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El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) effects on fisheries and aquaculture
This FAO Technical Paper synthesizes current knowledge on the impact of El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events on fisheries and aquaculture in the context of a changing climate. Fisheries and aquaculture are essential parts of the global food system. The recent discovery that ENSO is far more diverse than previously recognized highlights a pressing need to synthesize the impact of the different ENSO types on fisheries and aquaculture. The overall aim of this Technical Paper is to provide relevant, up-to-date information and help decision-makers identify the most appropriate interventions according to the diversity of ENSO types. In addition, the possible effects of climate change on these sectors can be partly illustrated by the current effects of ENSO events, which are themselves affected by climate change. The Technical Paper describes the diversity of ENSO events (Chapter 2), ENSO forecasting (Chapter 3) and ENSO in the context of climate change (Chapter 4). It includes a global overview and regional assessment of ENSO impact (Chapters 5 and 6) and a focus on coral bleaching and damage to reefs and related fisheries (Chapter 7). Finally, it synthesizes the lessons learned and the perspectives for ENSO and preparedness in a warmer ocean (Chapter 10).