). The revitalizing property of
the herb earned its popular name ‘Amrita’ meaning elixir.
Ayurvedic Giloe preparations are made according to the
standard process by the practitioners (Geeta and Sharada,
Giloe is a bitter medicinal herb prescribed in fevers,
diabetes, dyspepsia, jaundice, urinary problems, skin diseases
and chronic diarrhea, heart diseases, leprosy, helminthiasis,
rheumatoid arthritis and dysentery (Kumawat et al., 2019).
The wide-spread use of Giloe in ISM preparations for overall
holistic health improvement has generated interest
inscientifically exploring Giloe as a dietary supplement in
terms of its nutritional composition and mineral content.
Studies have revealed that Giloe has high antioxidant content
and serves as a source of nutraceuticals that alleviate
oxidative stress, thereby preventing the onset of
degenerative diseases. Nutritional aspects of Giloe are of
immense value in improving health and preventing diseases.
There is a popular practice of using Giloe herb as a food
supplement to promote better health by the traditional healers
(Mahima et al., 2012).
Several publications on the medicinal properties of
Tinospora have been published (Ghosal and Vishwakarma,
1997; Singh et al., 2003; Meena et al., 2010; Patel et al.,
2013; Kaur et al., 2014; Pandey et al., 2012; Reddy and
Reddy, 2015; Kumawat et al., 2019). However, little
compilation is available on the nutritional properties of
Tinospora. The present review is compilation of an update
status of the nutritional constituents of Tinospora including
minerals, vitamins, carbohydrates, protein, fiber, along with
its antioxidant properties.
Nutrient composition of Tinospora
T. cordifolia is rich in nutrients, like carbohydrates, proteins,
fiber, iron, calcium, vitamin C, and other essential nutritional
elements (Sivakumar and Dhana, 2011). Traditionally, people
consume the plant in the crude form as a prophylactic measure
and for remedial purposes in several ailments. All parts of
Tinospora, like, leaves, stem, fruits, and roots are being used
as a nutraceutical. The practice of using stem and leaves
directly as a dietary supplement promotes health and
additionally serves as both curative and preventive agents.
The whole plant of Tinospora is a rich source of nutrients
and essential macro- and micro-nutrients, and several
phytochemicals. Being a rich source of nutrients and
phytochemicals, it is used as a healthy dietary supplement
for the human beings as well as for animals. The nutraceutical
agents present in the plant are responsible for its renowned
immunomodulation, hepato-protection, anti-inflammatory,
antipyretic, antispasmodic and memory-boosting properties
(Nagarkatti et al.,1994; Singh et al., 2003; Chauhan et al.,
2017; Jan et al., 2018).
Compared to the stem and roots, the leaves are rich sources
of vitamin C, minerals and phytochemicals (Chauhan et al.,
2014). The starch obtained from the stem core is known as
‘Guduchi-Satva’ in Ayurveda and is highly nutritive,
digestive, and used in curing various diseases (Sinha et al.,
2003; Gaur et al., 2014). Similarly, Geeta et al. (2013) has
reported that ‘Guduchi-Satva’ formulation is rich in nutrients,
i.e., fat (0.14 g/100 g), protein (0.64 g), dietary fibers (0.16
g/100g), energy contents (288.8 cal/100 g), Ca (70 mg/100
g) and Fe (9.7 mg/100 g). Due to its usefulness in the various
diseases and fever, Guduchi-Satva is known as ‘Indian
Quinine’ (Mishra et al., 2002). Guduchi-Satva, when used
with ghee (Ghrita) or oil (Taila) is referred to asGuduchi-
ghritam’ andGuduchi taila’, respectively (Vaghamshi et al.,
Tinospora leaves are rich in protein calcium, and
phosphorus (Meshram et al. 2013). Kavya et al. (2015) also
reported that high carbohydrate and protein contents present
in Giloe helps in the release of essential energy components
yielding 292.54 cal/100 g. Nile et al. (2009) also reported
that rich protein and dietary fiber contents found in Giloe
have significant levels of major and minor elements viz.,
Zn, Mn, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Br, and Sr that acts as
micronutrients for health restorative purposes, and also play
an important role in boosting the desired enzymatic
Another study done by Harbinger (1994) revealed that
Giloe contains high fiber (15.9%), protein (4.5%-11.2%),
carbohydrate (61.66%), and low fat (3.1%), high potassium
(0.845%), high chromium (0.006%), iron (0.28%) and
calcium (0.131%), which are important in various regulatory
functions of the body for a sound health.The above elements
also help in the production of energy by helping the
breakdown of carbohydrates, protein and fat, which are
necessary for the growth and maintenance of tissues and
release of energy.
Tinospora has potential applications in food systems as
an antioxidant and also has the ability to scavenge free
radicals generated during aflatoxicosis (Reddy et al., 2015).
In another study, Ilaiyaraja and Khanum (2011) demonstrated
the potential antioxidant activities of Tinospora leaf and
stem and concluded that thus this plant can be used as a
source of natural antioxidant for health benefits through
dietary supplements. The studies conducted by Priti and Rani
(2017) and Premanath and Lakshmidevi (2010) supported
the claim that Giloe leaf extract exhibits good antioxidant
activity which indicates the potential of the leaves as a source
of natural antioxidant.
The nutraceutical properties of Tinospora suggest that it
is a rich source of nutrients (macro and micro),
phytochemicals, antioxidants for general nutrition and
capable of boosting the immune response of the body.
Tinospora can be a valuable dietary component that can
help in nutrition, holistic health, and prevention of numerous
diseases including those related to geriatrics. The use of
Tinospora stems and leaves in the diet is advisable and
Medicinal Plants, 12(1) March 2020
Nutritional aspects of Tinospora cordifolia (Giloe) 159
Medicinal Plants, 12(1) March 2020
Vineeta Pandey et al.
beneficial for maintaining and improving health. Tinospora
can be considered as a potential source of natural antioxidants
and as a vital dietary supplement. Tinospora could be a rich
source of nutrition for bodybuilding and boosting the
immune system of humans and livestocks. The stem of T.
cordifolia is a potential source of novel natural antioxidants
for pharmaceutical use with prospective applications in food
industry as an antioxidant.
Chauhan D, Puranik V and Mishra V (2014). Analysis of stem of
Tinospora cordifolia, leaves of Andrographis paniculata and
root and leaves of Boerhaavia diffusa for nutritional and
phytochemical composition. Int. J. Food and Nutri. Sci., 3(4):
Chauhan EC and Aishwary J (2017). Nutraceutical Analysis of
Tinospora cordifolia dried leaves powder. Imp. J. Interdisc.
Res., 3(1): 1300-1302.
Gaur LB, Singh SP, Gaur SC, Bornare SS, Chavan AS, Kumar S
and Ram M. Cultivation and medicinal use of Tinospora
cordifolia. Pop. Kheti, 2(3): 188-192.
Geeta K and Sharda K (2013). Nutritional evaluation of Giloe
(Tinospora cordifolia) extract incorporated energy-dense food
products. Ind. J. Res., 2(9): 41-43.
Gupta BM, Ahmed KKM and Gupta R (2018). Global Reseach on
Tinospora cordifolia (Medicinal plant) with special reference
to India. A Scientometric assessment publications output
during 2001-2016. Int. J. Pharmacogn. Chin. Med., 2(4): 141.
Harbinger J (1994). Phytochemical screening of Nigerian plants,
part II. Lwydia, 2: 200-225.
Ilaiyaraja N and Farhath Khanum (2011). Antioxidant potential of
Tinospora cordifolia extracts and their protective effect on
oxidation of biomolecules. Pharmac. J., 3(20): 56-62.
Jan M, Shrivastava M and Rashid IT (2018). In-vitro propagation
and Medicinal Properties of Tinospora cordifolia: A Review.
Res. Rev. J., 3(11): 546-551.
Kaur M, Singh A and Kumar B (2014). Comparative antidiarrhoel
and antiulcer effect of aqueous and ethanolic extracts
of Tinospora cordifolia in rats. Int. J. Pharmaceu. Tech. &
Res., 5: 122-128.
Kavya B, Kavya N, Ramarao V and Venkateshwarlu G (2015).
Tinospora cordifolia (Willd) Miers. Nutritional, ethnomedical
and therapeutic utility. Int. J. Res. Ayurveda Pharm., 6: 195-
Kumawat NK., Kishor D, Vaishya JK., Balakrishnan P and Nesari
TM (2019). Tinospora cordifolia: A wonderful miracle herb
of 21st century of India. Medicinal Plants-Int. J. Phytomed.
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Mahima AR, Rajib D, Shyma KL, Hari AS, Tiwari R, Verma AK,
Kumar A and Dhama K (2012). Immunomodulatory and
therapeutic potentials of herbal, traditional/indigenous and
ethnoveterinary medicines. Pak. J. Biol. Sci., 15: 754-774.
Meena AK, Singh A and Panda P (2010). Tinospora cordifolia : its
bioactivities and evaluation of physicochemical properties. Int.
J. Pharm. & Phytochem Res., 2: 50-55.
Meshram A, Bhagyawant SS, Gautam S and Shrivastava N (2013).
Potential role of Tinospora cordifolia in pharmaceuticals. Int.
J. Pharm. Pharm. Sci., 2(6): 4615-4625.
Mishra B and Vaishya R (2002). Bhavprakash Nighantu of
Bhavmishra. (10th Edn), Chaukhamba Sanskrit Sansthan,
Varanasi, India, pp. 271.
Nagarkatti DS, Rege NN, Desai NK and Dahanukar SA (1994).
Modulation of Kupffer cell activity by Tinospora cordifolia in
liver damage. J. Postg. Med., 40: 65–67.
Nile SH and Khobragade CN (2009). Determination of nutritive
value and mineral elements of some important medicinal plants
from western part of India. J. Med. Pl., 8: 79-88.
Pandey M, Vyas MK and Sharma R (2012). Tinospora cordifolia: A
climbing shrub in health care management. Int. J. Pharm.
Biosci., 3: 612-618.
Patel A, Singh CS and Patel NS (2013). Radioprotective and
cytoprotective activity of Tinospora cordifolia stem enriched
extract containing cordifolioside. Ind. J. Pharmacol., 45: 237-
Premanath R and Lakshmidevi N (2010). Studies on antioxidant
activity of Tinospora cordifolia (Miers.) leaves using in vitro
models. J. Amer. Sci., 6(10): 736-743.
Priti and Rani S (2017). Phytochemical screening, antibacterial and
antioxidant activity of leaves extract of Tinospora cordifolia.
J. Pharm. Res., 11(8): 991-995.
Rao PRS, Kumar VK, Viswanath RK and Subbaraju GV (2005).
Cardioprotective activity of alcoholic extract of Tinospora
cordifolia in ischemia-reperfusion induced myocardial
infarction in rats. Bio. Pharm. Bull., 28: 2319-2322.
Sangeetha MK, Balaji HR, Gayathri V and Vasanthi HR (2011).
Tinospora cordifolia attenuates oxidative stress and distorted
carbohydrate metabolism in experimentally induced type 2
diabetes in rats. J. Nat. Med., 65: 544-550.
Sharma U, Bala M, Kumar N, Singh B, Munshi RK and Bhalerao S
(2012). Immunomodulatory active compounds from Tinospora
cordifolia. J. Ethnopharmacol., 141(3): 918-926.
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AC (2003). Chemistry and medicinal properties of Tinospora
Cordifolia (Guduchi). Ind. J. Pharmacol., 35: 83-91.
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characterization of Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers ex
Hook. F. & Thoms. plant stem extract in different solvent
fractions. As. J. Biochem. Pharmaceu. Res., 4(1): 105-112.
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and Shukla VJ (2010). A comparative pharmacological
evaluation of Taila (oil) and Ghrita (ghee) prepared with
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... All parts of tinospora cordifolia (Giloy) like leaves, Stem, Fruits and Roots are being used as a nutraceutical. The whole plant of Tinospora Cordifolia is a rich source of nutrition and essential macro-micro-nutrients and several phytochemicals [8] . The nutraceutical agents present in plant are responsible for its renowned immunomodulation, hepato-protective, anti-inflammatory, anti-pyretic, antispasmodic, memory boosting properties [9] . ...
... Calories per 100mg [10] . Beside its therapeutic properties the plant also provide multiple essential mineral such as potassium (0.845%), Chromium (0.006%) Iron (0.28), calcium (0.131%) [8] . A variety of constituents have been isolated from tinospora cordifolia plants (Giloy) such as alkaloids, diterpenoids, Lactones, glycoside, aliphatic compound polysaccharide, steroids like tinosporine, tinosporide, tinosporaside cordifolia, cordifol heptacosanol, tinosporidine [11] . ...
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Tinospora cordifolia is very important medicinal plant, climbing shrub from an important of Ayurveda system of medicine which belong to the family Menispermaceae acting as one of the main source of mew pharmaceutical and health care products. It is commonly called as Amrita, Guduchi, Giloe, Heart moon leaved, and found throughout India. The medicinal qualities and therapeutic uses of giloy as well as its phytochemicals are important as valuable medicinal plant. This paper present a review on medicinal properties, phytochemical, benefits, side effects and toxicity, cultivation etc. in ayurvedic literature Giloy is described as amrita because of its innumerable medicinal properties and it is also said to increases the lifespan of human by preventing them from many chronic diseases. The Giloy is well known for its immunity boosting application and prescribed for the treatments of chronic fever, swine flu, malaria, diabetes, skin problem, urinary problem anemia etc. The Giloy also used in the treatment of coronaviruses because Giloy built a strong immunity in human body against COVID-19. The Giloy climbing on the neem tree is preferred more as compared to other. To fight against covid Giloy is consumed with ashwagandha, tulsi, honey etc. The chemical composition of Giloy belongs to different classes such as alkaloids, steroids, glycoside and polysaccharide like compound having medicinal properties. Giloy having some side effects such as constipation, harm full for autoimmune disorder patient.
... Lemon grass has antiamoebic, antibacterial, antidiarrheal, anti-inflammatory, and acaricidal activity Tinospora cordifolia (Giloy) [39,40] Tinospora contains proteins, carbohydrate, fiber, iron, calcium, vitamin C, and other essential nutritional elements • Supplementing staple-based diets/rations to meet the children's requirements of essential nutrients with a significant amount of macro-and micronutrients; • It will help traditional food system having health, nutritional, and therapeutic benefits to revive it from disappearance; • Poshan Vatika can be used to introduce younger generation about traditionally used but slowly vanishing vegetables/ herbs with high nutritional value. ...
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Poshan Vatika (Nutri-Gardens) proposed at the Anganwadi centers under INSP as an initiative toward the eradication of malnutrition and its contributions toward achieving the sustainable development goals.
... Diabetes [16] • Regulates both glucose and lipid metabolism Obesity [17] • Regulates the lipid metabolism reducing the levels of LDL, triglycerides, and cholesterol • Reduces inflammation and insulin resistance COPD [18] • Shows potent anti-inflammatory and lung protective effect Cardiovascular disorders [19] • Reduce the plasma concentration of circulating lipids. • Regulate the lipid metabolism Cancer [20] • Has immunomodulatory and anti-hyperlipidemic activity and reduces inflammation and stimulates apoptosis in the cancer cells Nutrition profile [21] It contains high fiber (15.9%), protein (4.5-11.2%), carbohydrate (61.66%), and low fat (3.1%) and high potassium (0.845%), high chromium (0.006%), iron (0.28%), and calcium (0.131%) Dietary fibers and carbohydrates Diabetes and obesity [22] • Help in the reduction of post-prandial hyperglycemia by delaying the digestion and absorption of carbohydrates, enhancing satiety and reducing the body weight, and thus help in achieving the glycemic control, thereby controlling both diabetes and obesity quality of life of diabetics by acting as a rejuvenator, tonic, hematinic, cardioprotective agent. ...
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Introduction: Lifestyle disorders such as dyslipidemia, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, chronic obstructive pulmonary disorders (COPD), stroke, and cancer pose a great risk to mankind aggravating cardiovascular manifestations leading to increased morbidity and mortality in population. The major causes of such disorders include faulty lifestyle comprising of a variety of factors including smoking, alcohol consumption, use of tobacco and other narcotic substances, sedentary lifestyle, and stress. Ayurveda promotes the use of potent herbs or herbal combination for the mitigation of various disorders. Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia Willd. Miers. (.)) is one such herb widely used in Ayurveda in the preventive and treatment process of almost all the diseases. It is therefore also indicated for the purpose of prevention, management of lifestyle disorders, and the complications of the same. Materials and Methods: This review tries to focus on the applications of this multidimensional herb in the management of lifestyle disorders such as diabetes mellitus, obesity, cardiovascular disorders, COPD, and cancer. The relevant research by the contemporary sciences on the subject along with classical Ayurveda text-based references and indications of Guduchi in related conditions according to Ayurveda is discussed in the article. Discussion: The literary review suggests that many research works have been conducted in this arena to prove the efficacy of this wonder herb, and its constituents are also mentioned to underline the evidences. The references from the Ayurveda texts also underline the multidimensional activity of Guduchi on different body Strotasa. Conclusion: The ancient treasure of knowledge coupled with the scientific validation supports the multidimensional activity of Guduchi.
... and Pandey et al. (2020) also reported similar higher mineral and crude fiber content and lower fat and ...
Spent hen meat patties were prepared by incorporating different levels of giloy stem powder (GSP) viz. Control‐0%, T1‐2%, T2‐3% and T3‐4% and assessed for various quality parameters. The treated patties were recorded with significantly (P<0.05) higher emulsion stability, cooking yield, and height expansion. On sensory analysis, T2 sample was selected for storage studies along with Control (C) and positive control (PC, 0.02% BHT) patties at refrigeration temperature (4±1°C) for 28 days. Throughout the storage period, the lipid oxidation parameters and microbiological parameters were noted significantly (P<0.05) lower for T2 as compared to PC and C samples. The overall acceptability of T2 sample was noted significantly higher (P<0.05) than PC and C on 21st and 28th days. Thus, GSP incorporation at 3% has potential to improve storage stability of meat patties owing to its antioxidant and antimicrobial potency and could be used as potential alternative to synthetic preservatives in food system.
... The starch present in the stem of T. cordifolia is highly nutritious and digestive and used for the treatment of several diseases (Pandey et al., 2020). T. cordifolia also shows antidiabetic properties which is due to the presence of alkaloids (Magnoflorine, Palmetine, Jatrorrhizine), tannins, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, and saponins (Patel and Mishra, 2016). ...
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Tinospora cordifolia, commonly known as Giloe, is an important medicinal plant which has been used in India since ages in the preparation of traditional ayurvedic medicines. It contains various alkaloids, glycosides, steroids, phenolics and polysaccharides. It is a rich source of nutrients, phytochemicals, antioxidants and capable of boosting immune response of the body. The starch present in the stem is highly nutritious and digestive. T. cordifolia shows anti-diabetic, anti-microbial and anti-cancerous properties. Due to the presence of immense medicinal properties, this plant has been over harvested from the natural habitats. During the last decade, T. cordifolia has been subjected to extensive phytochemical, pharmacological, and clinical investigations and the studies have resulted in interesting findings which have applications for the treatment of cancer, liver disorders and hypoglycaemia. In the present review, various properties and medicinal uses of T. cordifolia have been discussed.
... The former study by Kavya B. et al., 2015 found out plant stem possessed high fibre (15.9%), protein (4.5-11.2%), carbohydrates (61.66%), and low fat (3,1%) (63). The results are quite relatable with the above experimental data. ...
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Giloy (Tinospora cordifolia Miers.) is a well-known herbal medicinal plant that is therapeutically rich in secondary metabolites but is bitter in taste, thereby limiting its potential to be used as a functional food. Hence, this study was aimed at reducing the bitterness of giloy juice through cold plasma (CP) (10–30 kV, 10–40 min, CCD with 5 center points) and microwave (MW) (100–180 W, 5–15 min) applications, making it available in a more palatable form, which is quite a noble approach unlike already existing debittering methods like ultrasound and β-cyclodextrin incorporation methods. Bicyclic diterpenoids are the principal bitterness-causing element in giloy; hence, total terpenoid content (TTC) was taken as the gauging factor to scale the bitterness while targeting higher concentrations of various bioactive compounds (BCs) through FRAP, TPC, TFC, and DPPH radical scavenging activity assays. RSM is used to address the change in BCs’ content with respect to the influencing factors. A decrease in TTC in giloy juice was observed by 73% after a CP treatment of 30 kV for 25 min and by 26.5% in a MW treatment of 100 W for 15, which the FTIR results also corroborate. The physical surface morphology of the sample was found to be affected by the CP and MW treatments, as evidenced by the SEM images, which aided in the evaporation and diffusion of BCs and further variations in their functionality owing to the operating conditions. CP though was effective in reducing the TTC but MW was good at extracting terpenoids along with other BCs.
Millions of people worldwide suffer from various neurodegenerative conditions that impact behavioral and cognitive performance. Any disturbance in neuron-glia and glia-glia interactions along with associated signaling cascades is the governing factor in the pathophysiology of spectrum of neurological disorders. This chapter highlights the role of glial cells in regulating energy homeostasis (astrocytes, tanycytes, and microglia) and inflammatory response and activity of naturally occurring immunomodulators which are necessary for overall body and brain health. The results obtained from various research studies on curcumin, blueberries, Withania somnifera, Tinospora cordifolia, Bacopa monnieri, Ganoderma lucidum, Allium sativum, and Spirulina are summarized here that might be beneficial for promoting research on brain health and cognitive performance in neurodegenerative conditions. Despite extensive research on the role of nutraceuticals in positively maintaining brain health, the glial involvement underlying these benefits remains only partly understood. Nevertheless, future studies are warranted in the field to address glioprotective potential of nutraceutical against neurodegenerative disorders.KeywordsEnergy homeostasisImmunomodulatorsNeuroinflammationNeuro-nutraceuticals
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Marker-assisted selection or marker aided selection (MAS) is a process whereby a marker (morphological, biochemical or one based on DNA/RNA variation) is used for indirect selection of a genetic determinant or determinants of a trait of interest (i.e., productivity, disease resistance, abiotic stress tolerance, and/or quality). This process is used in plant and animal breeding
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The paper examines 865 global and 747 Indian publications on Tinospora cordifolia research, as indexed in international Scopus database during 2001-2016. Indian research output experienced an annual average growth rate of 11.85%, global publication share of 86.36%, international collaborative publication share of 7.50% and qualitative citation impact averaged to 15.15 citations per paper. Pharmacology, toxicology & pharmaceutics, among subjects, accounted for the highest publications share (57.30%) in Indian output, followed by medicine (33.60%), biochemistry, genetics & molecular biology (23.83%), agricultural & biological sciences (16.06%), chemistry (5.62%), immunology & microbiology (4.55%), environmental science (4.28%) and veterinary science (2.95%) during 2001-2016.The top 15 most productive Indian research organizations and the authors collectively contributed 24.23% and 14.73% respectively as their Indian publication share and 42.70% and 16.59% respectively as their Indian citation share during 2001-2016. Among the total Indian journal output with 98.39% Indian share, the top 20 journals contributed 31.32% share to the Indian journal output during 2001-2016. Of the total Tinospora cordifolia Indian research output, the top 18 highly cited publications registered citations from 104 to 1014 and they together received 4110 citations, with 228.33 citations per paper. These 18highly cited papers involved the participation of 72 authors and 33 organizations and were published in 9 journals.
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Medicinal plants found diverse use in the society from medicine to cosmetics and herbal foods as they have vast potential for their curative medicinal uses. In view of this, the fresh stem of Tinospora cordifolia, leaves of Andrographis paniculata and roots and leaves of Boerhaavia diffusa were evaluated for nutritional and phytochemical compositions. The results showed that the leaves were found to be richer in vitamin C and minerals as compared to stem and root parts, while stem and root samples were found to be rich in fibre content. Berberine content (0.03294 %) in T. cordifolia and andrographolide (1.8 %) in A. paniculata were found to be high. The leaves of B. diffusa were found to be richer in percent radical scavenging activity (24.32 %) as compared to T. cordifolia stem (21.72 %) and A. paniculata leaves (23.56 %). B. diffusa leaves were found to be richest source of phytochemicals and percent radical scavenging activity among the parts analyzed, except saponins. The nutrient compositions obtained from the analysis suggested that these plant parts are a good source of antioxidants, vitamin and macro-and micro-nutrients make them strongly suitable to be incorporated into human nutrition.
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The present study attempt to evaluate the physicochemical studies of Tinospora cordifolia stem crude drug. The phytochemical screening was carried out and the berberine alkaloid was quantified in different fractions of extract by HPLC. The result shows that the methanol extracts have higher concentration of berberine when compared to other solvent fractions. The present study reveals the standardization profile and characterization of berberine compound from Tinospora cordifolia, which would be of immense value in botanical identification and authentication of plant drug and may help us in preventing its adulteration. INTRODUCTION: The use of plant as medicine is an old as human civilization. Herbal medicines have being used by billions of people around the world for thousands of years. Herbal medicine is very popular in different system of medicines like Indian system of medicine, Chinese system of medicine, the most known traditional system such as Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani and Homeopathy were being practiced all over the world and are going demand there years [1]. In recent years interest on plant based drugs has increased considerably. According to an estimate around 80% of the world population still depends on herbal products from about 20,000 plants species, for their basic medicinal and health care requirement. This is emphasized with the toxicity and side effects of the prescribed allopathic medicines and lack of drugs for many chronic ailments [2]. It demands for an urgent need to investigate new herbals leads to overcome the needs. Annual growth rate between 5 – 15% for trade of plant based drugs and raw materials is indicative of growing demand for herbal drugs. But the quality control and quality assurance still remains a challenge because of the high variability of chemical compounds involved. The major problem of quality assurance of herbal medicine has been solved to a great extent with the help of chromatographic and spectral finger prints analysis [3]. Tinospora cordifolia is one such plant which is widely used in indigenous system of medicine [4]. It is a large, glabrous, succulent, deciduous climbing shrub belonging to the family menispermaceae [5]. It is distributed throughout tropical India subcontinent, Sri Lanka and china, ascending to an altitude of 1200m. The stem of Tinospora cordifolia is rather succulent with long filiform fleshy aerial roots from the branches. The bark is creamy white to grey, deeply left rosette like
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Tinospora cordifolia is indigenous to the tropical areas of India, Myanmar and Sri Lanka. The use of plant as remedy for diarrhea and ulcer is well‑documented in Ayurvedic system of medicine. However, pharmacological evidence does not exist to substantiate its therapeutic efficacy for the same. The aim was to investigate the antidiarrheal and antiulcer activity of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of T. cordifolia in rats. The antidiarrheal activity of T. cordifolia extracts was evaluated by castor oil and magnesium sulfate‑induced diarrhea using parameters such as onset of diarrhea, number of wet stools, total number of stool and weight of total number of stools. The antiulcer activity of extracts was investigated using ethanol and pylorus ligation‑induced ulcer. Furthermore, tissue antioxidant parameters such as reduced glutathione, catalase activity and lipid peroxidation level were also investigated. Tinospora cordifolia extracts were more efficacious in reducing number of total stools in both the models of diarrhea and showed a dose‑dependent antidiarrheal effect. The antiulcer activity of the extracts was confirmed by a reduction in ulcer index along with the decrease in gastric volume, total acidity, and an increase in pH of gastric content in both the models. The obtained results have established a pharmacological evidence for the folkloric use of the T. cordifolia as antidiarrhoeal and antiulcer agent.
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Tinospora cordifilia is a medicinal plant, commonly known as guduchi or amritha. In the present study, the antioxidant potential of solvent extracts of leaf and stem were evaluated by various in vitro methods. Scavenging effects on DPPH, ABTS radical, hydroxyl radical and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) were found to be highest in methanolic extract of leaf and ethyl acetate extract of stem compared to all other extracts. These extracts also exhibited significant protection against radical induced protein (BSA ) oxidation and plasmid DNA damage (pBR322). The extracts were further evaluated for their inhibitory properties on AAPH (2, 2′-azo (2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride induced ex vivo oxidative stress in rat liver homogenates. The results again showed the potent antioxidant nature of methanolic extract of leaf and ethyl acetate extract of stem with respect to inhibition of lipid and protein oxidation. Overall, stem extracts showed to be the more effective antioxidant source than the leaf extracts with regard to all the radical scavenging activities. These protective properties of the extracts could be directly attributed to the presence of phytochemicals such as polyphenols, tannins etc. In conclusion, our results demonstrate the potential antioxidant activities of guduchi leaf as well as stem and therefore, it can be used as a source of antioxidant for health benefits through dietary supplementations.
Tinospora cord/folia (Guduchi) is a widely used shrub in folk and ayurvedic systems of medicine. This review presents a detailed survey of the literature on chemistry and medicinal properties of Tinospora cordifolia. The chemical constituents reported from this shrub belong to different classes such as alkaloids, diterpenoid lactones, glycosides, steroids, sesquiterpenoid, phenolics, aliphatic compounds and polysaccharides. The notable medicinal properties reported are anti-diabetic, anti-periodic, anti-spasmodic, anti-inflammatory, anti-arthritic, anti-oxidant, anti-allergic, anti-stress, anti-leprotic, anti-malarial, hepatoprotective, immunomodulatory and anti-neoplastic activities.