The transition to a circular economy is high on the European Union’s policy agenda. The systemic and disruptive changes required for such a transition will not take place without significant changes in existing regulatory structures. In this chapter we aim to provide a broad overview of the European Union’s circular economy policy goals and different policy instruments available to Member States to steer change towards a more circular economy. Many different policy instruments have been adopted to promote more sustainable resource use, including areas of waste, product and chemicals policy. However, these are often scattered, weak and disproportionately divided along economic sectors. We show that whilst there are policy instruments available, to address the fundamental socio-economic metabolism changes required, key policy failures need to be addressed in order to make real progresses toward the circular economy.